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FOR 1857 



" I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except congenital, 
or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, and will 
degrade the individual, in the estimation of the good, as much as drunkenness now 
does. — Ibid. 


W. W. HALL, M.D., 







Aims of this Journal 58 

Antecedents, the Best 87 

Architecture, Defective 107 

Air we Breathe 159, 180, 249 

Agricultural Publications 265 

Advertising Morals 122, 287, 268 

Bodily Carriage 8 

Burying Alive Prevented 35 

Bites of Insects 43, 51 

Beard Wearing 71 

Bodily Endurance 93 

Bible Teaching 90, 110, 111 

Benevolence, True 126 

Benton, Thomas H 146 

Benedictine 194 

Breath Measurement 221 

Bread 103, 240 

Baths and Bathing 251 

Bad Colds 183, 255 

Burns and Scalds 259 

Butter, Rancid, Cured 271 

Crime and Disease 5 

Cemmon Sense 19 

Corns Cured 32, 288 

Children's Reading 44, 142 

Coffee 63, 284 

Cornaro and Cornelius 66, 144 

Country Life 72 

Consumption 49, 77. 179, 232, 248 

Christian Missions, no Failure 91 

Civility Profitable 97 

Corn Bread, how made 101 

Church and Theatre 113 

Constitutions Ruined 117 

Croakers 120 

Children's Sleep, &c 214, 151" 

Colds, Bad 255, 183 

Coal, Laying in 202 

Clergymen. ..11, 183, 187, 229, 240, 255 

City Milk 241 

Condensed Milk 242 

Celibacy 245 

Cold Bathing 251 

Child Murder 283 

Cheapest Food 283 

Disease and Crime 


Drinking at Meals 115 

Disease and Benevolence 125 

Divining Rods 139 

Death Made Easy 143 

Diarrhoea 170 

Dictionary, Webster's 267 

Dentifrices 274 

Dissolute Men 284 

Eating, a Year's 33 

Eating and Drinking 63 

Erring, Sympathy for the 160 

Eating Economically 233 

Editors' Requisites. 239 

Eyes, Care of 273 

Exchanges 278 

Family Music 21 

Flour, too White 69, 102 

Fruits, Uses of 170 

Felons, How Made 194 

Flannel, Wearing and Washing. . . 254 

Flour, for Burns and Scalds 259 

Furnace Heat 276 

Gloves and Shoes Tight , 36 

Grape Vines 94 

Growing Beautiful 57 

Going to the South 149, 206 

Going West 209 

Glories, The Three 263 

Girls of New York 269 

Home Made Happy 41 

Horseback Exercise 80 

Heart Disease 81, 250 

Houses, Healthfulness. of 106 

Hair Washes 121 

Health Experiences 156, 189 

Happiness, True 163 

Hydrophobia 1 67 

" Hub Me Shipmate," 237, 272 

Hall, Stephen. Obituary 244 

Hall's Journal, aims of 272 

Hot Air Furnaces 276 

Hunger, Philosophy of 277 

Healthy Country 282 

Healthy Recreations 286 

Hearing Improved 290 


Index to Vol. IV. 


Insanity and Suicide 16, 21, 110 

Insect Bites, cured 43, 51 

Inverted Toe Nails 97 

Isms of the Times Ill 

Idiots 156 

Intussusception 169, 285 

Inhalation ..185, 232, 248 

Inheritance, the Best 282 

Intemperance 284 

Journal's Work 24, 46, 58, 123 

Kentucky's Children 103, 238 

Knowledge, Circling 181 

Life's Last Sight 47 

Living in the Country 72 

Living Long 66, 157 

Life Destroyers 168 

Lungs Measured 221 

Life-Times 286 

Morning Walks 30 

Milk, Proper Use of 64, 240 

Mother, Watchful 142 

Marriage Relation 155 

Mortality of Cities... 162, 185, 212 

Miasm and Malaria 217 

Measurement of Lungs 221 

Mental Power 238 

Mills Thornton, A., D.D 104, 238 

Milk of Cities 241 

Material for Men 260 

Marriage, Want, and Crime 260 

Model Man 261 

Miscellaneous 291 

Newspapers 44 

Near-Sighted 74 

National Hotel Disease 197 

New York Park Room 212 

New York Mortuary 218 

Occupations, Healthfulness of 49 

Out-Door Activities 80, 180 

Our Sunshine 192 

Our Country 216 

Patent Diaper 289 

Parental 50 

Plant a Vine 94 

Pone of Bread 101 

Politeness 158 

Punning 161 

Pepper and its Uses 180 


Physician, Tru e, The 188 

Parks of Cities 212 

Patriarch's Letters 193, 208, 262 

Poor, How to Keep the 270 

Patent Medicines 287 

Rat Riddance 51, 285 

Reading Position 178 

Rust out, Wear out 192 

Rail-Roading 14, 48, 244 

Recreations, Healthful 286 

Suicide t. 16 

Supporters, Bodily 35 

Snake Bites 43, 51 

Scarlet Fever 53 

Spinal Disease 81 

Soap Suds 121 

Secret Remedies 122 

Spiritualism 37, 139 

Sleep of Children 151 

School Children 161, 168 

Servants and Housekeeping. ...132, 173 

Sleeping 45, 217 

Spirometry 221 

Scalds and Burns 259 

Second Childhood 281 

Special Notice 291 

Tooth Washes , 32, 158, 274 

Tea and Coffee 63 

Travelling for Health 69 

Toe Nails, Inverted 97 

Theatres and Churches contrasted. . 129 

Throat Ail, Causes 145 

Trouble Kills 152, 165 

True Teachings 161 

Thorburn's Letters 193, 208, 262 

Tea Drinking 63, 234, 275 

Table of Age 257 

Temperance True 258 

Traps 263 

Time Table 264 

Three Articles 283 

Vine Planting 94 

Vermin Riddance 263, 285 

Water Cure 89 

Waste and Want 133 

Wife Worth Having 154 

Wish, the Last 159 

Warts, Cured. 277 

Water, to Purify 287 

W T here are They 1 284 





VOL. IV.] JANUARY, 1857. [NO. I. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sicknesi 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


Light is daily coming in upon the world of mind, and by 
the help of clearly established facts, arguments may be adduced, 
which will have a stronger tendency to compel men to take 
care of their health, than any which have arisen from con- 
science, money or duty ; that is, the argument of Shame. Let 
men fully understand that certain bodily affections tend to crime, 
and that crime thus committed confines to the Penitentiary, then 
may the community wake up more fully to the sentiment, 


and therefore, the neglect of its preservation, a sin, which in the 
natural progress of things, leads to loss of health, and life, and 

In a recent trial of a forger, who handled millions of dol- 
lars in a year's business, the defence was that he was insane. 
Among the evidence offered was that he could sleep only three 
or four hours out of the twenty-four. In a previous number 
we stated, that a growing inability to sleep was a clear indica- 
tion of approaching insanity, and on the return of sleepfulness, 
the intellect became clear. There were other symptoms. 
There was the sound of trip-hammers in his ears ; blacksmith 's 
sparks floated before his eyes, and there was pain in the head a 
large portion of the time. These symptoms, lasting so long, 
had at length so affected the brain, as^to destroy all perception, 
or comprehension of the effects of crime ; and when the organ 
of a man's perception is destroyed, he will plunge headlong, 
and with utter recklessness, into any kind of wrong-doing which 

6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

circumstances throw in his way — arson, robbery, murder, any- 
thing ; and, if not detected or prevented, the crime, whatever it 
may be, will grow into a habit, and habit is second nature ; 
consequently, he will revel in it, it becomes his meat and drink, 
and he would rather do it than not. Hence the prisoner de- 
clared without hesitation, that if he were released he would do 
it again ; that he rather liked it, and nothing could prevent him 
but cutting off his hand, if it came in the way, to forge paper. 

It was shown on the trial, that there was insanity on the 
father's and mother's side; but no indication of it on the part 
of either father or mother. It is well known however, that 
insanity, as well as personal features, overleaps a generation or 
two. Often a child bears a striking resemblance to a grand- 
parent, without a lineament of parental feature. 

The acts of the prisoner were admitted by his counsel, and 
the question of guilt or innocence, rested on this — was he 
insane or not? 

The use which we wish to make of these developments is 
practical, and is of high importance. A wise and stern medical 
treatment would have deferred, if not prevented, the combina- 
tion of events. And how? 

The prisoner was under the habitual influence of constipa- 
tion, and an anodyne, which intensified this constipation every 
hour, while the principle of the medical practice in this case, 
was to let the bowels take care of themselves — which they did 
not do. This individual was never seen by his business asso- 
ciates without a cigar in his mouth ; he smoked fifteen or 
twenty a day. The immediate effect of smoking tobacco falls 
on the brain, excites it ; during that excitement he could not 
sleep, and the reaction went so low that he could not sleep; only 
a troubled repose was possible during the brief transition from 
one to the other. During the excitement, the brain ran riot in 
the direction of the opportunity, and expended its energies in 
that direction, but during the reaction, power was not left to 
carry on the bodily functions. 

The effect of constipation is to thicken the blood, to make it 
more impure : hence more unfit for healthful purposes. The 
more impure the blood is, the thicker does it become, the slower 
is its progress, and if nothing is done to alter this state of things, 
stagnation and death take place. Stagnation means accumula- 

Disease and Crime. 7 

tion, for the moment the blood stops in any part of the body, 
the coming current flowing in, causes an accumulation, precisely 
as in the closing of a canal gate, or the damming up of a stream. 
This accumulation in the blood vessels distends them, causes 
them to occupy more room than nature designed, consequently 
they must encroach on their neighbors. The neighbors of the 
blood vessels are the nerves ; hence the nerves are pressed 
against ; that pressure gives what we call " pain." As there 
are nerves everywhere, a point of a needle cannot be placed 
against the surface of the body without some pain, which 
shows the universality of nerve presence ; hence, we may have 
pain anywhere, and will have pain if there is pressure. This 
accounts for the steady pain in the head. The excitement of 
the day sent the blood to the brain too fast, the repose of the 
night was too short to allow of its removal ; besides the ener- 
gies of the system had been overtaxed, and there was not 
power enough left to remove a natural accumulation, let alone 
the extraordinary. 

But there is a law of our body, whereby pressure from any 
cause not only gives pain, but may destroy the part pressed 
against, and consume it, by dissolving it into a gaseous and fluid 
substance, which in this condition is conveyed out of the body. 
A band put around an arm of a loot in circumference, will, if 
tightened every day, in a time not long, reduce the circumfer- 
ence to six inches. Constant pressure cannot be exerted 
against any portion of the human body without impairing its 
structure, or causing its diminution and final destruction. These 
are principles of universal admission. They are first truths in 
medicine. From some unknown cause, this accumulation and 
pressure was determined to a particular portion of the brain, 
where fearlessness of consequences are situated ; and we believe, 
if the prisoner's brain could be examined this day, that portion 
of it, most probably small in the beginning, would be found 
almost wholly wanting, having been destroyed by long con- 
tinued pressure, or to be of abnormal structure. 

We believe that a medical treatment, which would have 
sternly interdicted the use of the cigar materially at first, and 
gradually thereafter, until its final extinction, together with 
securing a natural condition of daily acting bowels, with a plain 
and substantial diet — and kept him there — would have saved him 

8 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and all his from the subsequent calamities. Artificial excite- 
ments, whether from tobacco, opium, or alcohol, if largely per 
severed in, will work ruin to mind, body, and soul. It is right 
that it should be so. Omnipotence has ordained it. If a man is 
in a physical condition which impels him to do what is illegal, or 
if he be in a mental condition which impels him to do what is ille- 
gal, the question whether he is to be punished or not depends 
upon the manner in which he became subjected to that condi- 
tion. If such condition be the result of birth, or by a fall, or 
stroke, or other occurrence out of his control, he should go free 
of penal suffering ; but if he placed himself in that condition by 
the unbridled indulgence of his appetites or his passions, hf» 
ought to be made to suffer a just penalty, whether he knew that 
such indulgences tended to such a result or not. It is a man's 
duty to inform himself of physiological as well as civil law. 
Ignorance of the former ought not to work his escape, any more 
than ignorance of the latter does ; otherwise, a man has only to 
get drunk to secure impunity from any crime which may be 
committed in that condition ; thus all penal statutes become a 
farce, and anarchy rides rampant through the land. 

So also, if a man perverts his moral sense, and by a course 
of vicious reasoning persuades himself that he ought to com- 
mit murder, and thinks of it so much as to feel impelled to 
murder some one, he is properly amenable to the law of the land. 

It is no very difficult matter for ordinary minds to persuade 
themselves as to any desired course — that it is right ; that there 
is no harm in it; and that, if they meant no harm by it, no 
blame could be attached ; but, if for such flimsy considerations, 
men are to be excused from penalties, there is an end at once to 
all law and to all government. 

The conclusion of the whole matter is this. Every man 
should be held responsible for his deeds, unless they are clearly 
proved to be the result of a physical, mental, or moral condition 
which he had no agency in originating, or exaggerating to the 
criminal point. Hence the prisoner was convicted. 


" A dying man can do nothing easy," as he spilled something 
which was given him to swallow, were the last recorded words 
of him who in life had "tamed the lightning's wing," and 

Bodily Carriage. 9 

"bottled the thunders of Omnipotence." But it would seem an 
easy matter for a sane man or woman in good health to sit down 
properly. And yet not one in a multitude does it. Far-seeing 
mothers sometimes succeed in beating it into the heads of 
thoughtless daughters, by virtue of extraordinary perseverance, 
— as a means of getting a husband ! for who ever married a 
stoop-shouldered or humpbacked girl ? As for the sons, they 
are left to take their chances, and assume any shape which cir- 
cumstances may determine. But it helps vastly in our efforts 
to accomplish laudable objects to have a clear and adequate 
reason to second our endeavors. 

Who does not dread and hate the very name of " Consump- 
tion f) It does not come suddenly. It begins in remote 
months and y ears agone, by imperfect breathing ; by want of 
frequent and full breaths, to keep the lungs in active operation. 
In time, the lungs swell out a quarter or one-third less than 
they ought to do ; consequently the breast flattens, the arms 
bend forwards and inwards, and we have the round or high 
shoulder, so ominous in a doctor's eye. As consumptives 
always bend forward, and as men in high health, candidates for 
aldermanic honors sit and walk and stand erect, — physically/ 
the erect position must . be antagonistic of consumption, and 
consequently should be cultivated, sedulously cultivated in 
every manner practicable ; cultivated by all, men, women and 
children. If we can promote this culture without interfering 
with the ordinary business of life, and without its costing a 
dollar, a valuable point is gained ; and considering the impor- 
tance of the subject, we shall not think ourselves to have lived 
in vain, if this article shall be practically adopted by any con- 
siderable number of our readers. 

No place is so well adapted to secure an erect locomotion as 
a large city ; the necessity is ever present for holding up the 
head ; if a man does not do it, he will in any walk along a prin- 
cipal street knock his brains out ; or if he be unusually hard- 
headed, knock out the brains of some less gifted pedestrian. 
Instead of giving all sorts of rules about turning out the toes, 
and straightening up the body, and holding the shoulders 
back, all of which are impracticable to the many, because soon 
forgotten, or of a feeling of awkwardness and discomfort which 
procures a willing omission ; all that is necessary to secure 

10 JBaU's Journal of Health. 

the object, is to hold up the head and move on ! letting the toes 
and shoulders take care of themselves. Walk with the chin but 
slightly above a horizontal line, or with your eye directed to 
things a little higher than your own head. In this way you 
walk properly, pleasurably, and without any feeling of restraint 
or awkwardness. If any one wishes to be aided in securing 
this habitual carriage of body, accustom yourself to carry the 
hands behind you, one hand grasping the opposite wrist. 
Englishmen are admired the world over for their full chests, 
and broad shoulders, and sturdy frames, and manly bearing. 
This position of body is a favorite with them, in the simple 
promenade in the garden or gallery, in attending ladies 
along a crowded street, in standing on the street, or in public 

Our young men seem to be in elysium when they can walk 
arm-in-arm with their divinities. Now young gentlemen, you 
will be hooked on soon enough without anticipating your cap- 
tivity. While you are free, walk right! in all ways; and 
when you are able, get a manly carriage, and take our word 
for it, it is the best way in the world to secure the affectionate 
respect of the woman you marry. Did you ever know any girl 
worth having, who could wed a man who mopes about with 
his eyes on the ground, making of his whole body the segment 
of a circle, bent on the wrong side. Assuredly, a woman 
of strong points, of striking characteristics, admires, beyond a 
handsome face, the whole carriage of a man. Erectness being 
the representative of courage and daring, it is this which makes 
a man of "presence." 

Many persons spend a large part of their waking existence 
in the sitting position. A single rule, well attended to, in this 
connection, would be of incalculable value to multitudes, — use 
chairs wiih the old-fashioned straight backs, a little inclining back- 
wards! and sit with the lower portion of the body close against 
the back of the chair at the seat ; any one who tries it, will 
observe in a moment a grateful support to the whole spine. 
And w<e see no reason why children should not be taught from 
the beginning to write, and sew, and knit, in a position requir- 
ing the lower portion of the body and the shoulders to touch 
the back of the chair all the time. 

A v&ry common position in sitting, especially among men, 

Training School. 11 

is with the shoulders against the chair back, with a space of 
several inches between the chair back and the lower portion of 
the spine, giving the body the shape of a half hoop ; it is the 
instantaneous, instinctive, and almost universal position as- 
sumed by any consumptive on sitting down, unless counter- 
acted by an effort of the will ] hence parents should regard 
such a position in their children with apprehension, and should 
rectify it at once. 

The best position after eating a regular meal is, to have the 
hands behind the back, the head erect, in moderate locomotion, 
and in the open air, if the weather is not chilly. Half an hour 
spent in this way after meals, at least after breakfast and din- 
ner, would add health and length of days to women in easy 
life, and to all sedentary men. It is a thought which richly 
merits attention. As to the habit which many men have of 
sitting during prayer, in forms of worship not requiring it, with 
the elbows extended along the back of the pew, and forehead 
resting on the arms, we will only say in passing, that besides 
being physiologically unwise and hurtful, it is socially an un- 
courteous and indelicate position ; while in a religious point of 
view it is an unpardonable irreverence; a position which no 
man with the feelings of a gentleman, unless an invalid, can 
possibly assume, and we wonder that it is a practice of such 
general prevalence. It is a position which we venture to affirm, 
is in almost every instance the dictate of bodily laziness or 
religious sleepiness or indifference. Women are not required 
to stand in prayer ; it is physiologically hurtful ; they should 
sit or kneel. 


We have seen an announcement in the public papers that it 
was in contemplation to establish somewhere in Pennsylvania, 
" A Training School for Clergymen" As none was given, we are 
thrown upon our own resources for an explanation. As clergy- 
men have had a scientific training at college, and a theological 
training in the seminary, and a moral and religious training 
from infancy by parents, Sunday School teaching and minis- 
terial culture ; and as morality, piety and learning would seem 
to cover the whole ground, we are in a quandary still. But as 

12 HalVs Journal of Health. 

giving up never did any good, when a laudable object was in 
view, and as our Episcopal friends have not vouchsafed an 
enlightenment, we are disposed to ferret out the idea. From 
early and long and wide association with clergymen, and a 
high estimate of their character, their usefulness and their im- 
portance as to the true and permanent prosperity of any country, 
we will venture an opinion as to what they ought to be trained 
to, as supplementary to morality, piety and scholarship. 

To our mind, the most impressive defect in that noble army 
of thirty thousand men who have consecrated themselves to the 
best interests of our nation, for a compensation not enough to 
feed and clothe them in a manner commensurate with their high 
office, and their due, is a want of sympathy with men, and next to 
that, a want of the knowledge of human nature. According to the 
present system, a minister becomes almost gray-headed before 
he fairly gets into the traces of an easy and profitable working. 
In reaching this point, there is many a trip and slip and fall, 
requiring sometimes long years to regain the standing, and 
sometimes it is regained — never! not from actual criminality, 
but inadvertence. All know how the young are apt to become 
enthusiastic in what they have confidence, especially when it 
becomes their bread. To be enthusiastic is to be in danger 

It was not until he began to be about thirty years of age that the 
Divine Eedeemer entered fully on his ministry. From youth 
up to that time he worked at the trade of a carpenter, as did 
his reputed father before him. And if, with all the advantages 
of inspiration, it was necessary for him, to qualify himself fully 
for his office, that he should spend so long an apprenticeship 
with the people, may we not judge that it does possess high 
advantages for a man to mingle largely and long with men in 
their every-day callings and ambitions, in aiding him to find 
out what human nature is. The disciples and apostles were 
bred to secular callings, and we all know that he can best lead 
and control men who has the best key to the human heart. 

Patrick Henry associated with all men ; he even is reported 
by Thomas Jefferson, to have had rather a preference for low 
associations ; and from knowledge here acquired, he derived his 

It is comparatively a rare thing for a clergyman to become 

Training School. 13 

derelict; thus it is, that when such is the case, it has so startling 
an effect on a community. The very rarity increases its bad in- 
fluences. We propose it, then, as a matter of reflection, which 
may lead to useful results — If a man never entered the work 
of the ministry until of an age and experience which would 
prevent any false step in any direction, and insure always the 
best steps to be taken towards securing any desired result, and 
were to work thus for fifteen years, would not larger and higher 
results be attained by ministerial efforts, than are reached under 
present circumstances ? In other words, would not the ministry 
work much more efficiently in all directions, if each one, on 
entering it, had a better knowledge of human nature, and could 
more intimately enter into the sympathies of men, than they 
now do. And is there any better school for such objects than 
a long novitiate, than close associations with men in the daily 
pursuits of life ? The Doctors certainly know that the thing 
which brings most discredit upon the profession is the haste of 
students to "realize" to be making money; entering the practice 
of medicine almost wholly upon a theoretic knowledge. Hence 
few attain eminence, and the fewest of the few obtain a fortune 
in the pursuit of their calling. And even in cases — the very 
rare cases — where young clergymen steer clear of quicksand 
and shoal and sunken rock, it is accomplished at such an effort, 
that health is made a wreck of, and they enter the haven of 
full usefulness, only in time to die, long, long before the heat of 
the day comes on. Under the whole view of the case, therefore, 
we believe that a five years' colportage on foot, with a bible 
and concordance, selling religious publications at a per centage, 
is the best theological seminary in the world ; securing, as it 
would, at one and the same time, health, tact, knowledge, and 

We have said that it has occurred to us that clergymen are 
deficient in popular sympathy. They do not make that allow- 
once for the short-comings of their fellows, which a true know- 
ledge of the trials, hardships, discouragements and temptations 
of life would lead to. A good heart grows mellow as it ap- 
proaches the grave. Old clergymen grow forbearing as they 
near heaven. We contend, if they could start with the largest 
share of this, many hearts would be won to religion that are never 
won at all. Harshness wrecks and wins not the inquiring soul 

14 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Come unto me, all ye that are weary and heavy laden, 
and I will GIVE you rest, is the embodiment of heaven's sym- 
pathy, and it came from the lips of the Master. But who does 
not know how often the young clergyman, and the ignorant, 
hurls whole avalanches of incandescent brimstone at weary and 
worn humanity : even in the ruder times of Old Testament his- 
tory, the Almighty is represented as " winking*' at the ignorance 
of men. It seems to us that modern preaching is more impre- 
catory than deprecatory. " If you donH you'll be damned" instead 
of " go and sin no more f' instead of 

* Come to Jesus ! Sinner, come." 

That we may not be mistaken in our meaning, we repeat, If 
our ministers, already better than we deserve, are to have addi- 
tional training, let it be in the knowledge of human nature and 
human need ; let them have a longer novitiate ; let them have 
a term of close association with men in the active and healthful 
callings of human life, preparatory to entering the full ministry. 

We did not say, without some hesitation, that there was a 
lack of sympathy with the people among clergymen, but an 
item has come to our knowledge since, which shows that minis- 
ters themselves have noticed something of the kind ; for one of 
them, in accounting for his superior success, quaintly writes, 
"When you go a-fishing, my brother, you get a great hoop-pole 
for a handle, attach a large cod line and a big hook, with twice 
as much bait as the fish can swallow. Thus accoutred, you 
dash to the brook, throw in your line with a ' There ! bite, you 
dogs? But with a little pole and a small line and a suitable 
bait, I creep up, slip them in, and twitch y em out, until my basket 
is full." 


Notwithstanding occasional calamities on railroads, that 
kind of travel is by very far safer than by carriage, sail, or 
steamship. The New Jersey Railroad, between New York and 
Philadelphia, by way of Trenton and Princeton, has transported 
twenty millions of persons, without the loss of a single passen- 
ger, in his proper place, during a period of twenty years' run- 
ning, day and night. 

The Macon and Augusta Railroad of Georgia, has also been 

Suicide. 15 

in operation for twenty years, and in all that time but one pas- 
senger has lost his life by accident, on a line of one hundred 
and ninety-two miles in length. All honor to the directories, 
whose practical intelligence, and to the engineers and conduc- 
tors, whose high competency and ceaseless care have contribu- 
ted to such results. Intelligent, competent, and well-paid 
employees can almost annihilate railroad accidents. Where so 
much human life is at stake, fifty thousand in any single day, 
in our own country, public opinion should demand that such sal- 
aries should be given as would secure the services of men of edu- 
cation, of moral worth, and of social respectability, from the 
switchman up to the conductor, engineer, and superintendent. 

During the first half of the year eighteen hundred and fifty- 
four, there was in Great Britain but one accident in every seven 
million of railroad passengers. From this statement, we are not 
certain that it is not safer to spend our time "on a rail" than on 
Broadway. It would have been of practical interest if, in the 
questions of the Secretary of the Treasury, as given in Hollers 
New York Railroad Advocate, (conducted with scientific ability,) 
there had been one inquiry — " What was the position occu- 
pied at the moment of the accident, by any passenger whose life 
was lost." Let the public press reiterate two facts. 

First: Three- fourths of the lives lost on rail cars, in motion, 
are of passengers who were not in their proper positions — meaning 
thereby, that they should not only be in their seats, but keep 
their heads and limbs inside the cars. We have often admired 
the arrangements in the cars between New York and Philadel- 
phia, in this respect. A passenger cannot put his head or arm 
outside without standing up or leaning forward in a painful 
position. Such a large proportion of people have so little com- 
mon sense, or uncommon either, that the true policy is to put it 
out of their power to be hurt ; and that can be done to a very 
great extent. 

The Second item of railroad travel, which ought to be reite- 
rated is — A train may go at the rate of thirty or forty miles an 
hour, with its five hundred passengers, be instantaneously ar- 
rested, the cars turned upside down, their seats shivered to 
atoms, and the flooring riven into myriads of splinters, every 
car filled with passengers — and not a single life lost, or limb 
broken, or other serious injury, to a passenger in his place. 

16 Halls Journal of Health. 

The proof of this is — we saw it — the Express Train at Yonkers^ 
about three years ago. Cause, the switchman, a common laborer, 
neglected his duty. In an instant he took to his heels — and, 
for aught we know, is running yet — for he has never been seen 
there since. 


The most efficient preventive of this crime is a strong repro- 
bative public sentiment. It is regarded with a kind of horror. 
There is an instinctive drawing back from the self-murderer on 
the part of most people, as if there was no wish to have anything 
to do with a character around which there gathers at once a 
discreditable mystery. Almost the first inquiry on hearing of 
a suicide is, what evil has he done? It seems to be a general 
feeling that it has some connection with remorse, which, in its 
turn, is suggestive of crime. And so intense is the unex- 
pressed sentiment, that suicide has been committed to cover 
some crime, or to escape the imputation of wrong ; the very first 
effort on the part of friends, is to promote an impression that it 
was the result of insanity. 

We unhesitatingly assert, that the palliation of suicide is a 
wrong done to society and to good morals. Let it be a deep, a 
general, an abiding sentiment, that suicide and criminality are 
inseparable, and an important step will have at once been 
taken towards its prevention. 

Some years ago, this species of depravity became so prevalent 
among the women, the authorities decreed that the body of 
every such person found should be hung naked at the main 
entrance of the town. The effect was an instantaneous cessa- 
tion of the unnatural act. 

We do not undertake to say that every suicide is a legal 
criminal, but we do say unhesitatingly, that a suicide is a cow- 
ard and a fool. A coward, because he runs from trouble ; a 
fool, because he rushes into the presence of his Maker with a 
dagger in his hand and a sin in his heart. 

The papers of the country, secular and religious, have made 
a great ado lately, about the suicide of an unmarried man, aged 
thirty-five, of an irreproachable private character, up to his last 
-act ; a man of genius and of education. He was an enthusiastic 
w Spiritualist," and the use made of the fact is, " Spiritualism is 

Suicide. 17 

a 'pernicious delusion." And we almost grit our teeth in the 
impatience which attends the expression of the sentiment. Fair 
play is a jewel the world over. Let us have it here. If every 
creed is to be voted false, wicked and dangerous, because an 
advocate of it has been driven to suicide, then every creed 
under the sun, and every great pursuit, is false, wicked, and 
dangerous, our Holy Keligion not excepted. The wonder to 
our mind is, that any man, with even moderate pretensions to a 
logical mind, would allow himself to employ such a baseless 
argument. There is not one of us that would not regard with 
contempt the man who would urge as a reason, religion was a 
delusion, because persons are every now and then precipitating 
themselves into eternity as the effect of " strong religious excite- 
ment,'' 1 as it is benevolently termed. 

As stated in our December number, an eminent divine seeks 
affectionately to cloak over the self-destruction of a talented 
brother, by the argument that his mind was unbalanced by 
intense devotion to some particular branch of study, his gen- 
eral health being at the same time much impaired; and the 
argument is given, with an editorial backing, in the columns of 
one of the oldest, most widely circulated and ably edited reli- 
gious newspapers in the United States ; and what is more 
wonderful still, without rebuke, as far as we have seen, by a 
single christian editor in the land. But when a u Spiritualist" 
commits suicide, scarcely a paper fails to blazon it abroad with 
various exclamatory marks and startling phrases — Horrible 
effects of Spiritualism ! ! ! and the like. 

Now compare the two cases : both were unmarried, of about 
the same age ; both educated ; both possessing mental qualities 
entitling to the name of "genius ;" and both, too, labored under 
bodily disease of an aggravated character. 

The view which we take of these cases, and hence their intro- 
duction here, is, that the crime of the self-destroyer is not 
chargeable logically, either to religion, to scientific research, or 
to spiritualism, but is chargeable to the sin of being in wretched 
ill-health. No man, ordinarily, in the exercise of a moderate 
degree of intelligence as to the physiological laws of his body, 
can labor under wretched ill-health, except from unavoidable 

In the progressive intelligence of the age, we must march up 

18 HalVs Journal of Health. 

to the truth, and face it manfully , and more, we must consist- 
ently and conscientiously live up to its dictates, physically as 
well as morally, inasmuch as the same Great Mind which 
ordained the moral law has enacted the physiological, and no 
millennium can ever dawn on our eyes, until both are lovingly 
obeyed. • 

Medical men of all schools agree that the mass of suicides are 
the result of bodily infirmity of some kind. Perhaps, in as 
large a number of cases as three out of four, the result is brought 
about as follows. There is too much blood in the body, and as 
is always the case, under such circumstances, it is " bad blood ;" 
bad for several reasons — it is imperfect, impure, and too thick, 
to flow with healthful rapidity. When that is the case, that 
part of the body first begins to feel the effects of the stagnation 
which is for the time the weakest — physiologically speaking, 
the least able to pass the fluid along. In the case of the suicide, 
it is strictly, literally, and physiologically true, that for the mo- 
ment the brain is the weakest point — made weak by previous 
intense thought, by over-exercise. But another calamity occurs 
just here from a double cause — there is too much blood in the 
brain — consequently, the busy workers of the body have not 
room enough to perform their accustomed part, and it is not 
done well ; as would be the case in any department of life 
around us. But again, the nervous energy is made out of the 
blood, and if the material is impure, it is a physical necessity 
that the product is imperfect, is crude : hence a diseased man is 
fit for nothing until he gets well, and least of all for occupying 
the place of leaders and instructors of the people. Hence, get 
out of the way, all you dyspeptic editors, law-makers and teach- 
ers ; you are not fit for your posts, without a puke or a purge, 
or a few days' bread and water diet. 

There was true philosophy in the practice of a noted person- 
age, who entered upon the consideration of all questions of 
great public interest by taking an emetic. He would have 
been a wiser man had he begun twenty-four hours sooner, to 
live on half allowance of food, and that of a plain substantial 

Our main point is constantly verified in attempted suicides, 
by cutting the throat. By the time a quart of blood is )mk so 
as to relieve the brain, it becomes as clear as a bell in its 

Common /Sense. 19 

ties, and the loudest call for a " doctor'' comes from tlie patient 
himself— or if shame restrains, there is exhibited a very lamb- 
like submission to the means of restoration. Many an at- 
tempter of drowning has been known, after the shock of the 
plunge, to scramble for the shore with the most edifying alac- 
rity, the shock having started the accumulated fluid from the 
brain, which it was oppressing so dangerously. 

The general use to be made of this article, is, If you ivould 
certainly avoid the terrible fate of a suicide, live a life of temperate 
eating, and of moderate bodily activities. 

And as no bodily disease comes without some friendly warn- 
ing, we advise thus. — When you feel low-spirited, whether with 
a cause or without one, eat not an atom, drink not a drop for a 
dozen hours, and spend half the time at least in a brisk walk 
or cheerful ride to the country. You will find this a pleasant 
remedy, and almost infallible. And if you wish a permanent 
deliverance from such unwelcome visitors as the "Blues" eat 
less, exercise more. 


Not one in a multitude has it. Not one in a multitude of 
those who make use of the expression, knows what it means. 
Let the reader try this moment to define it in concise language, 
and in a moment he will find himself 

" In endless mazes lost." 

Yet it is a correct and appropriate phrase, if we can but distin- 
guish between the possession and the exercise ; the ownership 
and use of our senses. The word " common" qualifies as to 
the amount of sense, but does not apply to its use. The exact 
meaning to be attached to the expression is the use of an 
amount of intelligence which the mass of persons possess. 
Common sense is the USE of experience and observation. It is the 
. practical employment of an ordinary amount of intelligence. 
Most persons have it— few use it. Its possession is common — 
its practice uncommon ; hence the literal correctness of the 
expression — " Very few people have common sense." It would 
be plainer to say — " Yery few people make use of their common 
sense." For example — 

Ask the first man you meet if he has not pushed up his wrist- 

20 HdlVs Journal of Health. 

bands, in washing his hands, with a view to their remaining up, 
to prevent wetting them, until the operation is over. Ask him, 
further, if he has not done the same thing a hundred times, and 
if, in a single instance, he ever knew them to stay up until he 
was done. And yet, that man, until the day of his death, will 
attempt that same useless thing, as often as he has occasion to 
wash his hands with his coat on, or without the trouble of un- 
buttoning the wristbands. He has, in common with the multi- 
tude, sense enough to know that the wristbands will not stay 
up, but yet he does not use his intelligence. Hence, it is appro- 
priately said of that man, " He has not common sense" — that is, 
he does not exercise common sense. 

A man knows how to be polite. He may be in a company 
which does not merit its exercise, in his opinion — still, the 
omission of it lays him liable to the charge, " He has no polite- 
ness" — that is, he does not practice it. 

The mass of people know that jumping out of a vehicle, when 
the horses are running away, is very certain to be followed 
with loss of limb or life ; they know, too, that dropping one's 
self out from behind is attended with comparatively little dan- 
ger, and yet nine out of ten will jump out at the side — not one 
in a million will spill himself out from behind. Thus, every 
one of the million has sense enough to know the fact, yet, only 
one in a million is found to use it, to practice his knowledge. 

Any body has sense enough to know, that, if additions are 
daily made to any vessel, and nothing be taken from it, day 
after day, the vessel will soon overflow, and there will be mis- 
chief and loss ; and yet, there are multitudes in every commu- 
nity who ruin their health in early life, preparatory to a pre- 
mature death, or an age of suffering, by eating heartily two or 
three times a day, for days together, without heeding the neces- 
sity of a daily action of the bowels, as a preventive of irretriev- 
able mischief. Countless numbers of literary men, students, 
lawyers, clergymen, lose their health, and are laid aside from 
usefulness and duty, by failing to recognize practically a princi- 
ple so self-evident, that daily additions to the contents of the 
body, without a proportionate outlet, must result disastrously. 
Thus it is, we say of many great men — men of extraordinary 
acquirements — all their talents cannot preserve them from pov- 
erty. They have the sense, but do not use it. They know bet- 

Black and White Insanity. 21 

ter, but do not act out their knowledge. The different results 
from the possession and use of sense and money are striking. 
The less a man uses (spends) the money he accumulates, the 
richer he becomes — the less a student uses his daily accumula- 
tion of knowledge, the bigger bore he is. Therefore, save your 
money — use your sense. 


Music, like paintings and statuary, refines, and elevates, and 
sanctifies. Song is the language of gladness, and it is the utter- 
ance of devotion. But coming lower down it is physically 
beneficial ; it rouses the circulation, wakes up the bodily ener- 
gies, and diffuses life and animation all around. Does a lazy 
man ever sing ? We never heard it. Does a milk-and-water 
character ever strike a stirring note ? Never. Song is the 
outlet of mental and physical activity, and increases both by its 
exercise. No child has completed a religious education who 
has not been taught to sing the Songs of Zion. No part of our 
religious worship is sweeter than this. In David's day, it was 
a practice and a study. Such papers as Willis's New York 
Weekly Musical World, at $2 a year, and Woodbury's Musical 
Pioneer, monthly, at half-a-dollar a year, abound in valuable 
articles on Church and Family music, and merit a liberal 


We do not mean the color of the insanity, but the color of 
the persons who are deranged. The census states, that in Maine, 
one out of every fourteen free colored persons was insane. In 
Virginia, there was at the same time but one insane slave out 
of every thirteen hundred. We think the reason for this wide 
difference is soon told. It is the struggle and anxiety for daily 
bread which eats out the mind of the Northern negro. Slaves 
have no such anxieties ; their lives are merrier than those of 
their masters ; they know that bread shall be given them and their 
water shall be sure; and having food and raiment, they are there- 
until content, measurably. Their religion makes their yoke easy 
<md their burden light. Practically, the Southern slave does not 

22 HalVs Journal of Health. 

feel his bondage as such. There is such a thing as learning to 
bear the yoke, for under a load which would grind the cultivated 
intellect to powder, a Southern slave, with ,the aid of his reli- 
gious faith, will mount as with the wings of eagles,— will run and 
not be weary, — will walk and not faint. 

The mass of slaves in our country assent to the religious sen- 
timent either by practice, profession, or proclivity, and have 
learned in whatsoever state they are, therewith to be content There 
can be no doubt, that with other aids, the burden of slavery is 
comparatively light to them. A thousand times have we heard 
the lively song on the levee, at New Orleans ; it was the song 
of the slave — the song that helped them to work easy, and they 
found it out. We never heard a note of music from the hun- 
dreds of Irish draymen, always about them, in ten years. 

We are not discussing the morality of slavery ; we are speak- 
ing of it physically ; we are stating apparent facts. Their 
solution is open to discussion. To embody the main point in 
words, we would express it thus : — 

Free negroism in the North, with its surroundings, appears 
to promote insanity. Southern slavery, with its surroundings, 
appears to prevent insanity. 

We do not say, merely, that Southern slavery does not seem 
to tend to insanity — that would express only a negation ; the 
truth is positive. Southern slavery, with its surroundings, prevents 
insanity, for it is a statistical fact, that more white people become 
insane in the South, or are born with various approaches to 
idiocy, than among slaves in proportion, while as to the whites 
of New England, there are a thousand lunatics where there is 
one among the slave population of the South. Many thousands 
there are in the North who go to bed, nightly, without a fall 
stomach, and in the winter, with the addition of a cold and 
cheerless apartment ; while such things are almost unknown on 
Southern plantations. If these facts were not known from 
actual observation, they might find a moral demonstration in 
the deduction that they were so, because it is to the pecuniary 
interest of the slave-holder to give that slave food and warmth, 
as much, and more so, than for the Northerner to afford those 
things to his cattle, if he wishes to be a thrifty farmer 

While these considerations should justly modify Northern 
sentiment as to the conjectured horrors of slavery, and lead 

Slandering Doctors. 23 

them to take a calm and considerate view of the whole subject, 
and thus, as we think, open up a speedier way for universal 
freedom, as far as the great interests of the world require it ; 
they, at the same time, are largely suggestive in the direction 
of that great subject, human happiness and health. 

The effect which the ceaseless struggle against want has on 
the colored man in New England, manifests itself in the eighty, 
ninety, and a hundred persons, who die every week in New 
York of diseases of the brain and nerves. If this ceaseless 
striving for bread wears out the life of the white man, and 
drives the black man mad, the very strongest of all earth's con- 
siderations force their claims upon us, and urge us, as a means 
of saving the life, and far more, of the immortal mind, to cul- 
tivate in our domestic and social relations, a wise economy and 
a moderate ambition as to pecuniary condition ; for beyond all 
question, the neglect of this, wrecks the peace and ruins the- 
souls of multitudes. 

A great many jokes are cracked at the expense of the doc- 
tors, and at the expense of the reputation for intellect of those 
who crack them ; for a moment's consideration, which, by the 
way, in this fast age, is not given to anything of true import- 
ance, except by the few — a moment's consideration would teach 
any one, that it is to the doctor's interest to keep the patient 
alive as long as possible, for as long as the patient lives, he pays I 
Witness the desperate efforts made to protract life for a few 
hours, in the last extremity; how the medicine is poured down 
every five minutes, as long as the d}dng man can swallow ; how 
the blister plaster encases ankle, wrist, and waist, to kindle up 
again the powers of life, for, with returning life, returns the 
prospect of dollars. For our part, we could never appreciate 
the philosophy of torturing the poor dying body in the ways 
just alluded to, to the last moment of existence. The great 
Washington prayed to be allowed to die in peace. When our 
last hour comes, hoist the window, throw the door wide open, 
without a draft ; moisten the lips ; clear the room of all but 
one or two; let all the pure air possible, get to the laboring 
lungs. Just imagine, reader, what would be your feelings foi 
relief, if a pillow were pressed over your face for a minute, and 

24: Hairs Journal of Health. 

you may have some idea of the desire a dying man has for all 
the air he can get. But as an evidence. that doctors are not 
such a murderous class as represented sometimes, the last cen- 
sus shows that it requires Eighty doctors to keep one undertaker, 
there being Forty thousand doctors in the United States, while 
there are only five hundred professed undertakers, the irregu- 
lars of both not included. 


And the doctor triumphant ! In a recent criminal trial, a mer- 
chant tailor testified that he would not trust the prisoner, 
because he knew that any man must fail, who in a single year 
would order to be made in the best manner and out of the best 
material seven coats, fifteen vests, and twenty -five pair of 

The doctor, homeopathic in pills but a/Z-pathic in charges, 
his bill averaging six hundred dollars a year, stated that he 
drew more money than he was entitled to, " because he seemed 
to be living too fast, and I intended to get my bills about 


We wish we could respond to letters received from time to 
time from old subscribers with renewals, with their expressions 
of goodwill and encouragement. We have circulated some 
thousands of the Journal at our own expense among clergy- 
men, when they contained articles which we thought might be 
useful to them. To many of them, their health is their living, 
and we know that by intelligent precaution, months of labor 
could be saved in some instances. A single hint, now and 
then, wisely acted on, is of incalculable value. One of them 
writes : " I wanted to have taken your Journal last year, but 
being a missionary on a small salary, I could not well spare the 
subscription price, small as it is." Just think of it, Christian 
people ! that the day laborers, the working men of the church, 
its hardy pioneers, its hewers of wood and drawers of water, 
are so poorly paid by you, that out of a whole year's salary, 
not one, but many, cannot spare a dollar for instructions as to 
how they may keep well. It ought not so to be. 

A returned foreign missionary, whom we had an opportunity 

Miscellaneous. 25 

of taking from the shelf and placing in active and efficient 
pastoral duty, says : " The Journal has become a sort of neces- 
sity to me ; I can say of it, what I cannot of the many 
periodicals I receive, I read every article of every number. 
Ministers are so poor that they dare not subscribe for anything 
which is not absolutely essential to them, as men possessing 
minds and hearts. For the poor jaded body they can afford to 
do nothing. The majority of us find it impossible to keep a 
horse, and impossible to hire one, except on an emergency. 
But, although I cannot ride abroad for my health, I have 
learned by experience that I am none the poorer for taking the 
Journal. The hints which it contains from time to time, have 
often been of real service to me, and I am thankful for that 
kind providence which placed me, when a sufferer, under the 
care of its editor." 

In renewing her subscription, a Southern lady writes : " I 
shall ever be grateful for the good you have done me, and I 
believe you have saved my life, probably for many years." 

If by our teachings we add to the lives of those who, in the 
language of our fair correspondent, "could not have lived much 
longer without them," we may be allowed to hope that we are 
not living wholly in vain. 

From lawyers, physicians, clergymen, eminent theologians, 
presidents, professors, and principals in schools, colleges and 
universities, and what is not less highly prized, the almost 
unanimous sustention of the newspaper and periodical press of 
the country, — from these, and a subscription list of fifty per 
cent, larger than we have hitherto had on a New Year's day, 
we cheerfully gird our armor on for the labor of EIGHTEEN 
hundred and FIFTY-SEVEN. And with the information from 
a correspondent, that our Journal is to be adopted as a reading 
book in a popular female seminary, we hope to write no word 
that is not courteous, and useful, and true. 


1, 2 and 3, bound, are all sold. A new supply in uniform cloth 
binding will soon be ready, and unfilled orders will be imme- 
diately attended to. Persons wishing to exchange their num- 
bers for the bound volumes will be credited with seven cents 
for each returned number. The bound volumes are $1 25 
each, and ten cents additional, if sent post-paid by mail. 




VOL. IV.] FEBRUARY, 1857. [NO. II. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


We have occasionally seen exceptions taken to some of our 
teachings, and no doubt others have occurred which have not 
met our eye. We wish to inform our readers, once for all, we 
write for utility. Nothing is radically and permanently useful 
which is not true ; hence it is our effort always to be literally 
correct in all our statements, and those statements are made 
either as the result of our own observation or the corroborated 
observations of scientific men recorded in standard publications. 
Now with this inflexible rule and object before us, it is not a 
very difficult matter to issue a publication monthly which 
merits public reliance. Of all the criticisms of our Journal, the 
one of more frequent occurrence north, south, east and west, is 
" its frank, strong common sm&eP Whence comes this descrip- 
tive phrase ? It arises from the fact that our teachings corres- 
pond with the observation, experience and rationality of the 
reader. We do not advocate an idea simply because a scientific 
man eliminates it, for it is a commonly observed fact that 
scientific men are practically men of the least every-day sense. 
A man may be a scientific fool. Nor do we write from the 
experience of a day, but from the uniform experiences of an 
eventful life, and from the opportunities of wide research and 
observation. It was Count Rumford who deduced scientifically 
that white clothing was the warmest in winter, and increased 
his reputation for oddity by dressing in white during the coldest 
of New England winters, but he made no impression of his 

30 HalVs Journal of Health, 

views on the minds of the every-day matter of fact people about 

" I knows what I knows, and I knows what I don't know," 
said a daft youth to the village miller, who twitted him as to 
his scanty knowledge. " Indeed," answered the miller, " how 
is that ?" 

" Why, I know your pigs are fat, but I don't know whose 
corn they eat." 

Many persons write for the newspapers merely from the store 
of knowledge they possess, irrespective of what they do not 
know, and hence a host of crude contributions. The know- 
ledge of many is of a kin in quality, to that of the man who 
had never seen any land beyond the little island which he had 
not left from the hour of his birth ; he knew that was the only 
land in the world — because he had seen no other. A fact may 
come to our knowledge, and we may draw a legitimate con- 
clusion, but additional knowledge may show that it was only 
part of a fact, and what may be a wise deduction from a part 
may be a very foolish one when drawn from a whole. 

We trust, therefore, that our readers will not conclude us in 
error from the mere fact that our statements are controverted. 
The daily and weekly papers very often presume opinions on 
medical subjects, from the modicum of intelligence which they 
possess in that direction, whereas if they had known a little 
more, they would have been ashamed of their immaturity. 


Under the head of Popular Fallacies we stated, two years ago, 
that w r hile early rising was commendable, it was better to 
remain in bed to a late breakfast and then go to work, than to 
go out of doors for any purpose before breakfast, especially in 
the summer time, in the west and south-west. It is injurious 
to the health of anybody in any climate, in any season of the 
year, to go to any out-door occupation. Some persons may do 
it with comparative impunity by reason of vigorous health and 
an active life, but scientific deductions, in common with the 
ordinary observations of men, are conclusive of the fact, that in 
all seasons and climates, those who are engaged in out-door 
occupations, or have to leave their houses early in the morning, 
ought to eat a regular breakfast before going out ; and if that is 
not practicable, to eat at least a crust of bread or an apple in 

Our Defences. 31 

order to wake up the stomach to an activity which can re pel 
the hurtful influences of cold in winter, and of that malaria in 
summer, which is more or less malignly present about sunrise, 
wherever a tree flourishes or a blade of grass springs. These 
are facts known to every educated physician in the world. 
And yet a contemporary exclaims violently, on the ground of 
his having been taught from infancy that early rising was 
healthful, — " Is there no truth ?" And to make our assertion 
appear self-evidently ridiculous he cries out, " Are not birds 
healthy, and they sing joyously at sunrise ?" But to say nothing 
of the fact that we were speaking as to men and not about 
brute beasts, a moment's reflection might have suggested, that 
while it was true that birds had good health and were on the 
wing early, yet it was not reasonable to suppose that a bird, no 
more than a man, is inclined to song or mirth on an empty sto- 
mach. Besides, as far as our observation has extended among the 
multitudinous chickens which our mother would always have 
about her in town and country, not one of them, from the most 
venerable rooster down to the youngest chicken, ever failed to 
fly from the tree to the trough. The first instinct of a chick 
as well as a child is to get a breakfast. 

It is not healthy anywhere to get up early and go to work 
unless something is first eaten. Thousands die every year, and 
other thousands do more than that, shake with the ague for 
years in new countries, from failing to eat breakfast before they 
go out to work. It is useful to observe, that national habits 
are often the result of their uniformly observed propriety. So 
what is not healthful in one nation may be in another. Thus 
it is that the instincts of different nations establish various 
kinds of food as favorites. Bread is the favorite of the French ; 
maccaroni of the Italian ; rice of the Chinese ; roast beef of the 
English ; sauerkraut of the German ; molasses and pumpkin 
pie of the New Englander; corn bread of the Kentuckian. 
The Irishman feasts on his potatoe, while Sawney revels in 
oatmeal porridge. In the numerous milk-and-water books of 
travel which annually afflict the reading public, the writers 
give full frequent evidence of their incapacity, by slighting 
remarks made of the domestic habits and customs of the 
people, making their own the standard of perfection, and not 
taking into judicious consideration the different surroundings 
of the people among whom they travel. 

82 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The Best Tooth Wash, 
because the safest, most familiar, and most universally acces- 
sible, and most invariably applicable and efficient, where 
specific dental science is not sought, is a piece of common white 
soap with a brush of moderate stiffness. The correspondent 
of a medical cotemporary inquires as to the truth of the state- 
ment, to which the editor replies simply, " It is nonsense f* 
What are the ascertained facts of the case? "Tartar on the 
teeth," is a familiar expression. Microscopical examination 
shows that millions of living things are there, — that there are 
mainly two kinds, and that the larger class are instantaneously 
killed by soap-suds, when strong acids have no effect whatever. 
Here is a simple fact, on which eminent dentists have based the 
practical advice to use common white soap as a corrector and 
preventive of tartar on the teeth to a considerable extent, so 
that we almost look contemptuously on the flippancy of an 
editor who would write " nonsense" to such a statement, when 
most probably he never made a microscopical examination of 
this •' tartar," and never performed an experiment on the liv- 
ing things which seem to form it from a product furnished by 
the animal economy, very much perhaps as coral is formed by 
myriads of invisible creatures from material found in the waters 
of the sea. 

Corns Cured. 

We stated in another number, that the simplest, safest, most 
available, and consequently the best cure for corns on the toes, 
consisted in three operations, — First: Soak the feet in hot 
water for fifteen minutes, night and morning, for a week. 

Second : After the soaking, rub a little sweet oil on the corn, 
or any other mild form of grease, with the finger, for about five 

Third: Cut a hole in one, two, or three thicknesses of soft' 
buckskin, and bind it on the toe, so that the hole in the buck- 
skin shall receive the corn. 

The object of the water and oil is to soften the corn and 
parts adjoining ; the object of the buckskin is to protect the 
corn from pressure. 

In a very short time the corn will become painless, and 
will subsequently fall out of itself, as it is a growth, and is 
pushed upwards and outwards by the more natural growth 

"Fire Up: x 33 

"beneath. It is thrown out of the body by the action of the 
parts, as a splinter or a crushed bone, as being no longer a part 
of the body. If anything else is done to the corn, it should 
be simply picked out with the ringer nail, as cutting it makes it 
take deeper root, and dangerous bleedings sometimes occur 
when the knife is used. Our object was to recommend some- 
thing which we knew to be safe, practicable, and efficient. We 
stated further, that corns, like consumption, were never cured ; 
and that che original causes of them, to wit, pressure with a 
tight shoe, or friction with a loose one, would cause them to re- 
turn, and even more readily than at first, because the structure 
of the skin about a corn is malformed for life, and would 
no more become entirely natural than a finger would grow again, 
if cut off. So, when a person has had consumption and gets 
well, he cannot be said to be perfectly cured, because he will 
always remain with a deficiency of lungs ; the portion destroyed 
never can be replaced, yet, by making the remainder of the 
lungs work more fully, he may have even better health than 
he ever had before. Thus, it is literally and strictly true, that 
corns and consumption are never cured — because their very ex- 
istence depends on the destruction of the organization and sub- 
stance of a part of the body, never to be replaced. 

There are corn doctors and corn salves ; some of which lat- 
ter are of very powerful constituents. They do remove the 
corns, but for no longer time than the plan we have advised, 
while ours has the preference, as costing nothing, and being 
wholly without danger. Eemedies are valuable for the multi- 
tude in proportion as they are safe, cheap, and attainable. 

If corns are pared down, from time to time, they widen 
their base, become more deeply rooted, and in old age blacken, 
cause gangrene and ultimate death ! Therefore, we advise the 
prompt treatment of corns as above. It may be many months 
before they return; but when they do, the same treatment 
will always be effectual, and always safe. 

" FIRE UP," % 

Is the watchword, when the steamer is ready for motion. 
" Fire up" is the order when the "Iron Horse" is going to 
ride us on a rail ; and just as necessary is it for a man to " Fire 

34 HalVs Journal of Health. 

up," if he means to accomplish anything; but the fuel for his 
firing is not exactly wood and water ; his furnace is not exactly 
made of iron, but he must be fed and watered every day, or a 
stagnation would prevail in every department of human life. 

Yery close calculations have been made to ascertain how 
much it takes to feed a steamship or locomotive. Wall street 
is very specially interested in the decision of that question. A 
locomotive eats up a cord of wood in an hour, while a steam- 
ship consumes eighty tons of coal in a single day ; but to keep 
the machine of man in motion for a day, or month, or year, how 
interesting a question ! — we mean, thereby, the hardy, indus- 
trious farmer or mechanic, for they have the first right to a 
" liberal allowance;" but if the lazy, the lounging, the do-nothing 
nobodies, who encumber our earth, appropriate to themselves 
this " liberal allowance," they are fined in a sum of ten or 
twenty years of existence, and that fine must be paid, more irre- 
vocable than any Medo-Persian edict. A man, then, who works 
hard out of doors, every day, will, in a year, consume 

Eight hundred pounds of air, 

Eight hundred pounds of food, 

Fifteen hundred pounds of water. 
In other words, it requires three thousand and two hundred 
pounds of air, food and water, to sustain a man for one year ; 
but if he be a gentleman loafer, such as occupy our poor-houses, 
hospitals and asylums, about seven hundred pounds of all 
kinds of food are required. 

The practical use which we wish to make of these statements 
is, if eight hundred pounds of meat and bread and vegetables 
go down our throats every year, are every year introduced into 
our bodies, it is just as necessary that the refuse should be 
passed out of them, with regularity, as it is for the ashes to be 
removed from the furnace of the steamship or locomotive. If 
a single day's ashes and cinders are unremoved, the finest ma- 
chine in the world would cease to run. Just as inevitable is 
the derangement of the whole machinery of man, if, for a single 
day, he does not pass from his body an amount equal to what 
te ate the day before. And one of the most important items 
we have ever given in the pages of this journal is: whenever the 
hour of bowel action has passed by, without its occurrence, do not 
swallow an atom of food until it takes place. This alone would 
remove the cause of half our diseases. 

Surgical Instruments. — Buried Alive. 35 


Are quite the rage now-a-dajs. Men and women, as " flat 
as a flounder," patronize abdominal supporters, when the great 
mischief is, they havn't anything to support. 

Deaf women, the dumb ones having all died off before the 
flood, are provided with patent " Auricles," which stick out on 
each side of the head, like two great rams' horns, all regardless 
of the fact, whether there is any hearing to be aided or not. 
Then there are shoulder braces and back straps, respirators, inhalers, 
et id omne, ad infinitum; so that there is scarcely a member of 
the human body that is not provided with an "aid;" the 
stomach has a million, among the worst, are stinking German gin 
and British beer, made out of worse than bilge- water. Now, any 
intelligent physician knows that the vast mass of persons who 
patronize these great variety of supporters, need aids of a very 
different kind. The best respirator in the world is, to shut your 
mouth and go ahead ; the most efficient ''shoulder brace," is to 
hold up your head and march on ; while the most valuable 
general " supporter," and the only one needed in nine cases out 
of ten, is to make the patient go to work and compel him to 
live on his daily earnings. 


Individuals have, been buried before life was extinct. Authen- 
tic cases are given where persons have been perfectly powerless, 
every muscle of the body paralyzed ; but the hearing, the last 
sense to die, was in its integrity, and made them conscious, as 
far as sound was concerned, of all that was going on around 

A physician was recently married in this city, and died within 
half an hour at noon-day. The body was removed to a distant 
county, and when the coffin-lid was removed to enable sorrow- 
ing friends to take a last look, a strange change passed over his 

Many persons have felt, at night, as if some terrible danger 
were impending, but without any more power to move a muscb 
than to move a world. We know, too, what a fearful noise sucn 
persons make when a friendly shake starts up the stagnant 
blood, giving instant and most grateful relief. 

36 HalVs Journal of Health. 

If persons must be screwed up in a coma, within twenty-four 
hours of sudden, apparent death, we recommend that a red-hot 
iron be applied to some portion of the body, which blisters, if 
there is life, or to cut off a finger, or cut into the flesh several 


The " Printers' Ink Fountain" of Philadelphia, states, that an 
editor, " in consequence of ill health and other multifarious 
duties," withdraws from his office. We had been under the 
impression that it was the duty of people to keep well. Our 
general reason for thinking so was, that a sick man was fit for 
nothing but to be physicked, and as taking physic was a bad 
practice, it was wrong, and more, a very silly thing, for any one 
to place himself in a condition which unfits him for doing any- 
thing useful, and fits him only to do what is bad. 


There are many almost inappreciable sappers of our life, any 
one of which might be in operation for a long time without 
causing any alarming condition of the system ; but when a mul- 
titude of these are at work, critical symptoms appear with 
alarming rapidity. The purest water will become putrid, if 
allowed to stagnate. The purest air from the ocean or the poles, 
if kept still, becomes corrupt in the cleanliest habitation in the 
land, and the healthiest blood in the system begins in a moment 
to die, if for a moment it is arrested in its progress through 
the system. In either of these cases of fresh water, of pure air, 
and healthy blood, corruption is the inevitable result of stagna- 
tion. To keep them all pure and life-giving, activity of motion 
is a physical necessity. Whatever tends to arrest or impede 
the flow of the blood through the body, does in that same pro- 
portion inevitably engender disease ; any other result is physi- 
cally impossible, because impure blood is the foundation or an 
attendant of all sickness. 

• Very recently, a New Yorker purchased a pair of boots, but 
they fitted so tightly that he was compelled to take them off 
before night, but they caused his death within forty-eight hours. 

Spiritualism. 37 

The most unobservant know that cold feet and hands are 
uniform symptoms in those diseases which gradually wear our 
lives away. The cause of these symptoms is a want of circula- 
tion. The blood does not pass to and from the extremities 
with facility. Nine-tenths of our women, at least in cities and 
large towns, have cold feet or hands, or both; hence, not one 
in a hundred is healthy. It is at our feet and hands that we 
begin to die, and last of all the heart, because, last of all, stag- 
nation takes place there. In the worst cases of disease, the 
physician is hopeful of recovery, as long as he can keep the 
extremities warm: when that cannot be done, hope dies within 
him. It needs no argument to prove that a tight glove pre- 
vents the free circulation of blood through the hands and 
fingers. It so happens, that the very persons who ought to do 
everything possible to promote the circulation of the blood, are 
those who most cultivate tight gloves, to wit : the wives and 
daughters who have nothing to do but dress; or rather, do 
nothing but dress; or to be critically accurate, who spend more 
time in connection with dressing, than on all other objects 
together, not including sleep. No man or woman born has any 
right to do a deliberate injury to the body for a single hour in 
the day ; but to do it day after day, for a lifetime, against the 
lights of science and common sense, is not wise. We may wink 
at it, glide over it, talk about this being a free country, that it 
is ridiculous for a doctor to dictate whether a glove shall be 
worn tight or loose, but the effect won't be laughed or scorned 
away, for whatever is done which impedes the circulation of 
the blood, is done wrongfully against our bodies, and will be 
as certain of injurious results, as the hindering of any law, 
physical or physiological. Every grain of sand must be taken 
care of, or the universe would dash to atoms; and so with 'the 
little things of the body. 


Chattanooga, Tenn., July \Mi, 1856. 
. You have doubtless seen in the public prints the new expo- 
sition of Spiritualism, under the term of " Volaurology." Some 
knowledge gathered of its author, will enable me to give informa- 
tion of interest to your readers. 
The Rev. J. H, Hall is about thirty- two years of age, five 

38 HalVs Journal of Health. 

feet, five or six inches ; a resident of this State, and native of 
Kentucky — has been living in retired life for some years past, 
owing to an affection of the eyes, which prevented him from 
engaging in clerical duties. At one time he was the editor 
of a religious Monthly published in Philadelphia, subsequently 
owner and partial editor of the Christian Union and Religious 
Memorial, New York. Of late years he was associated as editor 
of a Southern literary newspaper, and correspondent of the 
Southern Parlor Magazine, published at Memphis. He founded 
a flourishing female school in East Tennessee, which he gave 
up for the principalship of a similar institution in New York 
City. Of a natural disposition to search into the marvellous, 
and a votary of science in every sense of the word, the Spiritual 
Manifestation, so-called, engaged his attention from the begin- 
ning. It is a curious circumstance to note what different results 
scientific minds reach after the investigation of the spiritual 
problem. Judge Edmonds, Profs. Hare, Dexter, and others, on 
one side, and Dods, Mahan and Hall on the other. I do not 
know much about the theories of those gentlemen, excepting 
that of Mr. Hall. He takes the ground that the supposed 
spirit's power is a physical emanation — traces it to its seat in the 
human body, and shows where it exists, and how to neutralize its 
effects, or paralyse its power immediately. If this is not showing 
that he understands his subject, I profess not to be able to know 
what demonstration is. While the religious journals ascribe the 
agency to the Devil, and the secular think it a sort of sleight-of 
hand, the scientific world disputes the facts as occurring. Mr. 
Hall comes out fairly and boldly, acknowledges the strange 
manifestations, but shows them to proceed from the very con- 
stitution of our being. How much more rational and gratify- 
ing is this, than the presumptive admission of supernatural 
agency. Hall says like a philosopher — '' God once worked by 
miracle, but this is an age in which he works by science." He 
is familiar with his subject. When the Rapping first appeared 
— before Judge Edmonds' advocacy of Spiritualism; before 
any spiritual newspapers were printed ; before the editors of 
those spiritual newspapers appeared in public — he was an 
investigator of the "Stratford Mysteries." This argues much 
in his behalf for the strength of his mind and the reputation 
of his name. As an example of his method of "searching 
the spirits," he enclosed a letter to a celebrated spiritualist to 
describe the author. According to request, it was done. A 
very minute description was given, and the letter returned 
He then requested the spirits to describe the character of the 
writer of another letter, seal unopened. This the spirits did. 
The descriptions were different, and neither of them correct; 
besides this, the first and second letter was one and the sam -. 
He wrote to the spiritualist to know whether one or more spirits 

Spiritualism. 39 

had given that examination, to which the reverend spiritualist 
replied, that it was done bja" convocation of spirits, and a 
president of them." I mention this circumstance, because the 
parties are men in high life and reputation, and what may be 
affirmed of one, Disce Omnes. 

I would not have your readers understand that Mr. Hall 
believes in the power of describing authors by their hand- 
writing inclosed in an envelope ; on the contrary, he shows 
how it is done; but he feels indignant that intelligent public 
leaders of the day, pretending to set themselves up as such, 
should pervert the truth into a falsehood. He says of the strange 
mysteries witnessed by him in the families of Judge Edmonds, 
Foxes, Concklin and others, he finds a counterpart or more 
than equivalent in the medical records of past time. Davis, 
Jay, Harris, and other clairvoyants, are not exceptions of power 
attainable by every one. If they chose to do it they can be 
placed upon a parallel with them in respect to their extraordinary 
mental development. He does not deny the power of healing, 
but shows that it is an element of our nature. To ascribe it 
to spiritual agency is extremely superstitious. In the manage- 
ment of the Tables, which a New York paper called the Evan- 
gelist says, has certainly "the devil in it," — the Yolaurologist 
says, " Then all men, women and children are devils," for he 
shows them how they can do it. I would not name the prin- 
ciples of the new science with the view of forestalling the expo- 
sition of the author, for he will doubtless visit your city in its 
turn ; but I am prepared to say, that I consider the explanation 
of Spiritualism a perfect one, without any dodging. I am not 
unfriendly to its claims, but those strange things are accounted 
for, and when that is done by natural science, supported by 
well known principles, why should we seek the solution in the 
hobgoblins of hydra-headed Spiritualism? G. B. 

The above letter was cut from a stray newspaper last Sum- 
mer. Our attention was recalled to it by an editorial in the 
Medical Gazette of this city. The social and professional position 
of its learned editor demands a respectful consideration of his 
opinions. He says, in the January number, page seventeen: 

"We mean to be understood, when we affirm, that it is not 
true in any case, that tables or chairs, or any other body whose 
specific gravity is greater than air, has been moved at all with- 
out physical force, and we care not how many ' physicians, cler- 
gymen,' &c, are among the witnesses." 

There are few medical men whose information is as extensive 
as that of Dr. Reese. But in the discussion of any subject 
where the testimony of several persons is to be taken, upon 

40 HalVs Journal of Health. 

which to make a decision, the statement of one as to a fact is as 
good as that of another, supposing that all are of ordinary intel- 
ligence. Hence a mere contradiction carries with it no conclu- 
siveness. One of the Beecher daughters says, that she "rode 
around a room on a table, touched by noiliing ,but the fingers of a 
delicate girl, who went around the room with the table, just 
touching it with her finger." Dr. Eeese does not believe this 
statement. But Miss Beecher was present. She was part of 
the fact, and we are bound to believe her testimony, or that 
she was miserably deceived. Many persons measure their wis- 
dom by the amount of incredulity which they can exhibit. Dr. 
Reese is wholly above that. We think he injures his argument 
by denying too much ; consequently, what he says fails to con- 
vince the many who have seen similar things ; in fact, it drives 
them to the other side. 

As we said, in a previous article on this subject, it has become 
almost a gordian knot, for the simple want of a wise discrimina- 
tion as to a fact and its explanation. Persons are too much 
inclined to admit or deny both. The Fox girls said, "Spirits 
move the tables.''' At least such is the report. Two things are 
here given : a fact and an explanation. The fact is, The tables 
move. The explanation is, "It is done by spirits. 1 ' But because 
the explanation was just such an one as two poor, simple- 
minded girls would give — and just such an one as educated, 
but superstitious minds have admitted, we have, in our strong 
impression of the utter absurdity of the explanation, scouted 
at the fact as well as at its explanation. But, as we said before, 
ridicule and epithet count nothing in plain argument with intel- 
ligent minds. Such want proof, not assertion. 

In the above letter, it appears that Mr. Hall believes that the 
tables do move; that such motion is not the result of spiritual 
co-operation, but of an emanation, alike, possibly, to that which 
took place when the Saviour "perceived that virtue had gone out 
of him. 11 Power goes from the magnet and affects a needle at 
some distance from it. Who can say that a similar power may 
not go out of a man and affect inert matter distant from him, 
without his touching it? We do not say that it is so. We say 
that it is possible. We do not doubt that Miss Beecher rode 
around a room on a table, without her collusion. The point of 
inquiry is, ''By what power?" If Mr. Hall can explain satis- 

Make Home Happy. 41 

factorily the seat of that power, and can go a step further and 
counteract it, it is certainly one of the most important addi- 
tions yet made in reference to so-called " Spiritualism." The 
sentiment of many is,"It may be the spirits. 11 They fear to admit. 
They will not deny. They see spiritualists bringing forward 
bushels of reported facts, and they hear wise men denouncing 
both the facts and the reporters of them, and between their 
doubt of the facts and the emptiness of the denunciations, they 
remain in a state of indefiniteness, indecision and uncertainty 
of opinion most annoying. If Mr. Hall can show us where the 
power lies, can put the wand in our hands, and enable us to 
exercise it or counteract it, that is, give us the perfect control 
of it, then has he gained an enviable immortality, has accom- 
plished a work well worthy of a lifetime of effort. We shall 
be agreeably disappointed if the Eev. gentlemen does do what 
his friends claim he can do. The free interpretation of the 
ugly word, Volaurology, in its connection with Spiritualism, is 
e< Something about an emanation in connection with the will." 
Spiritualists are of two classes: those who are sincere in their be- 
lief, whom we pity ; those who are deliberate imposters, whom we 
despise: to both Mr. Hall will be a benefactor if he can do what 
is claimed for him, because he will make the latter ashamed of 
themselves, and for the former, he will effect a happy deliverance. 

Parents, if you wish to prevent your children from falling 
into practices and associations which lead to loss of health and 
morals, and to a premature grave. The love of home, as a part 
of parental teaching, forms the subject of an article in that 
very excellent publication, The Presbyterian Magazine, of Phil- 
adelphia ; and we trust that all who read it will give it adequate 
consideration. It is not enough that our children have abun- 
dant food and clothing, and comfortable lodging. There is a 
monotony about these things which soon tires ; the very absence 
of such comforts is an agreeable relief at any time if away from 
home. It is a common remark, that a child eats almost as much 
as a grown person, and nothing will satisfy a hungry child. It 
is strikingly so with the mind ; it must have food to feed it ; 
that food is variety ; the variety of the new, the unknown ; 
that is what delights children of all ages ; and to gratify that 

42 HalVs Journal of Health. 

delight by presenting to their attention, with moderate rapidity 
of succession, what is substantial, valuable, practical, is one of 
the most important of all parental occupations. And parents 
should feel themselves constantly stimulated to efforts of this 
kind by the consideration, that if they do not hold these things 
up to their attention, their reverses will be presented to them 
in endless combinations, by the lower associations of the street 
and of the kitchen. 

The three necessities of children are food, exercise, amuse- 
ment. They will eat, they will move about, they will be enter- 
tained. The feeding of the mind is as essential as the feeding 
of the body, and not half a parent's duty is done in securing 
house, and food, and raiment. So far from appreciating this 
mental necessity, we are too apt to thwart their own instinctive 
efforts to satisfy it, by our short and listless, if not, indeed, im- 
patient and angry answers to their multitudinous inquiries. 
Under such treatment, they soon learn the uselessness of seek- 
ing information from their parents, and gradually seek it else- 
where, with its large admixture of incorrectness, imperfectness, 
and, too often, viciousness. 

In our opinion, neither sons nor daughters should be allowed 
to sleep away from home, unless their parents are with them. 
We sincerely hope that such a blessing may be secured to ours, 
until the day of marriage. It is a true mother's love which 
seeks to keep her daughter in sight until superior claims come ; 
it would save many a family from social ruin, and many a 
parent's heart from breaking. As for our sons, it should be 
impressed upon them that no business is to require their atten- 
tion and to keep them out of the house after sundown, unless 
the parent is along, as long in their teens as it is possible to 
secure obedience to such a requisition. And to make such 
obedience pleasurable, let it be the parents' study to render 
home inviting by the cultivation of all that is courteous and 
kindly, and by the large and habitual exercise of the better 
qualities of our nature, especially those of sympathy, and love, 
and affection. To all parents we say — 

Keep your children at home as much, and together, as long 
as it is at all possible for you to do it. No better plan can be 
devised for enabling a household to grow up loving and being 
loved, in all its members. 

Bites of Insects, 43 


Apply spirits of hartshorn to them as soon as possible, and 
almost instantaneous and permanent relief will be given. 
Eeason — the poison of insects, spiders, reptiles, and the like, is 
an acid ; the hartshorn is an alkali, and neutralizes the poison. 
Any other alkali will answer, but hartshorn is named because 
people are familiar with it, and it is found in almost every 
house. A good substitute is a handful of wood ashes thrown 
into a teacup of hot water, stirred, and as soon as settled, apply 
the liquid — which is common ley, used for making soap — with a 
soft rag. 

Barnabas Sanders, of Cambridgeport, Mass., was bitten by a 
spider, several years ago, and on the seventh day, in great agony, 
expired. Recently a young man in Cincinnati was bitten by a 
spider, and died in a few days. The celebrated organist of 
Grace Church, New York, was bitten by a spider, a few weeks 
since, at twilight, while walking in the garden. Inflammation, 
pain, and swelling came on, and there appeared a hard tumor, 
of the size of a goose-egg. In three days the whole glandular 
system was affected. Singular looking swellings appeared in 
various parts of the body ; one, as large as the egg of a canary 
bird, appeared under the left eye, and the whole features were 
distorted and haggard. Dr. Bruce, of Boston, was called, and 
by his care the patient was eventually restored. 

Most probably the prompt and free application of hartshorn, 
or other strong alkali, would have prevented all subsequent 

The question arises, are the bites of some spiders hurtful and 
others innocuous, or is the mischief which occasionally results, 
owing to the state of the blood of the person ? We are inclined 
to the belief that it is the latter. Men have died from the sting 
of a wasp or bee, but many persons have been stung by bees, 
wasps, yellow-jackets, hornets, or by whatever other names 
they are called, and suffered no material injury. We have 
known men to " baric their shins " — to scrape the skin on the fore 
part of the leg — by a misstep on getting into a carriage, or by 
striking it against some hard substance inadvertently, the parts 
became angry-looking, red, hot, and painful, with subsequent 
symptoms, which have required months of attention to remove, 

44 Halls Journal of Health. 

and in some cases ending in death. We know that persons 
who are young and in vigorous health meet with such mis- 
haps, but let them alone and they get well of themselves. In 
the latter case the blood is pure and healthy, and full of life ; 
in the former it is diseased. The blood of a person who drinks 
spirits or beer habitually, is always in this diseased condition; 
and it is notorious, that even slight abrasions on the hands of 
such are not only very hard to cure, but are dangerous. This 
is owing to the condition of the blood. We think, therefore, 
that it is a legitimate deduction, that the state of the blood is 
the cause of the mischief in such insect bites as are followed by 
serious symptoms. The conclusion then, which we come to in 
reference to the whole, subject of bites by insects, flies, reptiles, 
and the like, is — 

First Apply hartshorn, or some other alkali, as soon as pos- 
sible, and freely, with a linen rag. 

Second. Secure a healthy condition of the blood by lives of 
regularit}' of bodily habits, of temperance in the indulgence of 
all appetites, and of moderate industries in the laudable callings 
of human life. 

But it is proper, having with it something of the fearful, to 
contemplate the brittle thread on which is hung the life of any 
one who habitually uses any of the brandies and beers of the 
times. His very existence is at the mercy of the slightest acci- 
dent ; at the mercy of any of the millions of insects which 
throng the air, which dangle from the trees, or hang upon the 
rose-bush ; for him, death waits everywhere. 


It may occasionally require some scrutiny to discover what 
possible connection there can be between some of our articles 
and the more direct object of our journal; but if our readers 
will wait until the close of our articles, we will do what some- 
times railroad conductors, for the benefit of hotel -keepers, fail 
to do on purpose; that is, " make the connection." So with 
health and newspapers, we concatenate them as follows : 

If you make your child religious, you keep him out of the 
street without an effort ; for he has no desire to mingle with its 
associations, either in the day time or at night. One of the first 

Position in Sleeping. 45 

steps towards making a child religious, is to make home inviting 
by affection, and sympathy, and pleasurable employment. In 
such an atmosphere we believe any youth will grow up safe in 
practice and in principle. The young will be employed. It is 
the business and the duty of a parent to see to it, that the em- 
ployment is useful, agreeable, enticing. The reading of news- 
papers regularly may be made to combine these results. But 
these newspapers must be of a proper character, and of such 
there are very few. It requires no slight power of discrimina- 
tion to make a safe selection. Without specifying by name 
that large number not fit to be opened around the family fireside, 
by reason of their inane love stories, their indecent advertise- 
ments, their slang phrases, their profane blanks, and stars, and 
initials, their whole columns of bigamies, abductions, seduc- 
tions, rapes, and the like ; by reason, more especially, of their 
frequent side-flings against professing christians, clergymen, 
the church, and religion, to say nothing of the uncourteous 
language, violent personal abuse, and low epithets, which so 
often blur the columns of partisan newspapers, secular and re- 
ligious, we say, without any invidious specifications, we urge 
upon heads of families the duty and advantage of providing 
suitable newspaper reading, excluding every one, however un- 
exceptionable as a general rule, the moment it offends in any 
of the above-named directions. For the better the paper is 
uniformly, the more pernicious is the influence of an occasional 
dereliction as to the points named. 


It is better to go to sleep on the right side, for then the stom- 
ach is very much in the position of a bottle turned upside down, 
and the contents are aided in passing out by gravitation. If 
one goes to sleep on the left side, the operation of emptying 
the stomach of its contents is more like drawing water from a 
well. After going to sleep, let the body take its own position. 
If you sleep on your back, especially soon after a hearty 
meal, the weight of the digestive organs, and that of the food, 
resting on the great vein of the body, near the back bone, com- 
presses it, and arrests the flow of the blood more or less. If 
the arrest is partial, the sleep is disturbed, and there are un- 

46 HalVs Journal of Health. 

pleasant dreams. If the meal has been recent or hearty, the 
arrest is more decided, and the various sensations, such as fall- 
ing over a precipice, or the pursuit of a wild beast, or other im- 
pending danger, and the desperate effort to get rid of it arouses 
us ; that sends on the stagnating blood, and we wake in a fright, 
or trembling, or perspiration, or feeling of exhaustion, accor- 
ding to the degree of stagnation, and the length and strength 
of the effort made to escape the danger. But when we are not 
able to escape the danger, when we do fall over the precipice, 
when the tumbling building crushes us, what then ? That is 
Death 1 That is the death of those of whom it is said, when 
found lifeless in their bed in the morning, " They were as well 
as they ever were the day before ; " and often is it added, and 
ate heartier than common ! This last, as a frequent cause of death 
to those who have gone to hed well to wake no more, we give 
merely as a private opinion. The possibility of its truth is 
enough to deter any rational man from a late and hearty meal. 
This we do know with certainty, that waking up in the night 
with painful diarrhoea, or cholera, or bilious colic, ending in 
death in a" very short time, is properly traceable to a late large 
meal. The truly wise will take the safer side. For persons 
who eat three times a day, it is amply sufficient to make the 
last meal of cold bread and butter and a cup of some warm 
drink. No one can starve on it, while a perseverance in the 
habit soon begets a vigorous appetite for breakfast, so promising 
of a day of comfort. 


"I read and re-read the contents of your invaluable Journal 
many times each month, and, taking it up from my writing table 
this morning, for certainly the twentieth reading of the Decem- 
ber number, I learned its terms were one dollar in all cases, 
and not fifty cents to clergymen, as last year. If it were fifty 
cents, I considered it my duty to myself and the loved ones at 
home, who look to me for the necessaries of life, to send fifty 
cents, and so equally to send a dollar, or two, or three, if that 
be the price ; for I am satisfied in my inmost sou], that I owe 
my life, and whatever I shall enjoy of health in years to come, 
to the instructions contained in your Journal. My experience 

Life's Last Sight. 47 

is somewhat interesting in connection with your Journal, and 
my recovery from an advanced consumptive condition, after 
consulting and being under treatment with some of the most 
eminent physicians in New York and Boston. I grew con- 
tinually worse, till, meeting with your Journal, I took the med- 
icine therein prescribed — a horse and garden — and am now, I 
have every reason to believe, on the sure road, and nearly at 
the goal, of permanent health ; and that with the continuation of 
my pulpit labors, though my society urged me to accept of 
my salary and rest for some months, which I did, while grow- 
ing worse, by Inhalation, &c, &c. On adopting your medicine 
I commenced preaching again, and talking, on an average, four 
other days in the week on school committee business, in weekly 
meetings, and at funerals, and, in a short time, was stronger and 
heavier than for years before. 

V Yery sincerely, yours, 

The above is dated December 31st, and while it is encour- 
aging to us to be remotely instrumental in restoring a useful 
and efficient clergyman to his labors, it should inspire other 
clergymen with the ambition to get well in the continuance of 
their labors. 


Recent scientific observation is cumulative of the fact, that 
the last thing seen by those who are instantaneously killed, is 
painted with perfect minuteness and correctness on the back 
part of the eye. And, perhaps, if the retina is examined imme- 
diately after death, in case of murder, the image of the murderer 
may be distinctly seen. 

Dr. Thomas Jefferson Hall, a gentleman of singular personal 
piety and professional skill, at the moment of dying, raised 
his hands and called upon his mother and minister, both of 
whom were dead. It is no unusual thing for the departing to 
mention some loved name gone before, while angels seem to 
hover around the good, as if ready to bear them upward towards 
their heavenly home. Who knows but, if some skilful dissec- 
tor could be present and could make the examination at the 
next instant succeeding dissolution, that delicate canvas, pre- 

48 HalVs Journal of Health. 

pared and painted by divinity, might not foreshadow " things 
unutterable I " might not give the long and earnestly coveted 
glimpse — coveted by multitudes — of something beyond that 
" bourne whence no traveller returns ! ! " 


Such multitudes travel in rail cars in winter time, it will be 
a public benefit to make some statements in its bearing on 
health. To regulate the temperature of any car to suit the hun- 
dred different persons who occupy it, is simply impossible. 
Only general principles can be profitable and practical. 

It is better that the car should ba too warm than too cold, 
for the many who come into it in a more or less heated condi- 
tion, from various causes, too well known to be enumerated. 
A person terminating exercise in a very warm room cannot 
take cold. A person terminating exercise causing the slightest 
moisture on the surface, will always take cold within fifteen, 
often within five, minutes after sitting still in a cold apartment; 
and if continued, an attack of pleurisy, or inflammation, or con- 
gestion of the lungs, is an almost certain event, from either of 
which t-esults a life-long inconvenience, if not, indeed, a speedy 
death. Therefore, as to all persons entering a car at the begin- 
ning of a journey, it is safer beyond comparison, that it should 
be too warm than too cold. 

Persons sitting in a cold car for a time sufficient to allow 
them to get thoroughly chilled, will scarcely fail to suffer from 
an attack of some acute disease, in spite of a subsequent warm- 
ing up by exercise or otherwise, while it is well known that 
persons may remain for hours in an apartment heated to a hun- 
dred degrees and over, without any permanent discomfort, if 
they are careful to cool off slowly. 

But as the cars may be very hot in midwinter, and passen- 
gers are put down at every station, and often without any fire 
to go to, it is most of all important to know how to conduct 
oneself without injury under the circumstances. It is only 
necessary to have all the clothing adjusted — hat, gloves, every- 
thing — before the cars stop ; as soon as they stop, shut your 
mouth, open the door, and run as fast as you can to your desti- 
nation, or the first available house, keeping the mouth reso- 

Miscellanies. 49 

lutely shut, if possible, until you get within doors, and then 
remain with all your clothing on for ten or fifteen minutes. 

The running keeps the blood warm, and to the surface. 

The closing of the mouth sends the cold air by the circuit of 
the nose, and heats it before it reaches the lungs. 

The retention of the clothing allows the circulation to become 
natural slowly, and while so, no one can take cold. 

With these precautions, the more a person travels by railroad 
the more hearty will he become, and, eventually, will not take 
cold in a year's travel. 

In winter railroading the feet require most attention. The 
floor of the car is the coldest part of it, under any circum- 
stances, while a single plank separates them from a zero tem- 
perature, it may be. Persons will greatly consult their com- 
fort by keeping their feet on the foot-boards, and in addition, 
have the feet and legs well wrapped in a substantial blanket 
or other covering. It is vastly better to shawl the feet than 
the shoulders in a rail car. 


We feel complimented, from time to time, in finding our sen- 
timents, especially in reference to " Consumption," corroborated 
by leading minds in this and other countries — or, we corrobo- 
rate theirs. In our book on this subject just published, page 
thirty-six, we make this statement : 

" We know of no calling in human life which may not be 
pursued with impunity, which may not be pursued in such a 
way as to promote health, if done judiciously, wisely, mod- 

That excellent and substantial weekly — LittelVs Living Age, 
No. 661 — in an article from Chambers Edinburg Journal, on the 
influene of occupation on health, says : "It is a mistake 
to think that the ill-health found in so many trades is a compo- 
nent part of them, or that those engaged in one occupation 
must necessarily be shorter lived, or suffer more, physically, 
than those of another. If we inquire closely into the matter, 
we shall find that every single instance of ill-health, arising from 
the different trades, may be fully accounted for by some breach 
of the simple laws of nature, and that the evils are capable of a 

50 HalVs Journal of Health. 

remedy, so cheap and attainable, that it would be impossible 
for them to add appreciably to the expense of the article pro- 
duced; so that, by preventing the sickness of the artisan, it 
would be the greatest saving to the proprietors, and to society 
at large." 

There is also an article in No. 25 of the Knoxville Journal 
of Medical and Physical Sciences, among other good ones, by 
Dr. Frazier, recommending, as we have done in "Consump- 
tion," the mountains of East Tennessee as an admirable locality 
for consumptives, provided, when they get there, they will live 
in the open air. His illustrations are of great interest, and are 
highly encouraging to the invalid. 

Princeton Keview for January, 1857. By Eev. Charles 
Hodge, D.D. This is by far the ablest Presbyterian periodical 
in any language, and is regarded by that Church as its orthodox 
exponent on all theological subjects. We say the same as to 
the " Christian Review " among the Baptists. 

A Thought for Parents. — A New York daily inquires 
and replies : " Who are your aristocrats ? Twenty years 
ago, this one made candles, that one sold cheese and but- 
ter, another butchered, a fourth thrived on a distillery, another 
was contractor on canals, others were merchants and me- 
chanics. They are acquainted with both ends of society, as 
their children will be after them — though it will not do to say 
so out loud ! For often you shall find that these toiling worms 
hatch butterflies — and they live about a year. Death brings a 
division of property, and it brings new financiers; the old gent 
is discharged, the young gent takes his revenues, and begins to 
travel — towards poverty, which he reaches before death, or his 
children do, if he does not. So that, in fact, though there is a 
sort of moneyed race, it is not hereditary ; it is accessible to all : 
three good seasons of cotton will send a generation of men up 
— a score of years will bring them all down, and send their 
children to labor. The father grubs and grows rich, <;he 
children strut and spend the money. The children in turn 
inherit the price, and go to shiftless poverty ; next their children, 
re-invigorated, by fresh plebeian blood, and by the smell of clod, 
come up again." 

The Early Dead, 61 


In describing " Old Princeton," after an absence of eighteen 
years, the Rev. Dr. Hill, the able editor of the Presbyterian 
Herald, of Kentucky, says : " Of the nearly one hundred and 
fifty students who then trod the halls of the seminary, a greater 
number have rested from their labors." 

There was a time when, of all the clergymen dying in a 
single year whose ages were recorded, more than one-half had 
passed the age of three-score and ten. But of the coevals of 
Dr. Hill's seminary life, more than one-half scarcely passed 
their fortieth year. Here is a cutting short of clerical life of a 
quarter of a century ! Ought not a fact of this kind elicit in- 
quiry among the friends of religion everywhere ? And is there 
not an inconsistency on the part of the Church, in so earnestly 
soliciting the contributions of the public for money to aid 
young men to enter the ministry, and yet not devote a single 
dollar in an age towards the means of keeping them in the field 
until a good old age, by instructing them as to the best means 
of sustaining their health in full vigor? A good general is 
careful of the health of his soldiers. Common policy requires 
it, not only because the veteran of a dozen battles is worth more 
than a dozen young recruits, but because of the cost in putting 
a soldier in the field of his operations. It costs at least two 
thousand dollars to take a youth of eighteen and put him into 
the full ministry ; and yet, as to the preservation of his health, 
and as to taking measures to keep him in these until he grows 
old in the service, no system has ever yet been proposed — not a 
dollar has hitherto been specifically expended. 

Rat Exterminator. — It is said that if common cork is sliced 
as thin as a wafer, and fried in the gravy of meat, but not 
burnt, and placed where they may be eaten, the rats will soon 
disappear. We suppose the cork swells and thus destroys. 

Snake-Bites. — Since writing our article on insect bites, on 
page 43, we have noticed that a child was bitten on the arm 
by a rattle-snake. It was bound up in wet ashes ; no ill results 
were observed to follow. Whiskey was swallowed freely. But 
as spirits have been known to fail signally in such cases, we 
may attribute the cure to the alkali of the ashes and water. 





VOL. IV.] MABCH, 1857. [NO. III. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


The "Member of the Massachusetts Medical Society," who 
recommended Belladonna as a sure preventive of Scarlet Fever, 
had better go into a state of retiracy, and never show his dimin- 
ished head more. No doubt he meant well. But, like a great 
many good-meaning people before him, he was weak in the 
upper story. His whole character can be written in a decimal 
of letters — Good and Green. As green as the grass on Boston 
Common on the first day of June. He must have been con- 
scious of his being a nobody, of wanting force, lacking in mo- 
mentum, as he launches out under the flag of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. If he wanted that venerable name to help him 
project his idea into general belief, he should have obtained 
their official sanction to his theory. No, no, gentlemen ! if you 
have anything worth telling, put your own names to it, so that 
if it is counterfeit, the public may know where to return it. 
There would be some satisfaction in that, even though there was 
nothing to redeem the base coin — no other idea, of assets, any 
better than the one presented for redemption. 

Any educated physician, of even moderate observation and 
study, knows there is no medicine on the face of the earth 
which will prevent the spread of any epidemic. More, any 
medicine given steadily during an epidemic, has a natural ten- 
dency to act as a cause of the disease, and any person taking it 
will be more liable to the disease than if they did not take it at 
all. Wonder if we can make the Ignoramus family understand 
our meaning, without giving them the headache ? It would be 

64 HalVs Journal of Health. 

inconsistent to do that, for we aim to prevent disease. We will 
begin by telling them what all doctors know. Or suppose we 
go to dollars and cents — that is a universal language. A note, 
to be at par — which we presume is from a Greek word, para, 
which meaning " equal" — is good as gold, dollar for dollar. If 
it is above par, it is worth more than dollar for dollar. If be- 
low par, one dollar is less than a gold dollar. Good health is 
par. There is nothing better than that. Some people who are 
well, by shower baths, and tonics, and bitters, seek to get a little 
better, but they soon die off, usually. In a state of health there 
is a certain degree of excitement in the system. That is, the pulse 
beats a certain number of times every minute, averaging about 
sixty-eight. If, during the cholera or any other ordinary epi- 
demic, the pulse does not go below that, and the general system 
is in good working order, the disease does not attack the per- 
son, nor will it as long as he remains in that condition. Nor 
will he be likely to suffer from the epidemic if he keeps the 
system steadily above the natural excitement. But the very 
moment the pulse is below par in rapidity and vigor, that mo- 
ment is the individual more liable to disease in proportion to the 
deficiency. A person in good bodily condition, then, is at par, 
and is not likely to be attacked by any ordinary epidemic dis- 
ease ; and if in that condition he take a glass of brandy, he is 
less liable still, until the exciting effects of the liquor have sub- 
sided, when he falls below the natural standard, just as far as he 
was a while ago above it, and is in proportion more liable to the 
disease than if he had taken no brandy at all. Therefore, 
having commenced taking brandy, he must keep it up day and 
night, never letting the system go below par, or he is a lost man. 
Hence it was that men who were always full of liquor escaped 
cholera in numerous instances, and the report went forth that 
brandy prevented cholera; thus multitudes were introduced into 
the wretched habit, and perished in a drunkard's grave. 

Let it be taken for granted that a pure, reliable extract of 
Belladonna could be had anywhere throughout the country. ' 
Let it be admitted, also, that it is an infallible preventive in all 
cases ; let us look at the difficulties of its administration. Ac- 
cording to the best Homoeopathic authority, we must commence 
giving it for " some time'' before the disease attacks the system, 
or before we are in the infected district. Every one knows that 

Scarlet Fever. 55 

it attacks a family without a single note of warning, as suddenly 
and as much without intimation as an aerolite falls from the 
skies. It is more or less prevalent in large cities during the 
whole year, especially during the winter months ; hence, to 
come within the requisition, Homoeopathic families must admin- 
ister Belladonna to their children every day for six months of 
the year. We do not hesitate to say that this is an intolerable 
alternative, and to be repeated winter after winter, as long as a 
young family are growing up ! But let it be admitted that the 
infinitessimal pills have all the potency claimed for them, when 
it is declared that under the administration of that medicine, a 
"rash" appears, something like the scarlet rash, then the ad- 
ministrator is enjoined to cease giving it ; but if he does, the 
system will fall below par, and disease invades it at once. 

But when a person takes the scarlet fever, and it does not 
appear in the form of a rash, it fixes itself on the throat, and 
we call it putrid sore throat — and the child dies. In case the 
Belladonna, in some instances, does not cause the rash, how 
know we that it will not cause a spurious sore throat, while the 
person, looking for the rash all the time, persists in administer- 
ing the remedy, w r hen its best friends say it should not be 
longer given. 

But we know some systems are many-fold more subject to 
the influence of a particular medicine than others, to say no- 
thing of constitutions which are not impressive at all by a given 
drug, and of others to which that same drug acts as a down- 
right poison, of which ipecac, one of the mildest of remedies, is 
a case in point. To these four, the Belladonna is given in 
equal doses, wholly inefficient in one case, irritating to the over- 
sensitive, poisonous to a third, while only on a fourth does it 
exert its legitimate power — to be manifested safely on the skin, 
or fatally on the throat, no one can tell. 

But the real, pure, fresh extract of Belladonna, is " a power- 
ful narcotic poison of tremendous energy." The whole nervous 
system is prostrated and paralyzed by it. The eyes become 
blind, the face red, the cheeks swollen, the jaws twitch and 
snap about, the feeble pulse, cold extremities, with deep deli- 
rium or terrible convulsions, preceding the fatal termination. 
The body at once begins to swell and putrify, livid spots break 
out upon its surface, while foul blood flows from nose, mouth, 

56 HdWs Journal of Health. 

and ears. Such are the effects on the human body when given 
in over doses, or too long, of a medicine which has been so 
thoughtlessly put into the hands of the families of the land. 
And when it is recommended, even by Allopaths, to begin with 
half a grain, it can be readily seen how easily a destructive dose 
might be administered. 

So readily does it part with some of its virtues, that it is 
recommended to be mixed fresh every morning ; so that every 
day, every family who patronizes it, has a new opportunity of 
committing a fatal mistake as to quantity in weighing it out 
But physicians know that medicinal extracts soon lose their 
virtue by exposure, and that as to Belladonna, it is a very rare 
chance to obtain it out of large cities, because, as soon as it has 
stood a little while in the city store, it is pushed off to the 
country, where its qualities cannot be known ; for, after it has 
lost its virtue, it looks as well as it ever did. Its warmest 
friends admit that they have given it a whole season without 
any effect whatever in consequence of its not being a fresh 

So that, granting it is all that is claimed for it, we see that It 
is an utter trifling with human life, in consequence of its being, 
in a measure, unattainable, in its purity, except in and near 
large cities. 

Beally, the whole thing seems very much like a speculation, 
especially as in a long article on the subject in one of our city 
papers, the name of the village in New England is given, with 
the assurance that it can certainly be had there in its purity and 
genuineness, being prepared by a NEW (! !) process. Oh ! yes, cer- 
tainly. But the process being new, it may extract all the anti- 
scarletine properties out of it — who knows ? A pretty good ope- 
ration, to get all the families in our country to purchase a quar- 
ter of a pound of Belladonna a year, costing twenty cents a 
pound to make it, and selling at two dollars a pound ! 

But after all, does the daily administration of Belladonna 
prevent scarlet fever ? All that its warmest advocates can say, 
is, we gave it in a hundred cases, and not one of the persons 
who took it, took the fever. But there are millions every year 
who live in the very midst of it, in cities, who neither take the 
fever nor the medicine. The whole evidence is negative, and 
consequently is no proof. But even if it did prevent scarlet 

Grow Beautiful. 57 

fever, would it not, after all, be better to let our children take 
their chances, and be done with it, than to be laboring under 
so serious a suspense, year after year, and bringing their con- 
stitutions under the influence of so potent a remedy every win- 
ter ? We think they had, because a person is rarely attacked 
by it a second time — as rarely almost as in measles or small-pox. 
People talk a great deal about the old school doctors giving 
so much medicine. In scarlet fever, they give less than the 
Homoeopaths. In the vast majority of cases of scarlet fever, as 
it ordinarily presents itself, they give just nothing at all. A 
cool, well-aired room, clean clothes and bedding, cooling drinks, 
light food — that's all ; and with such a treatment, under the 
daily visitation of the physician, do nineteen cases out of twen- 
ty of scarlet fever, get perfectly well without any untoward 
results whatever. Therefore, if the scarlet fever is apprehend- 
ed, secure the daily attendance of your physician, and let all 
the responsibility rest on him. If you would not tamper with 
the mending of a five-dollar silver watch, or a dollar Yankee 
clock, for fear of making matters worse, but send it to the 
smith at once, so do not tamper with the life of your child by 
attempting to correct that wonderful machine, which is the 
highest exhibition of Infinite Power, and as to whose construc- 
tion you are as utterly ignorant as you are of the nature of the 
means proposed to be used for its reparation. 


Persons may outgrow disease, and become healthy, by pro- 
per attention to the laws of their physical constitutions. By 
moderate and daily exercise, men may become active and strong 
in limb and muscle. But to grow beautiful, how ? Age dims 
the lustre of the eye, and pales the roses on beauty's cheek ; 
while crow-feet, and furrows, and wrinkles, and lost teeth, and 
gray hairs, and bald head, and tottering limbs, and limping feet, 
most sadly mar the human form divine. But dim as the eye is, 
as pallid and sunken as may be the face of beauty, and frail 
and feeble that once strong, erect, and manly body, the immor- 
tal soul, just fledging its wings for its home in heaven, may 
look out through these faded windows as beautiful as the dew- 

58 HalVs Journal of Health. 

drops of a summer's morning, as melting as the tear that glis- 
tens in affection's eye — by growing kindly, by cultivating sym- 
pathy with all human kind ; by cherishing forbearance towards 
the foibles and follies of our race, and feeding day by day on 
that hue to God and man which lifts us from the brute, and 
makes us akin to angels. 


The first and immediate aim of the good and great phy- 
sician, is to restore his patient to health in the shortest time, 
with the smallest amount of medicine, and with the least dis- 
comfort practicable ; when this is accomplished, he has a more 
elevated ambition ; an object nobler and still more humane 
presses upon his attention — the prevention of all disease. This 
good time may not come, in the broadest acceptation of the 
terms ; but for generations past, medical men have so steadily 
labored in that direction, and do still labor, that the average 
duration of human life has been constantly raised. 

" In the latter part of the sixteenth century," according to Pro- 
fessor Joseph R. Buchanan, of Cincinnati, "one half of all who 
were born, died under five years of age, and the average lon- 
gevity of the whole population was but eighteen years. 

11 In the seventeenth century, one half of the population lived 
over twenty-seven years. In the latter forty years, one half 
exceeded thirty-two years of age. 

" At the beginning of the present century, one half exceeded 
forty years of age ; and from 1838 to 1845 one half exceeded 
forty-three years — that is to say, in the sixteenth century one 
half of all who were born lived only five years, while in the 
present century, which is the nineteenth, one half of all who are 
born live to the age of forty-three years." To accomplish such 
magnificent results, educated and honorable physicians have 
devoted their energies with increasing success for the last three 
hundred years ; and to them the world owes a debt of gratitude 
which cannot be easily computed. And thus they labor still, 
hoping for yet higher results from the diffusion of general know- 
ledge as to the best methods of preserving health, by teachings 
as to the laws of our being in relation to air, exercise, food, sleep, 

Aims of the Journal. 59 

personal habits, clothing, the locality and construction of houses, 
and the management of infants. And aided by the ever-widen- 
iner influences of the principles of the christian system, which, 
by inculcating, as one of its cardinal elements, " temperance in 
all things," strikes at the very root of disease, we may reason- 
ably hope that, when the true knowledge covers the earth as the 
waters cover the face of the great deep, the ordinary average of 
human life will be the full three-score years and ten, or even 
four-score years, which will then not be years of labor and 

The world would hail it as a glad event, if physicians could 
be so educated as to cure all disease; but it would more largely 
add to its happiness if all could be so well instructed, as to the 
first symptoms of every ailment, as to be able at once to arrest 
its progress, and thus no physician be needed to cure ; and yet 
any one must know, that if men could be so taught to live that 
disease would not be possible, half the sufferings of humanity 
would be annihilated. And for this I labor. 

|p ffi "* To teach men how to avoid disease was the idea which first 
prompted the determination to publish this periodical, and the 
only pledge or promise I can give is, that whatever is herein 
published, will be designed more or less directly, in my ooinion, 
to tend in that direction. 

My first purpose was to issue a publication for the particular 
benefit of clergymen and theological students ; and in order to 
secure their special attention, I designed calling it a "Journal of 
Clerical Health," which, while it would be understood as appli- 
cable to them, would as well meet the wants of all students, of 
professional men, and of women in general, their occupations 
being alike sedentary ; but its present designation was finallv 
thought to be the more desirable one, while it need not interfere 
with the object first contemplated. 

I consider it proper for me to say here, that perhaps a larger 
proportion of my patients are clergymen or theological students, 
than of any other allopathic practitioner in our country, arising 
very naturally from the fact that, for more than ten years past, 
I have devoted my attention to those maladies which most gen- 
erally prevail among the classes named, to wit, those chronic 
diseases which implicate the throat and lungs. 

Erom the disclosures made to me professionally, in the course 

60 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of my practice, my mind has been painfully impressed, almost 
daily, with the conviction that the most -useful and efficient men 
in the community are often lost to society, the church, and the 
world, from a remarkable ignorance of some of the simplest laws 
of their being. This is not to be wondered at ; for, from the 
nursery, through the primary schools, the academy, the college, 
the seminary, to the study, not one single lesson is given how 
to save from a premature death the man who has prepared him- 
self to act in the great drama of the world, by the expend- 
iture of thousands of money, and a score of years of incessant 
and painful labor, and study, and research. 

According to the present generally received views of pre- 
paratory professional requirements, the student who has his di- 
ploma, the pulpit, or the bar in view, has no time for other than 
studies which qualify him directly for graduation in the univer- 
sity or the seminary; in fact, so many studies are compressed 
in such a comparatively short period, that there is not even time 
for a young gentleman of medium abilities to fully master the 
most essential elements, or if he does, it is from such close and 
incessant application that often, with commencement-day, he 
dies ! or if he survives its reaction, his licensure is too frequently 
clouded and then closed forever, by the stealthy poison of a 
disease instilled during the diplomatic race. Many a reader of 
mine will be stricken with the painful remembrance of cases 
like these in his own sphere of observation, of energies and 
abilities early blighted, which, had the possessor of them enjoyed 
the health to work, might have stirred a nation to high resolves. 


This Journal is for the people, and is not intended even to 
admit a single medicinal recipe, although it may be as "simple" 

as syrup of loaf sugar, and as u harmless 11 as a "vegetable" 

pill ; prussic acid being also " vegetable" 

It is not contemplated to issue a series of prose essays on 
"Physiology" or "Hygiene" nor to enter into technical and learned 
disquisitions on the chemical analysis of food, the philosophy 
of cell life and development, nor indeed any systematic exposi- 
tions; but simply in short articles, in plain English, to treat on 
such subjects as may present themselves from time to time, cal- 
culated to bear upon the great points, 

Aims of the Journal. 61 

How to determine disease in its very first approach. 

How to arrest it at once by natural agencies. 

How to live so as to prevent sickness. 

I desire, not promise, that each article shall be complete in 

As mine is a consultation practice, and strictly confined to 
chronic ailments of the throat and lungs, the reader need not be 
surprised if I give more attention to Bronchitis, Throat Ail, 
Consumption, and Dyspepsia — because this last is sooner or later 
inseparably connected with the others — than all others together; 
in fact they are the main scourges of literary men ; but when 
it is considered that almost all disease comes through the sto- 
mach or the lungs, the range will be sufficiently wide for the 
wildest liberalise 

The design of this Journal is strictly practical ; practical in 
the every-day sense of the word : its teachings will accompany 
the reader in nearly all the occupations of life ; every hour of 
the day will afford him opportunities of carrying out its prin- 
ciples, not as a weary, fretting task, but in the way of an intel- 
ligent and pleasurable observation. The accomplished geologist, 
while travelling over barren wastes and rocky hills to explore 
some distant golden district, can make every pebble and every 
lump of earth minister to his instruction and amusement, with- 
out its at all interfering with the main object of his journey : 
just so may a man's mind be so well stored with intelligent 
information on the subject of health, and the general laws of 
life, that observations may be made on these every hour of his 
waking existence almost, with pleasure and with profit, without 
at all interfering with the main business of life, and also without 
having any undesirable influence on mind or body; for he may 
do this without being forever engaged in looking out for symp- 
toms, aggravating those present or imagining those which are 
not. In short, the Journal will embrace whatever the Editor 
thinks will tend to the convenience, comfort, health, and perfec- 
tion of the physical man, as far as that can be done without the 
recommendation of any internal medicine, that being the appro- 
priate business of the family physician, and no other than a 
physician can safely do it. And the man who takes medicine 
of any kind on his own responsibility, is as sensible as he is 
said to be who pleads his own cause at the bar, or the wholesale 

62 Halls Journal of Health. 

merchant or banker, who, to economize, spends an hour in mend- 
ing an old shoe, or in sewing on a missing button. A man will 
seldom attempt to mend his watch that is out of repair, for fear 
he may do it a greater injury, and yet multitudes of otherwise 
sensible people are tinkering and tampering with their consti- 
tutions by the use or application of remedies of whose qualities 
they are wholly ignorant, and of whose effects they have never 
had any experience ; and were it not for the rudeness of the ex- 
pression, I would almost say that the man who uses a patent 
medicine is a fool, and the one who sells it to him is a knave or 
an ignoramus. 

The subjects presented from time to time will be such as — 

How to eat. 

How to sleep. 

How to exercise. 

How to dress. 

How to walk. 

How to read in public. 

How to declaim with, ease and fluency. 

How to select food so as to make it both nutritive and medi- 

How persons become dyspeptic. 

How and why the health of the young so often begins to fail 
while pursuing an education. 

How they may so conduct their studies as to preserve the 
health, and yet accomplish in the course of the year a larger 
amount of mental and literary labor. 

If an essay is admitted, it will be, among others, from eminent 
practical dentists, as to the best means of preserving the teeth 
perfect to the close of life, as perfect teeth are essential to a 
distinct enunciation, which is of indispensable importance to 
public men, whether professional or literary. 

I will endeavor to make this publication such a one as will 
be proper for the youth, of both sexes to read with increasing 
interest and attention, so as to induce them early, while the con- 
stitution is yet vigorous and unimpaired, so to study the nature 
and effects, on the human frame, of food, clothing, air, exercise, 
cheerfulness, system, industry, profitable and interesting employ- 
ment, as will be an effectual guard against those negligences and 
indiscretions which so often lay the foundation for an early 

Tea and Coffee. 63 

grave and the utter blasting of parental hope ; for none but an 
affectionate parent can ever know the abiding anguish which 
rends the heart, to the last day of life, the remembrance of a son 
or a daughter early dead, and I know that such anguish could be 
prevented in multitudes of hearts, if the principles were early 
inculcated, which this Journal will advocate from time to time ; 
and my hope is, that the father or mother of a family will not 
only take a copy for their own use and constant reference, but 
will also order a copy for one or more of their children, which, 
from the fact of its being their own, will secure their personal 
interest in it, which cannot be done so well, when taken for the 
whole family. 


I believe that unwarranted and monstrous errors are propa- 
gated by different writers, on the subject of food and drink. 
Each man has a whim or hobby, so that it has at length come to 
the point that if a man will live healthfully to a great age, say a 
hundred and fifty or two hundred years, he must eat nothing but 
grapes and drink nothing but rain-water. The gentleman who 
advocates the grape diet contends that wheat bread ought not to 
be eaten — that it has too much earth in it, and tends to stiffen a 
man's joints and muscles half a century sooner than if he sub- 
sisted on grapes. 


There are certain districts in the United States where new 
notions of every description flourish with amazing vigor, as far 
as the number of converts are concerned ; among these mere 
notions are the injurious effects of tea and coffee as a daily drink. 

I think that it is demonstrable that a single cup of weak tea 
or coffee at a meal, especially in cold weather, and most espe- 
cially in persons of a weakly habit or constitution, is far more 
healthful than a glass of cold water. 

Tea and coffee doubtless do injure some people — that is, some 
persons may not be able to drink them without its being followed 
by some discomfort ; so will even water, if used too freely ; and 
I think it will be found that, in nearly every such case of uncom- 
fortableness after a cup of tea or coffee, this condition of things 

64 HalVs Journal of Health, 

has been brought about by the too free use of these articles, or that 
the tone of the stomach has been impaired by improper eating. 

Man is styled an omnivorous animal — an animal eating every- 
thing. No created animal can eat and drink, without discom- 
fort, half the articles consumed by man. I know very well that 
men die before their days are half numbered, in consequence of 
errors in eating and drinking ; but these disastrous results do not 
arise from the quality of man's aliment, but from its quantity — 
it is the quantity which prematurely kills millions. A sensible 
man may eat almost anything with impunity, a simpleton nothing ; 
the former eats like a philosopher, the latter like a pig. The for- 
mer eats as much as he wants, the latter eats more than he wants. 

In small quantities, and occasionally, many things may be 
eaten with advantage, which, if eaten continuously for weeks and 
months, or in inordinate amounts, would occasion serious results. 
There are also times and seasons for different articles of food ; 
for example: fruits and berries, when ripe, fresh, perfect, may 
be freely eaten in the earlier parts of the day, but if largely 
eaten after sundown, especially at some seasons of the year, act- 
ually endanger life, and have destroyed thousands. 


Many persons imagine that the milk of cows is one of the most 
healthful of all articles, and yet it is a great mistake, except 
under certain limitations. By stout, strong, hardy, industrious 
out-door working men it may be used advantageously for break- 
fast and dinner, but, except in tea and coffee, and now and then 
half a glass for breakfast or dinner, it is not a proper article of 
food for invalids. In many instances patients have said to me : 
" I used to be a dear lover of milk, but I thought it made me 
bilious, and I have ceased using it altogether." This is the 
common-sense observation of ordinary men — one that, without 
any theory, and against a lifetime of prejudice, has forced itself 
upon the attention. 

The rule that a man may eat almost anything with impunity, 
applies to one in good health, eating in moderation, according 
to the quality of the food ; but when an invalid is to be fed, very 
different principles are to govern. 

In all that I may say, I ask credence for nothing, except in 
proportion as it is followed up by the argument of whole facts. 

Munificence of Dr. Nbtt. 65 


The following statement from the Albany Evening Journal, in 
reference to a great and good man, is here given at length, as 
bearing directly on one of the main objects of this Journal, the 


in the right direction, for which the editor has spoken and written 
for nearly twenty years, to wit, the establishment of a professor- 
ship in colleges, for the express purpose of imparting instruction 
in reference to the preservation of the constitutions of the young. 
It carries with it more than ordinary weight, since the impor- 
tance of it has forced itself on the mind of the president of a 
college, from the observations of half a century. It is within 
a day or two that I read a notice of the death of a young gen- 
tleman, and with a change of name only it would be an appro- 
priate obituary of thousands of others. " He was the son of 
the pastor of the old church, who had educated his children, and 
they were noble men. He was a great favorite, and deservedly 
so. He was not well when he returned from college after gradu- 
ating, and after a few weeks of struggling, he gave up entirely, 
and lay down in his father's house to die. It was a terrible blow 
to the father and the family." And well it was. How terrible, 
none but a father can ever know. And it is to prevent the re- 
occurrence of such incidents, by hundreds every year, that this 
publication is undertaken, and that Dr. Nott has founded a 
perpetual professorship in the last item but one of his princely 
donation : 

" The following are the endowments. The several sums are 
to form a perpetual fund, the income only being used for the 
various purposes : 
For the establishment of nine Professorships 81,500 

each per annum, $225,600 

Six Assistant Professorships or Tutorships, at $600 per 

annum, 60,000 

Observatory, . 20,000 

Sixty-eight Auxiliary Scholarships, .... 50,000 
Fifty Prize Scholarships for under graduates, . . 50,000 
Nine Prize Fellowships for graduates, $300 each, per 

annum, 45,000 

Cemetery and Pleasure Grounds, .... 20,000 
Philosophical, Mathematical, and Chemical Apparatus, 10,000 

Text Books, . '.. . ^ 5,000 

Scientific, Classical, Philosophical, Theological, Medical, 

and Law Books, 30,000 

66 HalVs Journal -*f Health. 

Cabinet of Geological Specimens, . ...*•. . . 5,000 

Historical Medals, Coins, Maps, Paintings, and other 

Historical Memorials, 5,000 

Lectures on the Dangers and Duties of Youth, especial- 
ly Students ; the Development and Preservation of 
the Physical, Intellectual and Moral Constitution of 
Man ; Preservation of Health, and on the Laws of 
Life, 10,000 

To meet taxes, liens, assessments, incumbrances, insur- 
ance, and compensation to Yisitors, and to make up 
any deficiencies in the income of any of preceding 
principal sums, so as to secure the attainment of the 
objects and purposes designed, . . . . 75,000 

Total, $610,000 

" There are to be five Yisitors appointed, charged with the 
duty of acting in connection with the Trustees, and seeing that 
these trusts are faithfully carried out. " 


Hufeland calls the stomach Atria mortis, the entrance-hall of 
death, and says without a good stomach it is impossible to at- 
tain a great age. All have naturally good stomachs, that is, 
good digestion, but it is ruined early by improper feeding as to 
time, quality, quantity, and mode of preparation. Therefore a 
large portion of the Journal will be occupied with statements in 
reference to these items. Substantial, nourishing food, properly 
prepared and well digested, these three are the great essentials 
of a long and healthy life. I will here give two examples, full 
of instruction, highly encouraging, and well worthy of imitation 
by all who would like to live in the full enjoyment of health, 
and all the faculties of mind and body, for a hundred or a hun- 
dred and fifty years or more. The first shows how an injured 
stomach and constitution may be repaired; the second how they 
may remain in perfect health for a hundred and fifty years, and 
all by the proper management of eating and drinking. 

Lewis Cornaro, an Italian nobleman of wealth, by intemper- 
ance and debauchery made a wreck and ruin of his fortune and 
constitution at the early age of forty years. His physicians, con- 
sidering his habits inveterate, informed him that restoration was 
impossible, and with characteristic recklessness he resolved that 

How to Live an Hundred Years. 67 

if he had to die, he would abandon himself to the fullest indul- 
gences, and thus get all the good possible out of the short rem- 
nant of life- before -him. But some circumstance shortly occurred 
which induced him to reverse his decision, and experiment on 
the possibility of disappointing his doctors and his heirs, and 
living to a good old age. This he attempted at once by means 
of his food and drink alone. He began by eating and drinking 
very little, and found that his health improved. Sometimes he 
would eat more, then less, until he discovered what amount of 
food was most suita'ble for him, which was twelve ounces of solid 
food, and thirteen ounces of fluid, every twenty -four hours. At 
length his health became so good, that his friends suggested to 
him, that now he was so hearty and well, there was no longer 
any necessity for such a strict allowance, and that if he ate and 
drank a little more it would be of advantage to him. He replied 
that he was now well, and had continued well for some years 
on this allowance, that he could not be better, and that he had 
no disposition to run any unnecessary risks, nor to make haz- 
ardous experiments, and that as he had regained his title and 
estates, and his health too, he now wished greatly to preserve 
the last, that he might long enjoy the others. However, he was 
at length induced to gratify his friends, and increased his food 
to fourteen, and his drink to sixteen ounces a day ; and said he : 

" Scarcely had I continued this mode of living ten days, when 
I began, instead of being cheerful and lively as before, to be- 
come uneasy and dejected, a burden to myself and to others. 
On the twelfth day I was seized with a fever of such violence, 
that for thirty-five days my life was despaired of. But by the 
blessing of God, and my former regimen, I recovered ; and now, 
in my eighty-third year, I enjoy a happy state of both body and 
mind. I can mount my horse unaided. I climb steep hills. 
When I return home from a private company, or the senate, I 
find eleven grand-children, whose education, amusements, and 
songs, are the delight of my old age. I myself often sing with 
them, for my voice is clearer and stronger than it was in my 
youth ; and I am a stranger to those peevish and morose humors 
which so often fall to the lot of old age." 

In the latter years of his life he published an " Earnest 
Exhortation" which he closes by saying, " Since length of days 
abounds with so many blessings and favors, and I happen to be 
one of those who have arrived at that state, I cannot but give 

'68 EalVs Journal of Health. 

my testimony in favor of it ; and I assure you all that I really 
enjoy more than I express, and that I have no other reason for 
writing, but that of demonstrating the great advantages which 
arise from longevity, to the end that their own conviction may 
induce them to observe those excellent rules of temperance and 
sobriety. And therefore I never cease to raise my voice, cry- 
ing out to you, May your days be long, that you may be the better 
servants to the Almighty!" 

When about to die, he raised his eyes and exclaimed, with 
great animation, " Full with joy and hope, I resign myself to 
thee, most merciful God I" He then disposed himself with dig- 
nity, and closing his eyes, as if about to slumber, gave a gentle 
sigh, and expired, in his ninety-ninth year, A. D. 1565. 

If a systematic life of temperance has given sixty years addi- 
tional to a broken-down constitution of forty, it becomes almost 
a crime for an invalid under fifty years of age not to avail him- 
self of the trial. 

This was a case where the energies of the stomach have been 
restored by temperance in eating and drinking, and remaining 
in their integrity for more than half a century thereafter; and 
what has been, may be again. 

The next example shows that the stomach is made, in modern 
times too, to last a hundred and fifty years. 

Thomas Parr, of Shropshire, England, when a hundred and 
twenty years old, married a widow for his second wife, who lived 
with him twelve years, and who stated that, during that time, he 
never betrayed any signs of age or infirmity. The King of 
England having heard of him, invited him to London in his 
hundred and fifty-second year. He was treated in so royal a 
manner at court, and his mode of living was so totally changed, 
that he died soon after, in 1635, aged one hundred and fifty-two 
years and nine months, proven by public documents. His body 
was examined by Dr. Harvey, who " found his internal organs 
in the most perfect state, nor was the least symptom of decay 
found in them. His cartilages, even, were not ossified, as is the 
case in all old people. The smallest cause of death had not 
settled in his body ; and he died merely of plethora, because 
he had been too well fed." 

This man was a farm-servant, and had to maintain himself by 
daily labor, consequently he must have lived on plain food, and 

Too Wliiie Flour.— Travelling for Health. 69 

not over-abundant ; and the simple fact that at his death his 
stomach was in a healthy condition, proves conclusively its 
capabilities of duration, working healthfully to the last. And 
there can be no reason, in the nature of things, why the human 
stomach may not be preserved in its integrity, as a general rule, 
to a like old age. 

I trust no reader will attempt to live on common allowance, 
on his own responsibility — he should consult with his family 
physician ; for age, sex, condition in life, occupation, materially 
modify the amount of food requisite for the wants of the system. 


Messrs. Mouriez & Chevrene, chemists, who have superin- 
tended the provision of bread for the hospitals, and subjected all 
kinds to experiments, submitted a report to the French Academy, 
in which they condemn the practice of making bread too white. 
It is then, they remark, a condiment, not an aliment. The ex- 
clusion of bran is a loss of nourishment to the consumer ; the 
palate and fancy are gratified at the expense of the whole animal 


" Death of Rev. Lewis Weld. — We regret to learn, through 
the Hartford Courant, of the death of Rev. Lewis Weld, Prin- 
cipal of the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb at Hart- 
fort, Conn. Mr. Weld was an earnest and efficient worker in 
the cause of Deaf-Mute education, and the members of the vene- 
rable Institution lately under his care sustain a heavy loss in his 
decease. He had but just returned from a European trip, un- 
dertaken for the benefit of his health, which had recently become 
much impaired. The voyage did not alleviate his complaint, a 
congestion of the lungs. For the past twenty years Mr. Weld 
has acted as the Principal of the Asylum." 

The above is given as another of the numerous illustrations of 
the utter inefficiency of going abroad for diseases of the lungs. 
The atmosphere of steamers and sail- vessels, loaded with im- 
purities of bilge-water, of hot steam, of cookery, their damp 
decks, confined promenades, shelf-bedsteads, are as well calcu- 
lated to benefit invalids as the sumptuous hotels, diligence ac- 

70 HalVs Journal of Health, 

commodations, postal and passport comforts of the continent, 
and yet for these, invalids leave a loved and loving home in 
multitudes every year, sometimes only to get home again and 
die, as in this case ; at others, to die in sight of home ; and often, 
very often, never to return. 

Some of the experiences of foreign travel are detailed by an 
ex-editor while abroad for his health : 

■"It maybe strange, but it is nevertheless true, that I have 
been as really and truly home-sick for the last three months as 
ever was any little girl in her first quarter at the boarding-school. 
If you knew how much pleasanter a life of real work and study, 
in the United States is than this nonsensical travel and idleness, 
you would not be so discontented. One will only learn by expe- 
rience, however; and the best thing I expect to get, personally, 
out of this mission, is just this — that I will be satisfied when I 
get back, and never again be haunted by those intolerable long- 
ings for Europe, which tormented me in the years gone by. 

" The pleasure of actually seeing celebrated places is small. 
It is all anticipation and memory. The real comforts of Europe 
don't compare with those of the United States. Everything costs 
just double what it does at home. The people are nowhere as 
good as ours. The women are uglier — the men have fewer 
ideas. I intended to write a book about it all; and I thought, 
when I left the United States, that I would have to stretch the 
blanket a good deal to make out our superiority. But there is 
no need. The meanness, the filthy life, the stupidities of all the 
countries I have seen, surpassed all I expected, and all I hoped. 

" Here, in Turin, which is the most beautiful city I have ever 
seen, I am busy learning to speak French, and studying what is 
popularly, but most falsely, termed the ' great world' and 'polite 
society/ I have dined with dukes, jabbered bad grammar to 
countesses, and am spunged on for seats in my opera box by 
counts, who smell of garlic, as does the whole country. I receive 
visits from other diplomates, with titles as long as a flagstaff"* and 
heads as empty as their hearts, and find the whole concern more 
trashy than I had ever imagined. I must, however, keep up 
their miserable acquaintance, for that is the way to see the * ele- 
phant' of European life. So I dance the dance of fools like the 
best of them, and return their visits sedulously, carrying about 
great cards, like that I inclose for your inspection. 

" The pictures, the operas and ballets of Europe are good 
things ; the people, the governments, and the society, more con- 
temptible than can be conceived. 

" I find the idea current among the European physicians, 
which 1 have often broached to you, that chemistry is not com- 
petent to extract all the essential components of natural produc- 

Wearing the Beard. 71 


Although it is not customary to wear the beard in the United 
States, it would undoubtedly contribute to the health of men 
to do so, at least if unshorn from the edge of the jaws and chin 
downward. Clergymen would in all cases be benefited by it. 
Hair is nature's protector against cold. Our beneficent Creator 
does nothing in vain. 

Rowland says on this subject : 

11 It may be safely argued as a general physiological principle 
that whatever evinces a free and natural development of any 
part of the body, is, by necessity, beautiful. Deprive the lion of 
his mane, the cock of its comb, the peacock of the emerald plu- 
mage of its tail, the ram and deer of their horns, and they not 
only become displeasing to the eye, but lose much of their power 
and vigor. And it is easy to apply this reasoning to the hairy 
ornaments of a man's face. The caprice of fashion alone forces 
the Englishman to shave off those appendages which give to the 
male countenance that true masculine character, indicative of 
energy, bold daring, and decision. The presence or absence of 
the beard, as an addition to the face, is the most marked and 
distinctive peculiarity between the countenances of the two sexes. 
Who can hesitate to admire the noble countenance of the Os- 
manli Turk of Constantinople, with his un-Mongolian length of 
beard ? Ask any of the fair sex whether they will not approve 
and admire the noble countenance of Mehemet Ali, Major Her- 
bert Edwards, the hero of the Punjaub, Sir Charles Napier, and 
others, as set off by their beard ? We may ask with Beatrice, 
1 What manner of man is he? Is his head worth a hat, or his 
chin worth a beard V I have noticed the whiskers and beards 
of many of our most eminent physicians and merchants encroach- 
ing upon their former narrow boundaries, while it is well known 
that not a few of our divines have been long convinced of the 
folly of disobeying one of nature's fixed laws ; but hitherto their 
unwillingness to shock the prejudice of their congregations, has 
prevented them from giving effect to their convictions. The 
beard is not merely for ornament, it is for use. Nature never 
does anything in vain; she is economical, and wastes nothing. 
She would never erect a bulwark were her domain unworthy 
of protection, or were there no enemy to invade it." 


In Circassia and neighboring countries, the eye-lashes of chil- 
dren are clipped with scissors, at their extreme points, while 
asleep, every six weeks, giving them in time a beautiful gloss 
and curve, besides adding to their length and thickness. 

72 HalVs Journal of Health. 


And doing business in town/ is a " dog's life," from beginning 
to end, as far as New York is concerned. Instead of adding 
to one's comfort and quiet, it diminishes both. So far from 
promoting health, it undermines it ; while in a business point 
of view, it is attended with a multitude of annoyances of 
every variety. We have tried it under very favorable circum- 
stances, and speak from experience. We know that many per- 
sons think that they would like nothing better than to be able 
to work in town and live in the country. In some few cases 
it may be a comfort ; it is when a man can afford to go to his 
place of business not sooner than ten in the morning ; or if he 
does not go at all for any day, or two or three of any week in 
the year, it makes no kind of difference, having persons on the 
spot who will do just as well. But to be the main spoke in the 
wheel of any establishment, whose punctual and daily presence 
is indispensable, it is an unmistakable bore to live out of the 
city limits. 

The semi-citizen is in a hurry from one year's end to another. 
When he goes to bed at night, among his last thoughts are — 
and there is an anxiety about it — that he may oversleep him- 
self, or that the cook may be behind time with his breakfast ; 
so going to sleep with these thoughts, the instant he wakes in 
the morning there is a start, and the hurry begins — he opens 
his eyes in a hurry, to determine by the quality of the light 
whether he is in time. His toilet is completed with dispatch, 
but instead of composedly waiting for breakfast-call, his mind, 
even if not on his business, will be in the kitchen. Can a man 
converse composedly with his family, when the fear is upper- 
most of his being left by the train ? It is impracticable. Even 
with the case in a thousand, where the cook is a minute-man, 
he can't for the life of hime at with a feeling of leisure : may 
be his watch is a little slow : mav be the train is a little before 
time, and the result is, a hurried and unsatisfactory meal, to say 
the least of it, under the most favorable circumstances ; but 
suppose the cook is like the multitude of her class — never be- 
fore, but always behind the time — what a fretting feeling is 
present, mad as fire, yet afraid to say anything ; soon the wife 
gets the contagion, and then the play begins; stand about 

Living in the Country. 73 

You are deposited in the cars for town ; accidents and delays 
will occur; your mind is in your office, may be a customer is 
waiting, or you are pressed for time to meet an engagement. 
As soon as mid-day is past, the solicitude begins lest circum- 
stances should prevent your departure by a specified train; this 
increases as the houf draws near, and when we take into ac- 
count the dilatory nature of most men, it will be a marvel if 
some one is not late in meeting you, or making an expected 
payment ; or a customer does not hang on your button-hole, and 
you don't wish to offend him. In short, there are such a mul- 
titude of causes in operation to crowd the last moments of the 
business day, that we do not believe that one semi-citizen in a 
hundred, of any day, walks to the depot from his place of 
business with a feeling of quiet leisure. When you get home, 
you are too tired and too hungry to be agreeable until you get 
your last meal ; even then there is a calculation about getting 
to bed early, so as to have your full sleep by morning. We 
ask, where is the " quietude " of a life like this ? It does not 
exist. Such a man is an entire stranger to composure of mind. 
One beautiful morning a sprightly young gentleman entered 
the cars just as they were moving off. We had seen him often, 
always in a hurry, always in a pleasant humor. He said to a 
friend, as he took his seat : " I've been in a hurry from morning 
until night for the last two years — always on the stretch, but 
never left. Came very near it this time." Soon afterwards it ap- 
peared that he had been industriously engaged the whole of that 
time, and had accomplished a great deal ; for he had, in various 
directions, disposed of seventy thousand dollars belonging to a 
public institution, of which he was the custodian. If this in- 
cessant hurry, from one year's end to another, can promote 
quietude of mind, can conduce to one's pecuniary advantage, 
can foster domestic enjoyments, it is new to us. We think, 
rather, that it tends to fix on the mind a stereotype impression 
of anxious sadness, which, in the father of any family, to be 
seen every day, must have a decided effect in subduing that 
spontaneous joyousness which should pervade the countenance 
of every member of a happy household. 

There is one little matter which we prefer to speak of before 
dismissing the subject, which we consider of vital importance, 
and is the idea which led to the penning of this article : 

74 HalVs Journal of Health. 

A daily action of the bowels is essential to good health under 
all circumstances ; the want of it engenders the most painful 
and fatal diseases. Nature prompts this action with great regu- 
larity, most generally after breakfast. Hurry or excitement 
will dispel that prompting, and the result is, nature is baffled. 
Her regular routine is interfered with, and fyarm is done. This 
is a thing which most persons do not hesitate to postpone, and 
in the case of riding to town, a delay of one or two hours is in- 
volved. This never can occur with impunity, in any single 
instance, to any person living. This very little thing — post- 
poning nature's daily bowel actions — failing to have them with 
regularity — is the cause of all cases of piles and anal fistulas, to 
say nothing of various other forms of disease : fever, dyspepsia, 
headache, and the whole family of neuralgias. A man had 
better lose a dinner, better sacrifice the earnings of a day, than 
repress the call of nature ; for it will inevitably lead to consti- 
pation, the attendant and aggravator of almost every disease. 
To arrange this thing safely, breakfast should be had at such 
an early time as will allow of a full half hour's leisure between 
the close of the meal and the time of leaving for the cars. 


Peksons living in cities begin to wear glasses earlier than 
country people, from the want of opportunities of looking at 
things at a distance. Those who wish to put far off the evil 
day of " spectacles" should accustom themselves to long views. 
The eye is always relieved, and sees better, if, after reading 
a while, we direct the sight to some far-distant object, even for a 
minute. Great travellers and hunters are seldom near-sighted. 
Humboldt, now in his eighty-seventh year, Can read unaided. 
Sailors discern objects at a great distance with considerable dis- 
tinctness, when a common eye sees nothing at all. One is re- 
ported to have such an acute sight, that he could tell when he 
was going to see an object. On one occasion, when the ship 
was in a sinking condition, and all were exceedingly anxious 
for a sight of land, he reported from the look-out that he could 
not exactly see the shore, but he could pretty near do it. 





VOL. IV.] APRIL, 1857. [NO. IV. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


Is a disease which destroys one out of every six grown per- 
sons, which invades every family in the civilized world, which 
carries to the grave, from New York city alone, in the space of 
a single year, more than three thousand persons. Such a dis- 
ease ought to be understood, at least as to its general features. 
Every intelligent individual ought to have a general idea of its 
nature, its causes, and its prevention. Such a result will be of 
slow attainment. The thoughtful few will give it attention, 
which will gradually force itself on the masses, at least so far 
as the general principles of prevention are concerned. 

We believe that, within a few years, there has been a pro- 
gressive popular intelligence on the subject, and that more cor- 
rect views prevail in reference to its nature, than at any pre- 
vious time. Now and then a man of extraordinary intelligence 
and practical good sense makes his appearance, such as More- 
ton, of Philadelphia, Wooster, of Cincinnati, and Norcom, of 
Carolina ; but they have passed away, and in a whole lifetime 
succeeded in impressing their views upon a chance individual 
here and there. 

Two sentiments pervaded the theory and practice of these 
excellent men — and they were all contemporaries, but most prob- 
ably wholly unknown to each other. Moretcn was widely 
known ; we never saw the amiable Wooster's name in any 
printed book ; and we ourselves never heard of Norcom until 
years after his death. They believed that — 

78 HaWs Journal of Health. 

1st. No medicine known to them had any uniform appre- 
ciable good effect in common consumption of the lungs. 

2d. Without a free exposure to out-door air, no case of con- 
sumption ever was cured. 

These same sentiments are now taking hold of the medical 
minds of Great Britain, with several rdfciarkable additions : 

1st. Sea voyages hasten the fatal result of consumptive dis- 

2d. Seeking a milder climate precipitates a like result. 

3d. The maintenance of an equal artificial temperature only 
aggravates the disease. 

These sentiments are forcibly presented, in scholarly lan- 
guage, by Dr. James E. Pollock, physician to the London Hos- 
pital for Consumption, as reported in Braithewaite, part thirty- 
four, for January, 1857, p. 48, in twenty closely-printed octavo 
pages. We have seldom seen such a large amount of truthful, 
practical matter, in any single transient paper. We cordially 
commend it to professional attention. 

We take occasion here to express our high gratification in 
having such authority to corroborate our views, as presented in 
our last publication, entitled "Consumption" committed to press 
in October, 1856, while we saw Dr. Pollock's publication, for 
the first time, in Braithewaite for the following January. He 
agrees with us also in a view which we have taken earnest 
pains to press on medical attention, to wit: to date the actual 
commencement of consumption to a point "higher up''' — we 
would say farther back — than a physical sign of a deposit in the 
lungs. He says : " There is an antecedent state of disordered 
health, which, as a causative agent, originates that altered state 
of the blood which produces tubercle. To this part of our sub- 
ject, I would entreat your earnest attention. It is not only the 
key to the disease, but it is the hopeful period for treatment— 
the critical time in which we may check the inroads of the most 
fatal of all affections incident to the human frame. ^ Feel no 
hesitation in saying that the earliest symptom of consumption 
is 'wasting;' it precedes cough, and spitting of blood, and hec- 
tic, and all the physical signs ; * * * hence the second symptom 
is debility." Had Dr. Pollock had our book before him he could 
not have more thoroughly presented our own views/ stating, as 

Consumption. 79 

we have done, that deficiency in breath, and strength, and flesh, are 
the first far-off symptoms of consumption, coming on as they do 
long before cough, and spitting of blood, and pains about the 
chest. We believe that, in the vast majority of cases, the foun- 
dation — the first symptoms of consumption in both sexes, is laid 
at about the age of eighteen or twenty years, and that, if med- 
ical attention were secured at this age to children, by which a 
critical examination could be made as to those points, and cor- 
responding action follow, the mortality from this disease would 
be largely diminished at once. To neglect these earliest symp- 
toms of consumption, is like neglecting looseness of bowels in 
Asiatic cholera, which is nothing short of almost certain death. 

No one seems to have the slightest fear of consumption now- 
a-days, unless there is some cough, when the fact is, some per- 
sons have observed no cough at all until within three weeks of 
death, and on examination the lungs have been found a mass 
of rottenness. In the vast mass of cases, cough is a telegraphic 
signal that the train has been fired, that tubercles have been 
deposited, and are taking on irritative and inflammatory action, 
which is the stage immediately preceding actual decay of the 
lungs ; whereas, if short breath, wasting of flesh, and general 
weakness, were considered, as they really are, the avant couriers 
of the disease, and corresponding action had, three fourths of 
those who now die of consumption could ward off the disease 
indefinitely. Hard-earned thousands, yes millions, often go to 
distant relation s, as heartless as they are greedy, which else 
would have fallen to natural heirs, if, instead of nursing chil- 
dren from seventeen to twenty years, the moment they seem 
to become "weakly" by consigning them to feather beds, and 
furnaced rooms, and closed carriages, afraid as death of a single 
puff of fresh out-door air, lest it should give them a cold — we 
say a far different result would have followed the hard mat- 
tres?, the cold sleeping-room, the frequent walk and daily horse- 
back ride, early and late, of from five to thirty miles a day, in 
spite of all obstacles of wind, and storm, and dust, and snow, 
and hail — of zero, or of broiling heat. 

In this connection, we may not do better than reproduce 
an article from one of our first numbers, prepared originally 
for The Home Journal, in 1853, by its world-renowned editor, 
N. P. Willis, who was himself a part of the fact, and lives this 

80 HalVs Journal of Health. 

day the indisputable evidence of the enduring results of out- 
door activities, as a means of indefinitely postponing the progress 
of apparent actual Consumption. The whole article might well 
have been written in italics, for we know of no living writer 
who can say so much that is true in so few words, as Mr. Wil- 
lis ; we mean personally observed truth — a column of meaning 
is sometimes embodied in a dozen monosyllables. We have, 
however, capitalized the sentiment which excels in importance, 
in our estimation, at least all others : 

" There was not a day of the succeeding winter, how- 
MILES ON HORSEBACK. With five or six men, I was, for most of 
the remaining hours of the day, out of doors, laboring at the roads 
and clearings of my present home." 

Common consumption of the lungs destroys more people than 
any other half dozen diseases, while a third of all adults who 
die in civilized society, do so from ailments connected with the 
air-passages ; hence whatever tends to diffuse true knowledge on 
the subject must be a public good. Theories are good enough 
in their place, but the mass of society prefers to deal in facts, in 
well established, whole facts ; these are more tangible, and the 
common mind can more easily grapple with them. The diseases 
to which the lungs and their proper appendages are liable, are 
Asthma, Bronchitis, Consumption, Laryngitis or Throat ail, 
Croup, Pleurisy, Inflammation of the Lungs, Congestion of the 
Lungs, Quinsy, &c. All these diseases arise from two causes : 

1. Changes of temperature. 

2. The failure to keep the breathing apparatus in vigorous, full, 
healthful operation, by a sufficient amount daily of exertive exer- 
cise in the open air. By a wise attention to this second cause 
of lung diseases, the former will cease to be a cause, except in 
occasional cases. Not only so, threatened consumption may be 
effectually warded off, in the vast majority of cases, by the proper 
adaptation of daily out-door exertive exercise to the require- 
ments of the system, as indicated by the condition of the pulse, 
the heart, the breathing organs, of which the physician ought to 
be the standing judge. For, when a man is an invalid, the 
amount of food, air, and exercise which he needs, requires as 
much of medical intelligence, experience, and skill, as would 
the judicious exhibition of medicine. 

Consumption. 81 

An example — Heart Disease. 

It is well known that the symptoms of a disease of the 
heart, and those of the lungs, as well as those of a spinal 
affection, are so apparently alike in the main, that it requires 
large medical experience to decide safely and certainly between 
them ; but the exercise requisite in an affection of the lungs 
would inevitably destroy life if advised for a disease of the heart 
or spine. In no form of sickness is exercise so immediately and 
certainly fatal as in heart affections, while the results of active 
exercise in spinal disease are terrible, literally terrible, not in 
their immediate effects as involving life, but in the certain pen- 
alty of weeks, and months, and weary years of corporeal help- 
lessness, and agonizing, almost ceaseless pain, requiring a thou- 
sand times more endurance and a far higher degree of fortitude 
than marching up to the cannon's mouth in the heat of battle. 
An affecting instance of this kind came under my notice within 
a few years past, and I feel sure that a recital of it will be a 
public benefit, as teaching the importance of taking early com- 
petent medical advice in cases of sickness. 

On the 23d of September, 1851, I was called to see a young 
lady on a visit to New York, who was supposed to be in a de- 
cline. She was from a neighboring city, an only daughter. 
She was just entering life, with all the advantages which position, 
and fortune, and refinement, could bestow. She had a pulse of 
a hundred and twenty a minute, thirty-six respirations, an inces- 
sant cough, debility, such that she could not walk without two 
assistants. She still lives, a noble monument of heroic endu- 
rance and mental energy and worth. Previous to applying to 
me she had suffered a dozen deaths, in her efforts to take air 
and exercise on foot, on horse, in carriage ; and as often almost 
as she would take them, she could, on reaching her own door, 
scarcely prevent herself from shrieking out with an agony of 
pain. She was encouraged to persevere in these efforts, and, 
with a daughter's affection for a loving mother, whose solicitude 
and watchfulness never slept, she did so, until locomotion be- 
came impossible. This being a clear case of spinal disease, 
every step she took, every moment she sat still, aggravated the 
complaint. The best medical skill in the country has failed to 
afford her any permanent relief, and to this hour she is unable 

82 Halls Journal of Health. 

to stand, suffering daily torture, hardly desiring to hope for 
even relief until she is called to go where all the good are. 

With this case, given as a precaution against the danger 
which attends taking daily out-door exercise, without medical 
advice, for any of the prominent symptoms of consumption 
such as cough, short breath, quick pulse, debility, pains about 
the chest, &c, I here give, as being highly instructive, an article 
from " The Home Journal" of December 10th, 1853, under the 
editorial head : — 

(For Invalids only.) 

Are you quite well, dear reader? Are all those who are 
dear to you quite well ? If so, perhaps you will kindly pass 
on to another topic, allowing me, under the Idlewild caption, 
for this week, to answer a letter from an invalid — the informa- 
tion thus called for being interesting to invalids only, or to 
those with precious invalids for whom they feel and care. In a 
world where mortals walk beside Death with a face averted, the 
sick can talk safely of their sorrows only to the sick. I do not 
claim, therefore, the attention due to a general topic. Though, 
with pulmonary consumption for our country's most fatal liability, 
any experience, in eluding or defeating it, may be of interest to 
so many, as to be, at least, excusably tedious to the remainder. 
It comes appropriately from Idlewild. The Highlands around 
us, I fully believe, are the nearest spot to New York, where the 
acrid irritation of our eastern and seaboard climate is unfelt. 
Poke your fire, then, dear delicate reader ! — (for you are an in- 
valid, by your following me thus far) — and settle yourself com- 
fortably in your arm-chair, while I lay before you a sad and 
well- written letter from an invalid : 

«0 ****** November 21, 1853. 

" Mr. Willis : Dear sir,— You will perhaps think it presump- 
tion in me, an entire stranger, to address you as I now do ; but 
I shall be willing to abide your judgment after you have heard 
my story. I am a Presbyterian clergyman, in feeble health. 
After five years' preaching in one happy parish, my lungs gave 
out, and I was obliged to give up my calling. By the advice 
of physicians here and in New York, I spent two winters at 
the South, roaming from place to place, but spending most of 
the time in Jacksonville and St. Augustine, Florida. I was 
there during the winter of your tour in that region, and on 
the same sad errand. And I may here say, that I have taken 
great pleasure in reading, weekly, your record of travel in 
those parts. 

" But I got no essential benefit from the ( Sunny South' — 
nothing but some disgust for it, weariness of travel and a warm- 

Consumption, 83 

er love for the North and~ for my home. Neglecting further 
medical advice, I bought, two years since, a pleasant site for a 
country residence in this, my native place, built a house, and 
devoted myself to tree-planting and gardening of all sorts. This 
has been my sole employment for two summers. In winter 
I warm my whole house moderately, not allowing the mer- 
cury to rise above sixty or sixty-two degrees, and connect with 
this a thorough ventilation. I remain within doors most of 
the time. Between romping with my two children, playing 
with grace-sticks, battle-door, etc., fighting imaginary foes with 
my cane, and the music of a piano, I manage to get regular, 
daily exercise and recreation. In favorable weather I also 
take a brisk walk of half a mile. 

u This mode of life makes me quite happy, and I enjoy a 
tolerable degree of health ; but I don't get well. I followed you 
to Idle wild with much interest, having a fellow-feeling on one 
point, at least, and watched to see whether you would get 
the mastery of disease. In your last letter you say that you 
are no longer to be classed among consumptives. Alas ! I 
can't say as much for myself, I fear. And on reading your 
lines, I resolved to write to you, as a once fellow-invalid, and 
ask, What has cured you? The doctors advise me to go South 
and take cod-liver oil, but their prescriptions do me no good, 
and I improve most when following my own judgment. I 
spade, and hoe, and rake quite lustily, and ride horseback, in 
summer; I cough but little, and eat and sleep as well as ever — 
but cannot use my lungs. Now, may I trouble you to give me 
some plain advice — a little of your own daily regimen — if you 
are willing to do so, an account of what has helped you. 

" I consult you, not as a doctor, but as a man of benevo- 
lence, knowing by experience the feelings of a young man 
arrested by disease, and laid aside from the activities of life. 

" If you do not think proper, or find it convenient, to ad- 
dress me personally, I beg leave to suggest that you give your 
friends, through the Home Journal, some of your views and 
your experience relating to the treatment of pulmonary affec- 
tions. A large and eagerly attentive audience would listen to 
your words, 1 assure you. 

" Pardon me, sir, if I have annoyed you by this letter ; and if 
you are willing to do so, please allow me to hear from you, and 
greatly oblige, yours, with true respect, A. D. G." 

[To which straightforward and touching letter, the following 
was the bulk of my reply — not very satisfactory, I fear, though 
possibly there may be a point or so in which it is either sugges- 
tive or corroborative :] — 

* * The politicians teach us how to treat a disease, I think. 
They do not try to convert the opposing party. They are con- 
tent if they can keep it in the minority — sure that it will tire, in 

84 HalVs Journal of Health. 

time, of its want of power, change sides, or disappear. The pa- 
tient who troubles himself least about his disease, (or leaves it 
entirely to his doctor,) but ;who perseveringly outvotes it by the 
high condition of the other parts of his system, is the likeliest to 
recover — and it is of this high condition, alone, that I have any- 
thing to say. Of twenty who may be sleepless with a cough 
and weakened with the raising of blood, no two, perhaps, are 
subjects for precisely the same medical treatment, or diseased in 
precisely the same locality, though all are called "consumptives." 
Our friends, the physicians, are better geographers than we, as 
to where the healing is wanted, though they strangely confine 
themselves to the specific ailment, taking it for granted that the 
patient keeps the rest of his body in proper training for recovery. 
It is medical etiquette, I believe, to refrain from any very par- 
ticular inquiry into this. But few sick men are wise or firm- 
minded enough to be safely trusted with their own general con- 
dition ; and I, for one, came very near dying — not of my disease, 
but of what my doctors took for granted. 

To leave generalities, however, and come to the personal 
experience which you ask for: 

I went to the Tropics, as a last hope, to cure a chronic 
cough and blood-raising which had brought me to the borders 
of the grave. I found a climate in which it is hard to be un- 
happy about anything — charming to live at all — easy to die. 
(At least, those who were sure of dying, and did die — and in 
whose inseparable company I thought I was — were social and 
joyous to the last.) The atmosphere of that Eden- latitude, how- 
ever, is but a pain-stilling opiate, while the Equator might be 
called a kitchen-range for a Sardanapalus, and the Antilles are 
but tables loaded with luxuries. The Caribbean Sea is the 
Kingdom of the Present Moment. The Past and the Future 
are its Arctic and Antarctic — unthought of, except by desperate 
explorers. Hither are sent invalids, with weakened resolution, 
to make a pilgrimage with prescription and prudence ! You 
may see by the book I have just published, (Health-Trip to the 
Tropics,) with what complete forgetfulness of care or caution I 
made one of an invalid company for months. Was anybody 
going to be shut up in a bedroom with such nights out of doors? 
Was anybody going to be dull and abstinent with such merry 
people, and a French breakfast or tempting dinner on the table ? 

I reached home in July, thoroughly prostrated, and, in the 
opinion of one or two physicians, a hopeless case. Coughing 
almost the whole of every night, and raising blood as fast as my 
system could make it, I had no rest and no strength. I lin- 
gered through the summer, and, as the autumn came on, and the 
winter was to be faced, I sat down and took a fair look at the 
probabilities. With the details of this troubled council of war 
I will not detain you; but, after an unflinching self-examination, 

Consumption. 85 

I came to the conclusion that T was, myself, the careless and in- 
dolent neutralizer of the medicines which had failed to cure 
me — that one wrong morsel of food or one day's partially ne- 
glected exercise might put back a week's healing — and that, by 
slight omissions of attention, occasional breaking of regimen, 
and much too effeminate habits, I was untrue to the trust which 
Gray, my friend and physician, had made the ground of his 
prescriptions. And, to a minutely persevering change in these 
comparative trifles, I owe, I believe, my restoration to health. 
There was not a day of the succeeding winter, however cold or 
wet, in which I did not ride eight or ten miles on horseback. 
"With five or six men, I was, for most of the remaining hours of 
the day, out of doors, laboring at the roads and clearings of my 
present home. The cottage of Idlewild was then unbuilt, and 
the neighboring farm-house, where we boarded, was, of course, 
indifferently warmed ; but, by suffering no state of the thermom- 
eter to interrupt the morning cold bath, and the previous fric- 
tion with flesh-brushes, which makes the water as agreeable as 
in summer, I soon became comparatively independent of the 
temperature in doors, as my horse and axe made me independ- 
ent of it when out of doors. With proper clothing to resist cold 
or wet, I found (to my surprise) that there was no such thing as 
disagreeable weather to be felt in the saddle ; and, when a drive 
in a wagon or carriage would have intolerably irritated my 
cough, I could be all day in the woods with an axe, my lungs 
as quiet as a child's. 

With all this, and looking like the ruddiest specimen of 
health in the country round about, I am still (you will be com- 
forted to hear) troubled occasionally with my sleep-robber of a 
cough ; and in Boston, the other day, on breathing that essence 
of pepper and icicles which they call their li East Wind," I was 
seized with the old hemorrhage of the lungs, and bled myself 
weak again. But I rallied immediately on returning to this 
Highland air, and am well once more — as well, that is to say, 
as is consistent with desirable nervous susceptibility. The kiss 
of the delicious South Wind of to-day, (November 30,) would 
be half lost upon the cheek of perfect health. 

I fear I cannot sufficiently convey to you my sense of the . 
importance of a horse to an invalid. In my well-weighed opinion, 
ten miles a day in the saddle would cure more desperate cases, 
(particularly of consumption,) than all the changes of climate 
and all the medicines in the world. It is vigorous exercise with- 
out fatigue. The peculiar motion effectually prevents all irri- 
tation of cold air to the lungs, on the wintriest day. The torpid 
liver and other internal organs are more shaken up and vivified 
by the trot of a mile than by a week of feeble walking. The 
horse (and you should own and love him) is company enough, 
and not too much. Your spirits are irresistibly enlivened by 

8(> HalVs Jouimal of Health. 

the change of movement and the control of the animal. Your 
sense of strength and activity, (in which lies half the self-confi- 
dence as to getting well, which the doctors think so important,) 
is plus one horse. With the difference^ from walking, as to 
pulling upon the forces of the spine and consequently upon the 
brain, it is recommended by the best English physicians as much 
the preferable exercise for men of intellectual pursuits. And, 
last, (I think not least,) the lungs of both body and soul are ex- 
panded by the daily consciousness of inhabiting a larger space 
— by having an eagle's range rather than a snail's — by living a 
life which occupies ten miles square of the earth's surface, rather 
than that " half mile" which you speak of as the extent of your 
daily walk. The cost is trifling. At this particular season, 
when horses are beginning, as they say at the livery stables, to 
" eat their heads off," you may buy the best you can want for 
fifty dollars, and his feed costs thirty cents a day. As the horse 
and the doctor are seldom necessities of one and the same man, 
you may rather find it an economy — apothecary and all. 

In that " majority" I have spoken of above, there are (as in 
all majorities) some voters of not much consequence individually, 
but still worth keeping an eye upon. Briefly to name one or 
two : — There are so few invalids who are invariably and con- 
scientiously untemptable by those deadly domestic enemies, sweet- 
meats, pastry and gravies, that the usual civilities at a meal are 
very like being politely assisted to the grave. The care and 
nurture of the skin is a matter worth some study; for it is 
capable not only of being negatively healthy, but positively lux- 
urious in its action and sensations — as every well-groomed horse 
knows better than most men. The American liver has a hard 
struggle against the greasy cookery of our happy country. The 
impoverished blood of the invalid sometimes requires that "glass 
of wine for the stomach's sake" recommended by the Apostle. 
Just sleep enough and just clothing enough are important adjust- 
ments, requiring more thought and care than are usually given 
to them. For a little philosophy in your habitual posture as you 
sit in your chair, your lungs would be very much obliged to you. 
An analysis of the air we live and sleep in, would be well worth 
looking into occasionally. And there are two things that turn 
sour in a man, without constant and sufficient occupation upon 
something besides the domestic circle — the temper and the ambi- 
tion. * * 

Thus much, of my reply to our clerical fellow-sufferer, may 
interest you, dear invalid reader. Of the medicine of " Out-doors 
at Idlewild" — the mingled salubrity of the climate of mountain 
and river around us — 1 should have said more to one unanchored 
in a home and a parish. From one who writes so frankly and 
sensibly as he, we must hope to hear again, however, and, with 
another opportunity, I may again ask for invalid indulgence, 
m<i return to the theme. 

Antecedents. 87 

While this article embraces the main principles of care for 
actual consumption, we are anxious to draw attention to far 
earlier symptoms of the disease, when its eradication may be 
made a pleasure rather than a pain — a certainty rather than a 
mere possibility — a matter of scientific calculation rather than 
vague theory or opinion — a thing of absolute measurement 
rather than indefinite conjecture. This is done by rather a new 
name in medical literature, Spirometry — which means, lit- 
erally, "Breath Measurement' 1 — which enables us to ascertain, 
with mathematical accuracy and certainty, down to a single 
cubic inch, what amount of lungs are in efficient operation in 
any given case ; and by knowing what amount each individual 
should have, varying as to age, sex, &c, according to ascer- 
tained laws, we are able, in all cases, to ascertain precisely the 
extent of the malady. And this is of great practical impor- 
tance ; for if all of a man's lungs are within him, and in free 
operation, the idea of actual consumption is utterly groundless. 
On the other hand, if a man, who should have two hundred and 
fifty cubic inches of air in sound health, has half of his lungs 
eaten away by consumption, he can no more measure over one 
hundred and twenty-five than he could fly; and so of any other 
proportion. But these are fully entered into in our book on 


Seldom has a more important lesson been taught to parents, 
than in the last Presidential election : lessons loud enough to 
ring through creation — almost loud enough to wake the slum- 
bering dead to life. 

Father ! teach your son, that he may be just stepping into the 
first office of the nation, and fail ! because of some remembered 
meanness of school-boy life ; or some ground for charge that 
" honor bright" was wanting in some early transaction. Tell him 
never to do an act which, although admissible in itself, may 
bear the impress of fraud without distressingly nice distinctions. 

Mother! teach your daughters that the acts of their youth may 
be brought before the scrutiny of the millions of a generation 
yet unborn ; and that never, for any cause, should they allow 
themselves to be placed in a questionable position ; to labor to 

88 HalVs Journal of Health. 

stand every hour of their existence right under the blaze of a 
noon-day sun. 

All, both men and women, boys and girls, have a " right" to 
do multitudes of things which, at the same time, are not expe- 
dient. The greatest apostle of Christianity had a right to eat 
meat, yet he avoided it, for policy's sake. He resigned his own 
rights heroically, that he might make others happier thereby. 
That is the truest philanthropy. The person who will have his 
rights, suffer who may, has the first, chiefest want of a manly 
heart. Such an one can never attain immortal renown — can 
never rise above the vulgar herd. 

One candidate for a high legislative honor, found the unjust 
act of many years agone, when he was friendless and obscure, 
thrown right across the door, and a more favored one entered 
in. A man of senatorial dignity was charged with a theft com- 
mitted at school, in the days of his childhood. Another, of no 
mean repute, of many kindly memories, was found, shall we say 
" almost ages ago," helping himself in his neighbor's wine cel- 
lar. In all these cases there may have been circumstances to 
palliate, to warrant, to justify, if they were critically examined; 
but the masses despise niceties ; they love to see a man's con- 
duct stand out alto relievo. They want to see him right at a 

Do not forget that it is not always enough to act in such a 
way as to be right. Some actions are proper enough in them- 
selves, but are liable to misinterpretation. A man may be seen 
coming out of a common grog-shop : he may have gone in there 
to get a glass of water, but it was an act largely capable of a 
vicious interpretation. Teach your children as far as possible, 
that their actions should be so clearly proper as to need no in- 
terpreter ; that they should never do a deed, or speak a word 
or write a line, which they would rather not have their parents 
know. One of the first steps from childhood to ruin is con- 
cealment from parents. One of the most valuable points to be 
gained by parents, is to secure the confidence of their children. 
No daughter was ever lost who confided wholly in her mother's 
heart. No young man ever went to ruin, who made his father 
his most intimate friend. 

What is worth doing at all, is worth doing well. 

Water Cure. 89 


One of the most powerful of remedial means is the use of 
cold water — powerful for good or ill. Much of the prejudice 
existing against it is unjust, having arisen from its injudicious 
application by incompetent men. Any valuable remedy is 
liable to abuse. Beyond all question, cabmel, in the estimation 
of the old school, is worth all the other remedies of Allopathic 
materia medica ; but nine tenths of those who employ it, do so 
injudiciously, and one of the great reasons of this injudicious 
use, is in the fact that inconsiderate practitioners, living in one 
section of the country, have taken u reported cases' 1 from other 
and distant sections for their guide. 

So with the errors of water cure. Its wise and safe applica- 
tion consults the varying habits, temperaments, constitutions, 
and modes of life of those who employ it. The truly intelli- 
gent men who practise the water cure, owe it to the reputation 
of a useful remedy, to impress upon their younger brethren 
the value of a thoughtful discrimination in every case. A lady 
of unusual intelligence writes : 

" I was so unfortunate as to be over-treated at a water cure. I 
believe the Doctor did his best to cure me, but the treatment was 
too powerful for a person the most marked feature of whose case 
has always been great depression of vital power. It produced 
entire sleeplessness. It was more. I was preternaturally awake. 
For four days and nights I did not lose my consciousness for a 
single moment. When, at the end of this time, and life was 
almost extinct, I would fall asleep, and for a week sleep some, 
after a fashion, then another of 'those terrible attacks of sleep- 
lessness would come on, and run its course, no matter what was 
done. In this way I suffered for more than a year, and then I 
began to sleep better ; but I am sure my system received a great 
shock, and I doubt if I ever sleep as well as other people. I 
have been obliged to give up cold bathing altogether. A single 
bath will deprive me of the power of sleeping. I now use tepid 
sponging every other day, with soap, and think it agrees with 

We knew an estimable gentleman some years ago, of small 
vitality, and very feeble constitution. He could not keep warm. 
The cold water mania seized him at this time ; he carried it to 
the greatest ' ' -^es, when chronic rH arrhcea set in, and he died. 

90 Haffls Journal of Health. 

He had two small children — girls — of three and five years. 
His theory was, that to secure them a hardihood of constitution, 
they must have a cold bath every morning. They would regu- 
larly come from the bath shivering with cold, lips and finger- 
nails blue, even in summer, and it would be a long time before 
they could get warm. Their mother, an unresisting Quaker 
woman, of great excellence of character, saw her children pa- 
ling away before her daily, while her husband had become so 
fanatical that she saw argument and remonstrance would be 
alike unavailing. His death terminated these violences. The 
children rallied soon after, and grew up in excellent health, and 
for aught we know are alive and well to this day. 

The idea which we wish to impress upon the minds of our 
readers is, cold water is a valuable and powerful remedy, but 
as a remedy in any decided ailment, it should never be employ- 
ed except by the direction of a physician of experience and 

Scientific Hydropathy is no more responsible for the abuse of 
cold water as a remedy in disease, than are the old school doc- 
tors for the abuse of calomel by ignorant or reckless persons. 
In the hands of experienced men, 'both are remedies of very 
great value, and both in their places are indispensable. 

Our general opinion is, that all children under ten years of age, 
all invalids, people of thin flesh, and those who are easily chill- 
ed, should always wash their limbs and bodies in warm water, 
with soap and brush, in a room almost as warm as the water 


An ecclesiastic whose keenness of logic, whose thorough 
scholarship, whose depth of thought and breadth of view, have 
made his name familiar to both hemispheres, in a private letter, 
gives us credit for possessing a sounder theology than half the 
ministers in the land. May be he had not learned that we 
have considered it a self-evident proposition that the human 
heart was the seat of a depravity all-pervading. In that re- 
spect we are John Calvin, and if anything different, with a bend 
backwards. We do not believe that every human heart is 
equally bad ; some are worse than others, incalculably worse, 

Bodily Endurance. 91 

just as of several glasses of pure water, a few drops of ink will 
color the whole body of water in one glass, making it totally 
discolored — not an atom of it that is not colored some ; a few 
additional drops will give a more distinct coloring to the next 
glass, so that of each glass it may be said, as to the water within 
it, it is totally discolored, yet some are of a deeper black than 
others ; but all are blackened — every particle of each glass is dis- 
colored. No atom of any glass is clear, so no one outgoing of 
the human heart, in its natural state, is clear, is pure, is with- 
out a stain. But the extent of that stain, the depth of its black- 
ness, has a strong exhibition in one of the British Eeviews, re- 
pubtished in New York, by Leonard Scott & Co. The article 
is entitled u Christian Missions a Failure." That is to say, all 
the money expended by missionaries for the purpose of ena- 
bling the heathen to read the Bible, has been a bad investment, 
that the effort made to enlighten the nations for a century or 
two past, has " cost more than it comes to" — the good done has 
not been commensurate with the money expended. 

We can scarcely conceive of a piece of more virulent, ill- 
natured malignity than that which must have pervaded the 
heart of the writer at the time of his penning the article. We 
can all appreciate the feeling which prompts the using of a dag- 
ger — deliberate, determined, vengeful, murderous ! We would 
handle such a one in this way : Your composition shows that 
you are highly educated, that your associations have been of an 
elevated character, and that you would shrink from making 
yourself liable to the charge of being wanting in gentlemanly 
bearing or honorable dealing. But none of this money was 
yours, not a cent of it. The persons who made that money, 
appropriated it willingly in the direction of an object which 
you yourself admit is desirable. Do you think it altogether 
proper for one gentleman to dictate to another how he shall 
spend his own money, or when he has spent it, to inform 
him that it was improperly done, and hint that it would have 
been a great deal better, if he had appropriated it in a different 
direction? Intermeddling, an officious interference with the 
pecuniary expenditures of a neighbor, of a fellow-citizen, dic- 
tating to him as to its appropriation — what is it ? What would 
you do in the premises ? 

Here are a number of people who are anxious that certain 

92 HalVs Journal of Health. 

persons, strangers to them, should be taught how to read the 
Bible, thinking that it would promote their happiness ; and 
thus thinking, they, with a noble consistency, use their own 
money largely to purchase the Bibles, and to send persons to 
teach how to use them ; and here is a man in Scotland, a culti- 
vated scholar, raised in the bosom of the Church, engaging with- 
out fee or reward, in an effort to throw ridicule on the attempts 
of those benevolent men ; and in order to make his shafts more 
efficient, falsifies history, falsifies fact. Yerily, we can scarcely 
imagine, under all the circumstances, a greater depth of innate 
malignity against the Christian religion. There is one man 
totally depraved, and the depth of the blackness is unmistaka- 
ble. The great burden of Bible teaching is love to all human 
kind, industry in all human callings, temperance in all human 
enjoyments, and unflinching justice in all human transactions; 
a book which encourages no wrong-doing — which winks at no 
vice, tolerates no crime ; and here is a man who seeks to. thwart 
the efforts of nobler hearts to make this book available to the 
millions of our earth, who else will die without its sight — op- 
posing these efforts on the ground that they cost too much 
money, not a dollar of which was his. How deeply dark, how 
unfathomably mean, must that man's heart be ! what a disgrace 
to the noble land which gave him birth ! May he live to feel 
ashamed of all that he has written. 

So far from Christian Missions being a failure, one single in- 
dividual within a single lifetime has been the means of ini- 
tiating instrumentalities which will do more towards breaking 
up the slave trade, than have the fleets of the three greatest 
nations on the globe for the last quarter of a century ; a single 
individual, by shutting himself out of civilized society for 
eighteen years, consorting with savages, traversing deserts, 
swimming rivers, torn by wild beasts, famished by want, and 
tortured by fiercest fevers, has opened a door to the civiliza- 
tion of a whole continent, occupied by millions of human 
beings, of whose existence the world never dreamed — an inte- 
terior continent, with its fruitful plains, and navigable rivers, 
and rich forests — the people themselves comparatively harm- 
less, friendly, and docile ; and this man is a Christian mission- 
ary a physician — Dr. Livingston, who has " endured more 
anxious moments, experienced difficulties and perils, and per- 

Bodily Endurance. 93 

formed grander and more noble deeds, than any Crimean hero," 
of whom the Earl of Shaftsbury declared "his great researches 
and operations will be followed by great and mighty benefits 
to the whole human race," while Col. Sir R H. Eawlinson, the 
learned oriental traveller, expressed his belief that Br. Living- 
ston had laid the train which would raise interior Africa, with 
its untutored millions, from the depths of savage degradation. 

This unpretending missionary has made himself old in forty 
years ; his face is furrowed by hardships and thirty fevers, and 
literally black by exposure for sixteen years to an African sun ; 
his left arm crushed and made helpless by a ferocious lion. 
Having passed through all these privations, he made a journey 
of a thousand miles on foot, and then further on into an un- 
known country, stopping not until he had added to his dis- 
coveries that of a river navigation of two thousand miles. And 
while he has done so much for humanity, at so much personal 
toil and suffering, here is a Scotchman in scholastic Edinburgh, 
who quietly sits down in his own study and writes "-Christian 
Missions a Failure" — " cost more money than the benefits at- 
tained pay for." 

The life of the great missionary presents several features of 
physiological interest. 

1st. The constitution of man adapts itself to all climates. 

2d. The hardships which the human body can endure are 
incredible until seen, and when encountered without the use of 
spirituous liquors, leave the constitution as firm and as capable 
of new endurances, as it was at the beginning. 

3d. In all great undertakings requiring persistent endurance 
of toil, and privation, and exposure, those are most likely to 
succeed who discard alcoholic drinks of every description, and 
make up their minds to the temperate indulgence of all the 

4th. Systematic temperance in eating and drinking is capa- 
ble of shielding the human body from the pestilences of all 
climes, and from the fatal diseases of all latitudes. 

5th. That the hardships which great travellers are called 
to encounter, do, by their large exposure to out-door air and 
daily bodily activity, consolidate the constitution, and make it 
more healthy, while the mental powers take their share of in 
creased vigor and activity. 

94 HaWs Journal of Health. 


We may safely calculate that ten thousand persons live in 
their own houses in New York city, and that in the rear of 
each of these houses are five hundred square feet of land, used 
as a back yard. Eight grape vines would flourish in this 
space, and each vine, of the " Isabella" variety, if well attended 
to, will produce two thousand bunches of delightful fruit, or 
sixteen thousand clusters. Downing says he has seen " one 
Isabella vine produce, in one season, three thousand fine clus- 
ters of well-ripened fruit." But suppose each vine yielded 
one hundred pounds only, the yield of eight vines would retail 
for one hundred and twenty dollars. But single grape vines 
have been known to yield one thousand pounds of grapes, and 
eighteen cents per pound is the retail price of good grapes in 
New York. 

The want of employment is at the foundation of the ill 
health of multitudes of women and youth in large cities. We 
have frequent occasion to feel in reference to women who ap- 
ply to us for medical advice, " the best medicine for you is the 
wash-tub, at fifty cents a day J 1 

Any growing family might appropriate a vine to its different 
members, with a rivalry as to whose vine would produce the 
largest crop. How many hours would thus be saved from 
idleness, from the street and its corrupting associations, from 
that wearing unrest or destructive listlessness which overtakes 
those girls and boys who have nothing to do, and are not 
obliged to do anything? The healthful advantages of this inter- 
ested out-door employment cannot . be readily estimated. Be- 
sides all this, the minds of the young would be naturally led 
to study the nature of the vine in particular, and of vegetation 
in general — the laws of vegetable life, the nature of manures, 
of the ingredients of the food for plants, the elements of vege- 
table nutrition — leading the mind off into mineralogy and 
geology, to say nothing of the flowering of plants, the blossom- 
ing of trees, and the various side studies into which these 
investigations would lead ; thus giving a practical value and a 
felt interest in the studies of our schools, which boys and girls 
seldom experience. Who does not know that the theoretical 
study of botany, geologjr, and mineralogy in our schools 

Plant a Vine. 95 

is as dry to the scholars as the splinter of a fence-rail ? Thus 
it is, and very naturally, that we seldom find a boarding-school 
girl, or one from a fashionable city institute, who knows any- 
thing at all of these deeply interesting sciences beyond the 
most general definitions. It is a disgrace and a shame to both 
parents and teachers, that our children, especially our daughters, 
so uniformly "finish their studies" and know nothing well. 
It is because nothing is done to make these studies prac- 
tical, to lead the mind to take hold of them with interest and 

Proper attention to a single vine will employ a youth an 
hour a day, on an average, from May to November, with some 
little besides during the winter. And in the hope that some 
of our readers may be induced to heed our suggestions, we 
here give a history of what we practise ourselves. 

Go at once, any time in April or early in May, to a horticul- 
tural nursery, and bespeak several well-rooted vines^uot "cut- 
tings;" thus you will save several years, as the vines will begin 
to bear the next season. Then prepare the ground, by throw- 
ing out the earth three feet deep and as much in diameter ;" throw 
in a foot and a half in depth of manure, consisting of bones, 
coffee grounds, egg shells, fish heads — in short, any of the offal 
of the kitchen, or chip manure, or old mortar ; put on this half 
a peck of wood ashes, mixed up with as rich earth as you can 
get. The Concord, Diana, and Isabella varieties are best for 
this latitude, and it might be of interest to have different kinds. 
The gardener will set them in for you, charging you about a 
dollar and a half for a good vine and all. Lay around the 
vine, on the surface, some straw or leaves, in order to keep the 
earth moist by preventing rapid evaporation ; over this throw 
the coffee and tea leavings, as also all the soapsuds of weekly 
and other washings, for the effect of soapsuds on the vine, as 
well as other plants, in giving them life and vigor, is surpris- 
ing. Under such a treatment as this you will, in three or four 
years, not only have a liberal crop of delicious fruit, but a re- 
freshing shade and a beautiful ornament to your dwellings. 

After the first year, in November, the vines should be 
pruned — that is, when they have grown as large as you wish 
them to extend. To prevent their further growth, the young 
wood, the growth of the preceding summer, and which bore 

96 HaWs Journal of Health, 

the grapes, should be cut off, within two or three buds of its 
union with the parent stem ; it is known by its smoother and 
lighter-colored bark. 

As soon as the grapes are formed, nip off all the shoots that 
appear afterwards, so as to throw all the strength of the vine 
into the producing ones ; this must be done every two weeks 
during the summer. 

Never pinch off the leaves to hasten the ripening of the 
fruit ; nature has placed them there to facilitate that ripening in 
her own way. 

The grapes are not really good until the first of October, and 
every day they become more delicious until the first week in 
November, when, in the middle of one of the driest and most 
sunshiny days of our delightful autumn, the remaining grapes 
should be picked and placed on wooden shelves in the cellar, 
suspended from the ceiling, and not within two feet of the wall 
or floor, or anything else by which a rat could reach them. 
On the shelf a layer of straw, two inches deep, should be 
placed ; paper is not so good, but is safer from fire. Place the 
grapes on this straw, two bunches deep, with another layer of 
straw over them, and with ordinary precaution, with our New 
York cellars, they will keep until spring, growing sweeter 
every day. They shrivel up a little, but all the substance 
is there — the only drawback being a little mustiness, but not 
more, we think, than is perceived in the white grapes from 
abroad, packed in sawdust. Our own kept this last year until 
February, and would have kept longer had we not used them 
so liberally — that is, wifey and I, and a big rat, who by the aid 
of a water-pipe climbed up the cellar wall, and so feasted 
on the pure juice of the grape all winter, making a wine-press 
of his paws. 

It requires more cold to freeze grapes on the vine, than to 
freeze water ; so that those designed for current use may re- 
main on the vines, to be picked from day to day, as needed, 
until the first of December. Nothing, perhaps, is gained by 
allowing the vines to spread greatly. In regular vineyards they 
are allowed to grow about seven feet high, to a stake, to which 
arms are attached projecting three feet on either side — the vines 
being seven feet apart ; thus an acre takes a thousand plants, 
yielding an average profit for wine-making purposes of three 
hundred dollars a year per acre. 

Civility. 97 

Vines in our yards, cultivated as above, will flourish for gene- 
rations. Kacine planted a vine in Paris, in the Rue des Marais, 
in the last year of his life — that is, 1699 — and in 1855, one 
hundred and fifty-six years later, it was covered with fruit. 
To every house owner in New York, we repeat with emphasis, 
Plant a Yine ! 


Some years ago we had a lady under our care. Having been 
raised in luxury and wealth, we found it impracticable to secure 
the amount of daily out-door exercise which the symptoms of 
her case seemed to require. By dint of cross questions, how- 
ever, we ascertained that she was unable to walk much, in con- 
sequence of an inverted toe nail. 

"But why did you not let me know that before?" 

" I visited New York a year ago, to consult one of your 
celebrated men. He split the nail, and dragged a part of it 
out by main force. The pain was terrible, and I determined I 
would rather die than submit to a second operation, especially 
as it grew out again, and is now so painful that a large portion 
of my time I can scarcely walk." 

We assured her that it could most probably be cured with- 
out the slightest pain whatever. We advised her to take a 
piece of broken window-glass and a small bit of raw cotton, 
and employ them according to the usage of experienced phy- 
sicians. She was utterly incredulous, but followed our direc- 
tions, and in a very short time could walk well without dis- 
comfort; and, at the end of five years, her husband writes, 
under date of February 17th, 1857, " Her toe is perfectly well, 
cured entirely by your simple prescription." Moral : Keep 
nothing from your physician. 


Costs nothing, and considering it pays its way so hand- 
somely in all companies, to say nothing of occasional chance ad- 
vantages, it is a marvel that it is not more common — that it is 
not a universal virtue. 

Within a very few years, a couple of gentlemen — one of 

98 HalVs Journal of Health, 

whom was a foreigner — visited the various locomotive work- 
shops of Philadelphia. They called at the most prominent 
one first, stated their wishes to look through the establishment, 
and make some inquiries of a more specific character. They were 
shown through the premises in a very indifferent manner, and 
no special pains were taken to give them any information be- 
yond what their own inquiries drew forth. The same results 
followed their visits to the several larger establishments. By 
some means, they were induced to call on one of a third or 
fourth rate character. The owner was himself a workman, of 
limited means; but on the application of the strangers, his 
natural urbanity of manner prompted him not only to show all 
that he had, but to enter into a detailed explanation of the 
working of his establishment, and of the very superior manner 
in which he could conduct his factory if additional facilities of 
capital were afforded him. The gentlemen left him, not only 
favorably impressed towards him, but with the feeling that he 
thoroughly understood his business. 

Within a year he was surprised with an invitation to visit 
St. Petersburg. The result was, his locomotive establishment 
was removed there bodily. It was the agent of the Czar who 
had called on him, in company with an American citizen. He 
has recently returned, having accumulated a large fortune, and 
still receives from his Russian workshops about a hundred thou- 
sand dollars a year. He invests his money in real estate, and 
has already laid the foundation for the largest fortune of any pri- 
vate individual in Philadelphia ; and all the result of civility 
to a couple of strangers. 


A religious newspaper in Philadelphia announces in its col- 
umn of General News, "Not more necessary for the preserva- 
tion of life on the battle field is a complete armor, than is a 
bottle of * * * pain killer to those who are suffering from 
acute bodily pain." 

The above is neither new nor true, and that it should be 
placed among items of news, when it is paid for as an adver- 
tisement, is to our mind not good morals in any paper, secular 
or religious. 






VOL. IV.] MAY, 1857. [NO. V. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


Who knows what " Pone" is ? Is it Greek, Hebrew, or 
High Dutch? How waters the month at its mention, of him 
who knows its meaning ! How longingly and lovingly does the 
exile from home revert to the happier days when he revelled in 
"Pones!" — Pones, only to be enjoyed at home, because not 
produced on a distant soil. 

If the reader is not in a hurry, we will begin at the begin- 
ning. Some three thousand years ago, there was a nation 
called Koman, who spoke a language termed Latin. Among 
many of its beautiful words was one pronounced "Pono" 
answering to our word place or set, to set a thing away, for 
example ; so it was used to mean " setting" And as the sun 
"sets," it came to be employed to designate the place where the 
sun sets, that is, west, and what occurred there was denominated 
" western." Milton wrote of "portent winds," that is, " western" 
winds. As Americans do everything " for short" and lop off 
all redundancies, we have only to drop the last two letters from 
Milton's word, and thus make " Pone," which signifies "western !" 

Having " come up" ourselves among the corn-stalks of Ken- 
tucky, almost under the shade of immortal "Ashland" made so 
by its peerless occupant, Henry Clay, we ought to know all 
about " western" things, this "Pone" especially. Although of 
Latin origin, it is more exclusively used by the African race, 
the "People of Color" as the aristocratic among them prefer to 
be called. They not only employ the term every day of their 
lives, but they luxuriate in the thing itself, dearer to them than 

102 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the dram of the drunkard. In short, " Pone," in the mind of 
# the darkey of all ages, sexes, and cliques, symbolizes "Bread" 
the staff of life. So, when not in a hurry, he asks for a "Pone 
of Bread, 1 ' meaning thereby a piece of bread as large as the 
extended hand, and two or three times as thick, hot as it can 
be, and made of "corn meal," known in the east as "Indian 
meal" So a "Pone" stands for half a pound of hot bread, made 
out of Indian corn ground coarse. In other words, a piece of 
■ western 1 ' bread, as it appears in every family, every day of the 
world. And when you do not see it in any day on the table, 
you may know you are no longer in Kentucky, or in the west. 

The practical point is, " How is a "Pone of Bread 71 made — 
the real, pure, genuine, original, identical "Corn Dodger 11 f 

Not having studied that valuable science, " Cookery," in 
early life, it was among the lost arts, the manufacture of " Pones," 
when we came to New York. So we gave up the expectation 
of ever seeing them on our own table in this latitude. But to 
come as near it as possible, we keep several of these " Pones' ' 
in our office, made years ago on Western soil by Phcebe, the cook 
of our youth. The artistic prints of her great big black fingers are 
upon them in distinct bas-relief. Besides, we have a pill-box 
of the " meal" which makes them, thinking that one of these 
days we will go down to the HecJcer brothers — their "nether" 
office, mind, where flour is made, the " upper" one being em- 
ployed as the manufactory of Puseyite theology, "samples" of 
which are exhibited in the New- York Churchman hebdomidally. 
Whether the theology is as purely white as the flour, we will 
not decide here — perhaps they are both of a whiteness. Certain 
it is, that the Hecker flour is the whitest in the world ; certain it 
is, also, that the whiter the flour, the less nutriment — substance — 
it has. Therefore flour may be so white as to have nothing in 
it. Then there are things very white which have worse than 
nothing in them ; such as whitened sepulchres, full of raw heads 
and bloody bones, and things like that. It is possible, therefore 
that a theology may be marvellously white and comely to look 
at, just like treble-refined flour, and have nothing in it valu- 
able, but hiding up all sorts of monstrous heresies and demor- 
alizing dogmas; white, like the flour, to look at, but when fed 
upon, yields no nutriment, sits heavy on the stomach, causing to 
the body dyspepsia, and to the mind " chimeras dire. 1 ' Now this 

Kentucky's Daughters. 103 

is precisely the reason we never see "Western" Indian on our 
tables. The Eastern is so refined, like the transcendental the- 
ology of the fatherland, that it does not answer the purpose for 
which it was made, that is, of a wholesome, nutritious, healthful 
food. Thus too is it, that to make it swallowable, to make it at 
all digestible, every recipe almost that we have ever seen, 
requires a dose of physic to be put in the corn meal of the East, 
to prevent it from killing those who eat it habitually. Only 
think of the absurdity of the thing — sending to a druggist 
every time corn bread is wanted on our table. 

Look at our miserable cookery hooks 1 Why, it is impossible to 
spread a table with ordinary provisions without having some 
article floating in grease, fired with spices, or saturated with 
salts or tartar, or other nauseating drug. 

We do not go all lengths with the water cure advocates and 
vegetarian fanaticisms, but we do say most uncompromisingly, 
that only their cook-books ought to be tolerated. Half an age 
would be added to human life in half a century, if our food 
was prepared by their directions, and an animal diet in modera- 
tion, were added thereto. 

At this present writing, one of the tastiest of Kentucky's 
daughters, and one of the tidiest of housekeepers, is with us for 
a " spell" and talking with her about lang syne, the leeks and 
onions of Egypt, we bethought us of our old time "Pone," how 
natural it would look, how home-like, with our colored servants, 
to see an old-fashioned Corn Dodger on our table. Now a real 
Kentucky daughter, with the blessing of an old-fashioned Ken- 
tucky mother, can put her hand to anything " in reason," from 
the sculling of a yawl across the Mississippi, to the trimming of 
a bonnet; from the fitting of a dress to the driving of a " pair ;" 
from the waltz of a ball-room — no, not exactly that ; our con- 
science will not allow us to sacrifice truth to any antipodism 
or a parallel. The ball-room is not patronized by the best Ken- 
tucky families. Well, we will let that go. A genuine Kentucky- 
lass can make a dress or wash the dishes, and cause you to feel 
all the time that you must keep your distance You take a lib- 
erty at your peril, whether at the wash-tub or the piano. The 
cleanliest, tidiest kitchen we ever saw, or ever expect to see, 
was that kept by the daughter of a Kentucky mother. Surely 
" there's nothing like leather" Look at it ! see what drafts the 

104 HaWs Journal of Health. 

great East makes on her distinguished western sister for recruits 
to supply the places of her own fallen magnates. An incident of 
May, 1856, may show our meaning, how Kentucky greatness 
is drifting to the metropolis of the western hemisphere. The 
acknowledged leader of Young Presbytery, the Eev. Thornton 
A. Mills, was a Kentuckian, since called to occupy in New 
York one of the most important and responsible posts of 
that church. The "lion" of the Old School party at the same 
time was a Kentuckian, and the " lamb" of the Assembly, the 
amiable and gifted Humphrey, among the next in might and mind 
of that congregated greatness, was a Kentuckian, by reason of 
long residence there, while beyond all others, and deservedly so, in 
professional skill in his line of medical surgery, is another who hails 
from Kentucky — Dr. Bodenhamer ; and as to ourself, see how the 
coach- wheels fly : our Journal is pronounced " one of the most 
useful family periodicals we have ever seen," and its editor, 
"one of the most practical men of the age. He tells us how to do 
almost everything that is worthy of being done at all." On the At- 
lantic shore, a great and good divine writes, " You are a blessing," 
and scarcely had his kindly words died away, when there comes 
from beyond the Sierra Nevada, j ust from the shores of the great 
Pacific sea, from a name not below the highest in goodness and 
scholarship and influence, "In behalf of mankind Ithank you for 
your Journal" while multitudes of minor minds strike the same 
string ! Contemplate how we apples navigate! ! 

But, after all, what are we ? If this hour we were stricken 
down in death, the hum of this city would not be a note the 
less loud ; our majestic Hudson would flow as placidly on to the 
boundless sea, each bright particular star would twinkle as 
lovingly out of the great blue deep above, as silvery would the 
shining moon dance upon the ocean's wave, and brightly as ever 
would the sun beam upon the busy world, beyond our own sol- 
itary home ; and even there how small, how short the change — 
not one smile the less would dimple the cheek of our three 
year old; our little Alice, to whom "fader" is to-day the all 
in all, would turn to "mudder" to-morrow, all oblivious that 
that father had ever lived ; and wifey, too, with a few sad remem- 
brances, would, in an o'er brief space, begin to woo and win as 
once before she wooed and won, spite of the ready vow of to- 
day, she ■" never would— no, never 1" 

To Make Corn Bread. 105 

Keally, man and all bis struttings and mimicry, reminds us of 
a frequent sight of our childhood 's summers — of two big black 
bugs laboring in the public road with might and main to roll 
together a ball of earth. No Napoleon ever struggled harder 
to crush a crown ; no Caesar was animated with a more absorb- 
ing desire to wear the diadem of empires, when presently a tre- 
mendous wagon- wheel rolls along and crushes bug and ball of 
earth to countless atoms, while time and tide, and sun and star 
move as they had moved before, nothing changed but the bug 
and his cherished ball of dust ! 

Said we to the handy Kentuckian aforesaid, Suppose we have 
a home breakfast in the morning ; the pure cream and the fresh 
butter we will engage to supply, if you will promise to have the 
"Pone" forthcoming. And it was done. We inquired how. 
All was luminously explained, but sight was always more val- 
uable to us than sound, an easier teacher by far ; so we encored 
the operation, and thuswise was it performed : 

A quart of Indian meal was put in a wooden bowl with as 
much salt as would be taken up with the thumb and fingers, 
that is, about a teaspoonful ; then add as much sweet milk as will 
make it up into adherent dough, of which take up a double 
handful, laying it over on one hand and thus carry it to the pan 
or skillet for baking, turn it in with one pat of the hand, and 
so on, until the vessel is full, and with a good heat, let it remain 
until the crust is a }^ellowish brown ; put it on the table piping 
hot, press it open, lay in a large lump of grass butter just made 
(if you can get such a thing), and it is ready for demolition. 

Corn bread is best if eaten while it is hot ; it becomes sodden 
as it cools. The milk supersedes the use of lard or butter ; no 
water is needed, although many use butter and water instead of 
milk ; but the true constituents of a Pone of bread are meal, milk, 
salt, nothing else. If you add eggs, it becomes Johnny cake, and 
is no longer a "Pone of bread. 1 ' 

A more simple, healthful, nutritious, and agreeable article of 
bread, is, in our opinion, never made than the one we have de- 
scribed. The roughness of the meal particles gives the advan- 
tages of brown bread ; its natural sweetness makes sugar or 
molasses unnecessary ; while the sweet milk answers all the pur- 
pose of soda or cream of tartar. 

It is important to put it into the pan for baking, the instant it is 

106 HalVs Journal of Health. 

made, and to have it baked as rapidly as practicable without 
burning the crust. 

The Indian meal of the East is ground so fine that the bread 
will be more or less sodden without soda. If it were a coarser 
article there is no reason why we should not have as good corn 
bread in New York as in the garden of the West ; the bread 
would be " light" without medical aid. 

And all these five pages about a " Pone l" 


Recent occurrences in Washington City, prove the truth of 
an article we published two years ago, on "Health and house 
hunting." It is estimated that not less than a thousand persons 
had their health seriously impaired while at the National Hotel, 
in consequence of the drainings of the immense establishment 
having been prevented from passing off, allowing no escape for 
their destructive effluvia, except upwards through the building, 
first saturating the meats which were eaten, and then the atmos- 
phere which the guests were compelled to breathe every moment 
they were on the premises; thus, at least, reported. 

There can be' no doubt that millions of people die every year 
from similar causes, but being less concentrated, the work is 
done in too gradual a manner to excite suspicion. In Boston, 
a number of years ago, very special pains were taken to keep 
the city in an unexceptionable cleanly condition, to prevent the 
advent of cholera. Every privy, every back yard, every gutter, 
was scrupulously examined, and the occupant of each house was 
enjoined to keep the kitchen and pantry scrupulously free from 
dirt and dampness. Yet, after all this precaution, the cholera did 
appear in one street with great malignity, and a severe disappoint- 
ment and discouragement was the result as to the efficacy of such 
sanitary measures. All was explained, however, when the visiting 
committee entered the cellar of an indicated house, and there, in its 
darkest corner, was the festering mass of corruption — the house 
offal of a whole winter. With its removal, the epidemic ceased. 

If there is an architect in the city of New York or within a 
ten mile radius of the City Hall, who has three grains of 
common sense, let him be exhibited at the museum at a dime 
a head. It will pay largely. 

Vicious Architecture. 107 

What is the chief end of a modern Architect ? 

To make money. 

What is his chief aim ? 

His chief aim is two-fold : To bring down the estimate to 
the lowest possible dollar, until the contract is closed, and then 
to pile up the " extras" by modifications and improvements to 
the utmost limit of endurance. 

We do not believe that there is a single public building or 
private store or dwelling in New York, erected within ten years, 
that is not, in important features, a disgrace to the name of sci- 
entific architecture. 

If there is in this city any public building erected within ten 
years, which does not leak, we would like to see it. Such 
would be an exception rather than the rule. 

Does any observing man believe that there is in all New York 
and Philadelphia, a single safe house constructed to be warmed 
by furnace heat? 

How many churches are there in the five largest cities in the 
Union which could be emptied of an ordinary congregation 
within three minutes, in case of sudden alarm of any kind ? We 
enter ours — a type of all — through four successive doors, two of 
which open inwards. The large outer doors open inwards. 
Consequently, on a sudden alarm, there would be a jam, and 
no earthly power could open one of those doors ; and in case of 
fire, multitudes would be burned to death standing in masses, 
as has been known to be the case at Kichmond in our own 
country, and more recently, in one of the Kussian cities. It is 
not safe to enter a single church or theatre or opera house in New 
York. The death-trap construction of the former Tripler Hall, 
built here for Jenny Lind, is fresh within the memory of all. 
Its destruction was the abatement of a nuisance. Had the in- 
cendiary fired it before the audience had dispersed, multitudes 
must have inevitably been burned to death or suffocated, not- 
withstanding it had been greatly altered from its original con- 
struction. But this, even, was owing to the demands of the 
daily press, and not to the philanthropy of the owner, or the 
good sense of the architect. 

Look at the basement kitchens and dining-rooms of nine tenths 
of the dwellings of New York. Is it any wonder that our hos- 

10S HalVs Journal of Health 

pitals are filled with sick servant girls, and our cooks die off 
with pneumonias, typhoid fever, and rheumatic disease ? 

And that improvement in the Dartmoor prison line, the 
stately dwellings which, while they decorate our city, populate 
Greenwood, constructed * • three rooms deep. 1 ' Yes ! that is the fash- 
ionable description of a house with all the modern improvements 
— " three rooms deep" the middle one being used as a bedroom, 
where, literally, a ray of sunshine never enters, and no air, but 
must come through another room from windows thirty feet 
away. Without question, our houses are made to die in, not 
to live in — not to be enjoyed. No room is fit for a bedroom 
which has not at least two windows facing the sun for several 
hours of every day. 

Our churches should have all their doors opening in the 
direction of the street, or made to slide easily ,* besides, two large 
doors should be put in the part of the building opposite the 
main entrance, or side doors, which can be seen by the whole 
congregation, so that in a moment of alarm, there might be four 
directions of escape, for mind, a modern church window is too 
high ; its sash is made of iron, and each light is often not 
large enough to get a good-sized head through. Hence, the 
only place for escape is through the doors. 

As to dwellings " three rooms deep," so much the fashion 
now, they had better be demolished, or the centre rooms removed. 
And we recommend that if houses are not large enough, exten- 
sions should be made in the rear, in the form of what is techni- 
cally called an " ell," which is the prevailing fashion in Phila- 
delphia ; and a most excellent and healthful arrangement it is, too, 
for by this means, every room is well exposed to the sun, causing 
light, purity, and dryness, the great essentials in any healthy 
dwelling. An impressive incident in illustration of this point, 
has recently come to light. A mercantile house doing a large 
business, observed in the course of years, that their bookkeepers 
died of consumption one after the other, however healthy they 
were on entering their employ* In looking around for a cause, 
it was discovered in the fact, that the room occupied had but 
one window, which looked upon a small back yard, enclosed on 
every side by buildings forty feet high, thus precluding every 
ray of sunshine. A change was instantly. A light, airy 
apartment on the second or third floor was provided, and tho 

Bible Hygiene. 109 

trouble at once disappeared. A dog confined in a cellar will 
become consumptive in six weeks, according to the observation 
of medical men. No room without the glorious sunshine is fit 
for any living creature, man or beast. The glorious sunshine ! 
The free and bounteous gift of a beneficent Creator — the source 
of all buoyant, healthful life. Yet in our truculence to fashion, 
in our greed of gold, in our infatuated indifference to the health 
of our wives, our children, and of ourselves, we remorselessly 
throw it all away, one of the loveliest gifts of a loving God, the 
beauteous sunshine ! 

As this May moving season is the time for changes, when 
many enter new purchased homes and all begin to "improve" 
more or less, we crave a mature consideration of the suggestions 
made, believing as we do, that it concerns the health of many 
families. And on all who change their habitations, we urge the 
bestowal of a large, a very large share of attention, first of all, 
to the cellar : remove every movable thing ; open every door 
and hatchway ; sweep it, yes, sweep it half a dozen times — floor, 
sides, ceiling ; then give a plentiful coating of whitewash, made 
with unleached lime, and in all other respects, attend to the 
suggestions made a year ago, for the obvious reason, that what- 
ever of filth is in the cellar, rises upwards and saturates the at- 
mosphere of the whole building, not to kill you in a night not 
to poison your system in so short a space as a few days, as at 
the National Hotel in Washington City, but which in its more 
insidious workings, saps by slow degrees the health of those who 
are dearest to us, draining them of their vitality until none is 
left, and before we are aware, we find them a wreck, the mere 
shadow of what they were a few years before, in spite of their 
living in unexceptionable (outside) brown stone buildings, up 
town, in one of the best ventilated spots on the globe, with broad 
rolling rivers on either side, and an ocean at the foot, all owing 
to careless servants, their master setting the example, making 
the cellar the receptacle of all that is foul and filthy. There is 
more sound practical hygiene on this subject of healthy houses 
in the fourteenth chapter of Leviticus, from verse thirty -four, 
than in all the skulls of all the health commissioners and common 
councils of all the cities, of Christendom. Pity it is that we 
don't read our Bible more- -that great book, which contains the 
leading principles of what is indisputably good, and useful, and 

110 HalVs Journal of Health. 

true, in all that really pertains to human happiness ; and pity is it, 
that the, Sunday newspaper, and the trashy weekly, and the en. 
ticing story book, for childhood, youth, and hoary age, on sub- 
jects pertaining to the world, and party preaching, and infidel 
peripatetic lecturers, with their new-fangled crudities for human 
amelioration, and their inane theories for elevating the masses — 
pity is it, we say, that all these things so attract attention from 
day to day, that the Bible, the best book of all, and the wisest, 
true in all its theories, and in all its practices safe, has become 
a sealed book to the many, and any other volume on the centre 
or side table, is opened sooner than it. Oh ! hie me to the " old 
paths" and to times of lang syne, when the Saturday afternoon 
Bible class was the thing talked of and prepared for during the 
week, its leader a William Wallace, and then a John McFar- 
land, a pupil of the elder Mason ; and these same youthful Bible 
learners now, the men of their generation, where are they ? 
What are they doing ? Why, they are scattered through this 
whole land, east and west, and in other lands, leading men 
everywhere, as secretaries, as professors, as presidents of colleges, 
as influential editors, clergymen of mark, and higher still, as 
missionaries to the distant heathen, and the privy counsellors 
of kings ! Let us tell you, reader, a Bible man — a man whose 
principles are founded on Bible teachings — is a man everywhere, 
whether a shoe-black or an emperor — more, the only man who 
can be safely trusted, in all God's universe. 

Let us then turn back to the Bible, one and all. Let us re- 
quire that it, and it alone, should be read in our families on the 
Sabbath day, and not one line from tract, or sermon, or Sunday- 
school book, and we will all be the wiser, and better, and 
healthier, reasoning as it does of " temperance" enjoining 
"cleanliness" and teaching that the next virtue to "godliness" 
is "contentment" and in these three, contentment, cleanliness, 
and temperance, have we the essential elements of all practical 

We do not exactly like to write roughly, but we must in- 
veigh against the mawkish sentimentalities of the times — that 
mistaken philanthropy of a certain class of men, who, brought 
up in early life without any religious training, yet possessing a 

The Bible, Man's Polar Star. Ill 

high grade of intellect and large-heartedness, strike out into 
the limitless sea of human amelioration, with heads full of 
crude theories and hypothetical impossibilities, believing them- 
selves, and causing some of the weaker folk to believe likewise, 
that they are going to regenerate the world in double quick 
time — to take a short cut towards the millennial era, and inau- 
gurate a heaven on earth. But having no Bible for their polar 
star, they soon "fetch up" on the breakers of human depravity, 
and, in less than a lifetime, a perfect wreck is made of all their 
hopes, and they conclude to wait for the coming of that more 
propitious age when men shall be "less selfish;" when, if they 
had read the Bible, they v/ould have found in the outset, that 
the very first command in the Christian system was directed 
against that very principle, in the utterance of the Saviour, 
when he would describe the first step towards an elevation to 
a better and higher nature: "Deny thyself, take up thy cross" 
then "follow me." 

This very class of persons, Pratt, and Fourier, and Ann Lee, 
with Dale Owen, and Theodore Parker, and Brisbane, and the 
lesser lights, such as Pearl Andrews, Hine, Garrison, Thomp- 
son, F. Wright, Nichols, and others of a kindred nature, 
women's rights people, Bloomerites, Kadical Abolitionists, phre- 
nologists, vegetarians, water cures, Spiritualists, table tippers, 
and all that ; through all these classes of people there runs a 
certain vein of j9sewc?o-philanthropy and rank infidelity, border- 
ing on Atheism, which shows with perfect plainness that they 
are radically one and the same thing — enemies of the Christian 
religion, rushing with reckless indifference into the plausible 
and untried — all careless of what ruinous consequences may 
follow, and will follow, should their plans fail. We may with 
great safety set it down as an incontrovertible fact, that the 
moment a man begins to improve on Bible philanthropy, that 
moment he becomes a fool. Turning every woman into a her- 
maphrodite, the reckless instantaneous freeing of millions of 
thriftless and improvident slaves, sweeping half the good things 
of this life from our tables, dismantling our dwellings, cutting 
the useless buttons from our coats, converting our statuary 
into lime for manure, covering our cattle with the canvas 
which records the genius of immortal artists, the dissolution of 
the marriage tie " made easy" as the unloosing of an old shoe, 

112 HaWs Journal of Health. 

hugging the heartless murderer to their bosom the moment he 
is found out, and screening scoundrels of every grade from the 
penalties of the law, through the tender mercies of the insane 
asylum — these, we say, are but a part of the attempts to im- 
prove on Bible mercy, on Bible polity. How none of them 
have succeeded, how all of them have miserably failed, and 
always will fail, present observations teach, and the true his- 
torian of future times will have nothing to do but to reiterate 
the lesson. 

It is to one only of these pretended benevolences that we 
designed to draw attention when we wrote the heading of this 
article — the plea of insanity, which is now so rife, and which 
is to become the scapegoat of every infraction of law, and jus- 
tice, and right. Already has it come to the pass, that if a man 
eats himself to death, or guzzles bad liquor until he can guzzle 
no more, or studies himself to a skeleton, and then jumps into 
the river or puts a bullet through his heart, the merciful ver- 
dict is, " He is insane" If he forges his friend's name, or fires 
his neighbor's dwelling, or his own store, to secure the insur- 
ance, or if a young lady allows herself to be abducted by 
another woman's husband, or a hysterical daughter of a mil- 
lionaire marries her father's coachman, the convenient cloak of 
"insanity" is benevolently thrown around these delinquencies 
and aberrations, and the next d&y the weak and the unprinci- 
pled alike show themselves in the streets, the "observed of all 
observers" — the lions of the hour. 

Is heaven-born charity and her sister, true benevolence, thus 
to mantle over all that is dishonorable and murderous, and to 
cover lechery from our sight ? These things ought not so to be. 
The true philanthropist of our day and generation should wake 
up to the discovery of an effectual remedy for these evils. 

But, not to make our article too long, we propose, in short, 
that all persons be tried for the crimes fairly charged against 
them. Let the majority of the jury decide on the verdict as to 
the fact of the act ; then let the plea of insanity come in. If 
not sustained, let the law take its course. If sustained, let the 
person be committed to an insane asylum for life, if the crime 
was a capital one, or, if cured of their insanity, to be transferred 
to the penitentiary for the remnant of their days.: 

If the act be only a penitentiary offence, let them be sent to 

Cost of Church and Theatre. 


the asylum, to remain for life or until cured ; and when cured, 
let them serve the same time in the penitentiary which they 
would have done had they not been declared insane. For, 
beyond question, if insane, the asylum is the proper place for 
them ; if not insane, the penitentiary should not be cheated of 
its workmen. In other words, either have no laws, or enforce 
those we have enacted. 


Calculations and estimates have been made and published 
as to the amount which it costs individual church members to 
sustain their respective churches, and in such a way as to pro- 
duce the impression that it is inconsistent with the sentiment 
that the gospel should be free to all. A great many of our 
secular papers do not hesitate to give a side-strike at religion, 
when they can do it by an innuendo. 

Cost of a Baptist, per annum, 

$3 40 

" Methodist, . . . 

. 3 40 

" Presbyterian, 

7 00 

" Congregationalist, . 

. 10 00 

" Eoman Catholic, 

14 00 

" Episcopalian, 

, 18 00 

" [Reformed Dutch, . 

. 22 00 

" Unitarian, . 

23 00 

Supposing these estimates are correct, there is one thing to 
be kept in view : the money thus furnished belonged to the 
donors, and if they saw proper to spend it in securing for them- 
selves and families the opportunities of religious worship, we 
do not see exactly why it should be invidiously remarked 
upon, especially as the largest portion of all the charities of 
the land are sustained by those who habitually attend church 
on Sundays. Those are they who give largely while living, 
and as largely when they die. Aye, millions do they give 
every year, to teach the blind, to house the homeless, to clothe 
the naked, to feed the hungry, to nurse the sick, to reclaim the 
abandoned, and to save the orphan from idleness, and crime, 
and disease — thus alleviating the burdens of to-day, and pre- 

114 EalVs Journal of Health. 

venting their occurrence on to-morrow. There is nothing 
in church-going to entail poverty, disease, destitution, and 

Suppose we make some calculations as to what it costs to 
support another institution — the drama, the theatre. Not less 
than twenty thousand dollars are expended every twenty-four 
hours in New York city, in connection with the various 
branches of theatrical performances, including tickets, carriage 
hire, refreshments, brandy, gin, whiskey, lager- bier, and worse 
things still. Seven millions of dollars a year in New York 
alone are expended in connection with theatrical performances. 
Let it be so that the money thus expended belongs legiti- 
mately to the persons who thus spend it, which nobody who 
knows the character of the mass of habitual theatre-goers will 
for a moment contend. Look at the grog shops, and drinking 
saloons, and gambling establishments which swarm around the 
theatre. A theatre without a house for drunkenness and pros- 
titution within hailing distance, would be out of its element ; 
it would die of inanition. We know of no theatre whose 
boards are guiltless of the frequent sneer, and slur, and bitter 
sarcasm as to religion and its ministers. 

If the drama is so elevating in its tendencies, it is rather 
difficult accounting for the fact that not only those who patron- 
ize it do at the same time sustain the bar, the billiard-saloon, 
and the assignation house, but even those who dispense the 
drama, the actors and actresses, patronize these same things, 
with chance exceptions; and in dying, in vain do we look for 
those benevolences which build asylums, found colleges, and 
sustain hospitals — which provide for the aged widow, and give 
the orphan child a home. Moses Shepherd dies and gives half 
a million to secure a home and a keeper for the unfortunate 
lunatic and the harmless idiot. Another, who lived by the 
drama, and made by it a fortune, gave it to another in his own 
line of business, while his aged mother was left to starve, and 
his own brothers and sisters were cut off without a shilling. 

With these divers calculations, we ask which is the best 
investment; which pays the largest dividend to humanity — the 
church or the theatre? — the church, with its quiet Sabbaths, its 
nights for repose, its countless academies, and colleges, and 
seminaries, its hospitals, its asylums, its "retreats" — or the 

Drinking at Meals. 115 

theatre, with its midnight saturnalia at the eating saloon, the 
dram shop, the billiard room, the pimp house; crowding the 
lock-ups, filling the jails, peopling the penitentiaries, or occu- 
pying with its patrons and its victims the very hospitals and 
asylums which church-goers have builded and sustain ! 


Prenez garde, "take care," "look out," "wide awake," you scis- 
soring, careless, lazy, sleepy editors ! Your negligence sometimes 
pulls down in a night what you have been for a long time build- 
ing up. A taking title or an authoritative signature often gains 
admittance for an article which is not merely scientific nonsense, 
but downright and pernicious untruth. Only think of a dozen 
or so of our religious newspapers recommending beer and wine 
at meals as a positive advantage ! 

We have seen an article headed Drinking at Dinner, and cred- 
ited to "Orr's Chemistry" going the rounds of our exchanges, 
\£~f*whm we told them years ago{!) that drinking at meals was a 
pernicious practice — even a draught of cold water, unless in high 
health, and even then, all that could be said of it is, that it may 
be done with impunity by the robust and the strong. A sip or 
two now and then during a meal may be allowable, especially 
if it be of some mild hot tea ; but cold water, to that extent, 
even, is positively hurtful to all persons in feeble health, of small 
vitalities, of little bodily vigor. But here is the article verbatim : 

" Not seldom do we hear the opinion advanced, that drinking 
during a meal is an obnoxious habit ; but quite wrongfully ; 
for the gastric juice may be diluted with a considerable quantity 
of water without losing its dissolving power in the slightest de- 
gree. Only a superabundance of water (! — Ed.) would diminish 
or arrest the peculiar action of the matters contained in the di- 
gestive fluids. Large draughts of water, therefore, will be the 
most injurious with aliments difficult of digestion, like the fats ; 
and hence the drinking of too much water after fat pork, for 
instance, is properly avoided; but in countries where soup 
does not constitute a regular part of the meal, drinking water 
is positively to be recommended. Beer and wine at dinner are 
also hurtful only if taken in excess; for in the latter case the 

116 HalVs Journal of Health. 

alcohol coagulates the albuminous substances, not only of the 
food, but also of the digestive fluids, and thus disturbs diges- 
tion. If taken in a moderate quantity, these beverages are cal- 
culated to cause the meal to hold out longer ; for the fact that 
we are not so soon hungry again after a meal with wine than if 
we have taken only water with it, is to be accounted for by the 
slower combustion of the constituents of our body, inasmuch as 
the alcohol we have imbibed takes possession of the inhaled 
oxygen. Hence, wine with a meal is extremely useful when a 
long journey, or work in hand, renders it impossible to take food 
again at the usual time ; so much the more so, as such detention 
from food itself usually causes an acceleration of the meta- 
morphosis of the tissues, which beer and wine efficiently obviate." 
To the above we reply, that actual looking into the stomach 
during the process of digestion authorizes the following obser- 
vations : 

1. The introduction of any cold liquid into the stomach in- 
stantly arrests the progress of digestion, and the suspension con- 
tinues, until the liquid introduced has been there long enough 
to be warmed up to the natural temperature of the stomach, 
which is, one hundred degrees of Fahrenheit. 

2. When any liquid is introduced into the stomach during di- 
gestion, the progress of digestion is arrested, and remains so, until 
the watery particles have been removed. 

Now what can be the use of a man's talking against observed 
facts, meeting them with bare assertion ? 

He goes further and says that " alcoholic drinks are hurtful 
only if taken in excess." This sentiment is a dangerous one, 
even if it were true, for its latitude is boundless. Only in ex- 
cess ! What is the rule ? Who is the judge ? 

" Wine or beer at meals are extremely useful because a person 
does not get hungry so soon !" Then we advise him to eat more, 
and let the wine and beer alone. 

Another reason is, if you happen to be compelled to go 
longer without the next meal, "such detention from food 
causes an acceleration of the metamorphosis of the tissues." 
That sounds " scientific" certainly, whatever may be its sense or 
truth. But if you happened not to get another "horn" as 
soon as you expected, what is to prevent " an acceleration of 
the metamorphosis of the tissues" ? What nonsense ! 

Constitutions Ruined. 117 

The practical meaning of the expression is, a man who drinks 
a glass or two of wine at dinner can work longer without another 
meal than his companion, who in all respects else was equal to 

We beg leave to say that there is not a syllable of truth in 
any such statement. Any man of observation knows better. 
And yet this learned twaddle has been going the rounds of the 
religious press for months, one paper copying it from another. 
Do our religious editors do their whole duty when they admit 
such articles without remark, without rebuke? The article 
attracts attention by recommending water, and ends by recom- 
mending wine. In the name of the Prophet— Figs ! ex- 
claims the itinerant street vendor of Constantinople. Really, 
it seems to us very much like the work of a liquor dealer, who 
having made some jolly editor happy with a bottle of his best, 
secured a promise of insertion, that, stripped of all verbiage, 
means " a glass of wine at dinner is good for everybody," and 
he has found not a few temperance and religious editors to join 
in the acclaim, "just so." 

Wake up, ye gentlemen of the press ! Your work is not yet 
done. Our poor-houses, and prisons, and penitentiaries, are too 
full of the friends of free drink for you to go to sleep so early 
in the day. 

But let us tell you a fact before we close, which, perhaps, you 
may have forgotten, and may be, when that next bottle of the 
best comes round with another oiled untruth, you may be more 
on your guard. It's a little fact, just. It is an observed fact that 
a drink of brandy taken into the stomach before eating, para- 
lyzes it for several hours, and that it does not regain its natural 
healthful condition for thirty-six hours afterwards ; consequently 
digestion is impeded ; and keep it impeded on a hearty meal 
for a time, and it will kill any man. If alcohol in any of its 
forms is taken only during meals or soon after, the ill results 
are modified. 


It is natural enough that a poor youth taken from manual 
labor in high health, then sent to engage in studies preparatory 
to professional life,* should, after years of alternate eating, 

118 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sleeping, and study, fall into disease, and die of consumption^ 
just as he is finishing his studies ! A few survive a little longer, 
enter their profession, and in a year or two pass away in death. 
Among the rarest of instances is it, that professional life is at- 
tended with vigorous health. 

The Boston Puritan Recorder says of one : "He was a young 
man of great promise, second to no one in his class in scholar- 
ship, and had uniformly exhibited a depth of piety and a 
fixedness of purpose very remarkable. Being indigent, he was 
assisted by the American Education Society, and in every re- 
spect merited its support. Cut off, just as he was about to leave 
college, by a pulmonary complaint." This is not a solitary case. 
It is one among scores, if not hundreds. There are questions 
of common sense and of common honesty which we wish to 
propose in connection with this case, and which we do not in- 
tend shall remain unanswered. 

The funds of the American Education Society are supplied by 
the voluntary charitable contributions, in large part, of many 
who work for a living, and in good faith that they will be used 
judiciously, and in the best direction. 

Is the Society as careful to inquire into the bodily health and 
constitution of the young men who are proposed for their ben- 
efactions as a recruiting officer or an insurance clerk ? Have 
they any right to expend the money placed in their hands on 
young men of doubtful health, under the vague hope of their 
outgrowing their ailments ? They have not. 

But suppose the health of the applicant is unexceptionable, have 
they a right to support him in his studies without any scientific 
inquiries as to his health subsequently, and without any personal 
supervision as to that point ? They have not. We know from 
long residence in Louisiana, that the health of a newly-purchased 
slave is an object of special solicitude on the part of the owner, 
and continues to be. The health of his men is the first care of 
a good general or of a veteran commodore. And yet we will 
venture to guess, that not one dollar, not one hour of attention 
by salaried employees is expended in the direction of the preser- 
vation and promotion of the health of a single beneficiary. No 
lectures given, no books or periodicals of general hygiene, no 
personal inquiries, injunctions and requisitions made! If this 
is not culpable negligence, if this is n:t a shirking of the spirit 

Constitutions Ruined. 119 

of the office, the duties of which they are paid to perform, what 
is it? 

This young man studied until he died. What were the pro- 
fessors of Dartmouth College doing all this time ? Where was 
the Secretary of the American Education Society for the three, 
six, twelve months, of young Hardy's gradual march to the 
grave ? Or, did he have good health until within three months 
of death, then fall into consumption and die apace ? Such 
could not have been the case. It never is the case. Common 
consumption of the lungs is the work of years. It always is 
the work of years. It never is the work of weeks or 

The Puritan's good-hearted correspondent ejaculates, " may 
the Lord raise up more such who shall be permitted to enter 
his vineyard with equal promise of talent and piety." Now, 
this, to our mind, borders on the ridiculous, only we would not 
treat religious things with unweening levity. Yet we must say, 
that we see no evidence that the Lord had any hand in prevent- 
ing this young man's entering the ministry. He prevented 
himself. He ate as much as he wanted, he slept as much as he 
wanted, studied hard, and he died, as a very natural result. The 
faculty at Dartmouth College are salaried men. If all the stu-' 
dents die, their salary goes on. Besides, they are not expected 
to be the mothers, nurses, and physicians of the young men 
under their charge — the business for which they are paid is to 
make chalk-marks on the black-board, and talk about themes, 
roots, derivations, the squares of the distances — a plus b 
minus c equals c minus b plus a, quod erat demonstrandum. 

As to the Executive Committee of the Society, their business 
is to figure out the ways and means, and the Secretary is employ- 
ed to collect facts, make statements, and publish money-bringing 
anecdotes. So, after all, these persons are not blamed by us, 
perhaps, for anything more than one of the grossest oversights 
of which sensible people can be guilty, and we close by saying 
that the inattention which prevails in reference to the health of 
the students in our seminaries, colleges, and universities, is a 
living disgrace to every teacher and trustee connected with 
them. And as far as beneficiaries are concerned, it is a gross 
misuse of the mite of the widow and the penny of the poor, to 
expend hundreds and thousands of dollars in bringing forward 

120 HalVs Journal of Health. 

indigent young men into the ministry without personal teach- 
ings addressed to each, individually, by competent medical men, 
from the very first day of their entrance on student life. 


" The world is worse than it used to was," is the expressed 
sentiment of many a poor, unfortunate, woe-begone, used-up 
fellow. His face is as long as a fence-rail — as dolefully serious 
as Dan Tucker without his dinner — as blue as an indigo-bag. 
He lives down in the cellar himself, and thinks all the world is 
doing the same thing. Being of no account, doing nothing, he 
thinks all creation is like his old shoe, " going down heel,' 7 
while he is too lazy to pull it up. He is of the Neverwas family. 
Everything and everybody compares unfavorably with the 
things and bodies of his youth; he excepts himself, of course; 
and while he is the most striking illustration of going back- 
ward, he is a firm believer that he alone of all creation has 
made progress. Who are the people that will have it that 
the summers are hotter, the winters colder, the beef tougher, 
the turkeys smaller, the pigs poorer, the potatoes more watery? 
they never saw the eggs so small or corn-ears so short; the 
girls are uglier, the boys ruder ; the ministers don't preach as 
much gospel, nor judges administer the same law; the sun 
does not shine so bright, nor do the skies look so clear; there 
is less color in the grass, and less bloom on the rose. In short, 
the whole world is getting worse, and they are tired of it — in 
which last the world accords its heartiest reciprocity, for the 
very good reason, they are of no account to anybody. But 
who are the persons most given to depreciate the present? 
Not the money-making man, not the energetic mechanic, who 
finds he has more than he can do ; not the clergyman, whose 
influences for good pervade a whole community, and whose 
pulpit is surrounded by respectful multitudes. The fact is, the 
world is retrograding only to those who are themselves going 
down hill. When a man begins to croak about "hard times,'' 
and about everybody getting worse, the whole world included, 
it behoves him to inquire if it is not he himself who is thus 
depreciating in value, in his industry, his activity, his sterling 

Soap Surls. 121 

worth, and his high resolution. Energetic men are not croak- 
ers. The resolute and those whose motto is " upward" — whose 
actions show " progress" — are not the men who feel disposed 
to believe in coming ruin. No ; there is progress everywhere — 
elevation in precept and in practice everywhere around us. 
In all callings do liberal views prevail. Take the whole ques- 
tion, and let a single fact decide it. Where a dollar was given 
in private charity a hundred years ago to found a college, en- 
dow a seminary, build a hospital, or sustain an asylum, millions 
are now bestowed. A hundred years ago the pence only were 
given to humanity; now it is the pound. Be of good courage, 
then, ye noble workers of good ! this world is better for your 
life, and daily is rising into the more perfect similitude of what 
it shall be, when, donning its millennial garb, it shall be THE 
sun of all worlds ! 


At ten dollars a gallon ! A money-making business that. 
But is any man so verdant as to pay such a price for an article 
which, can be made for six cents a gallon ? Yes, there are ten 
thousand men and women in New York city alone, who are 
regular customers, and have been for years in succession — at 
least so we judge from developments made at a special term 
of the Supreme Court, in the city of New York, for January, 
1857, Judge Duer presiding. On the hearing, the receipt for 
making the " Balm of a Thousand Flowers" was produced, and 
it appeared that it was compounded of grease, lye, sugar, and 
alcohol, dignified with the name of palm oil, potash, &c. We 
have seen it recommended in the papers, with various certifi- 
cates, as the best thing in the world to make the hair grow, to 
keep the face and hands clean, and to perfume the whole body 
generally. It so happens that it is a fact, that soap suds are 
the best thing known to keep people clean, to shave with, or 
to make the hair grow, when it can be made at all, or to keep 
it from falling out, when it has been brought to that state by 
plastering the scalp and hair with hogs' lard, or any other form 
of fat, for months in succession — this same oil being " good for" 
making all floating dust and dirt adhere to the hair, when, in a 
reasonable time, a layer of grease and dirt is found spread over 

122 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the scalp, closing up the pores, destroying the vitality of the 
hair, causing it to fall out by the roots. Under such circum- 
stances, the Balm of a Thousand Flowers is truly a useful article, 
for its thorough application will be followed by the growth of 
the hair, when it has been prevented from growing by accu- 
mulated filth, or by severe sickness. But then, soap suds will do 
the same thing, by adding a little spirits of hartshorn or alco- 
hol. In our judgment, therefore, there is no hair tonic known 
more efficient and appropriate for the masses than a bottle of 
Balm of a Thousand Flowers, at one dollar, or half a pint of 
soap suds at one cent. ISpr* Similar percentages do patent med- 
icines yield, with the drawback however, of their failing uni- 
formly to meet the reasonable expectations of the purchasers. 


For a religious newspaper to put under the heading of "gen- 
eral news'" the following? It might be useful to inquire, was 
the article paid for? When religious newspapers go down to 
the trickeries of the secular press, and practise the same busi- 
ness morals, we may reasonably expect a decline in their re- 
ligious influence. The publisher of the paper, and the editor 
too, know very well that this article has been travelling the 
rounds of the press for months, and all endorse the statement 
that it is an item of " news." Insidious untruth is everywhere 
dangerous, but coming from Christian men, from clerical edi- 
tors, we may well inquire, where are we going? 

The whole design of the article is to spread the name of 
secret medicines, and religious newspapers lend their aid in that 
direction. We simply inquire, " Is it right?" 

Dr. * * *, in his travels on the Cape of Good Hope, says : 
I found very frequently among the Butch Boors of the back 
country, * * • * which they keep hung up by a thong 
around the neck of the bottle to a peg over their hammocks. 
Indeed this seems to be their sole protection against the throat 
and lung disorders which are quite prevalent among them. I 
thought it a speaking comment on the practical genius of the 
American people, that they should furnish the staple, I believe 
the only remedy this people buy to use. Asking if they used 
the same manufacturer's pills, they told me that better purgatives 
grew all around them than anybody could prepare. 





VOL. IV.] JUNE, 1857. [NO. VI. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


Poveety, disease, and crime herd together, while thrift, health, 
and position, are found associated in the same individual. The 
education of the street leads to the former, the education of the 
church leads to the latter; by which we mean, that as a matter 
of civil polity, the most certain exterminator of disease, and 
crime, and shiftless poverty, is securing to children the benefits 
of a religious training, of Sunday church-going, of ministerial 
visitation, and of daily parental counsel on church topics. 

Of the two, a thorough collegiate education, with advantages 
of an European tour, and the being taught to read the Bible 
by a pious mother and there stop, we have no hesitation in 
our own mind, in choosing the latter for every child of ours, if 
we had the option of but one of the two, and would feel an 
infinitely greater confidence that those children, whether boys or 
girls, would grow up to be independent, useful, and solid members 
of society. 

It is a common and strong mode of making an assertion, es- 
pecially in the mouths of wicked men and superficial observers, 
" How is it that ministers' children are worse than other people's," 
or, " I have always heard it said that ministers' children are 
the worst in the world." The sentiment seems to be a conceded 
fact. But it is utterly destitute of foundation. The son of a 
minister becoming a derelict, will attract more attention than a 
thousand equal criminals from the masses ; hence the saying. 

So far from its being true that the children of ministers, or to 
have a broader foundation, the children of church members, 

126 HaWs Journal of Health. 

are worse than other children, it is the very reverse, and, as in- 
vestigation will show, remarkably so. 

A great many pointless sarcasms are thrown out in a certain 
class of newspapers against " Sunday religion," " Sunday Chris- 
tians, * " churchgoers," and "being devout on the Sabbath day.'* 
It certainly is better to be devout, to be externally religious, one 
day in a week, than not to be devout at all ; better to manifest 
an external regard for the worship of the Almighty on a Sun- 
day, than to throw off all obligation, and never exhibit anything 
of the kind. 

But, after all, who are the charitable men and women of the 
times ? With here and there a rare exception, they are church- 
going people, whose habitual practice is to worship in the house 
of God on the Sabbath day. 

We look in vain v for the erection of a hospital, the building 
of a college, the foundation of a professorship, and the insti- 
tution of beneficiary operations from successful stage actors, 
play writers, gamblers, horse-racers, and circus riders. But turn 
to the church-going, Sabbath-abiding merchant, manufacturer, 
mechanic, farmer, civilian, and you will see in them the friends 
of good order, the patrons of the deserving, the founders of 
schools, the builders of churches, and the leading and patron 
spirits of almost every charitable institution in the land. And 
that we may not be lacking in facts to sustain our position, we 
may not do better than to give a list of benefactions made up 
from a very cursory glancing at our exchanges within a short 
time past. 

1. A gentleman in Detroit proposes to endow The Fine Arts 
Department of the University of Michigan, and commissions 
Professor Bradish to proceed to Europe to fulfil this purpose. 

2. Henry A. Farrell, of Philadelphia, bequeathed twenty 
thousand dollars to a Theological Seminary of that city. 

3. Miss Elizabeth Galston, of New York, left thirty-five thou- 
sand dollars to various benevolent societies. 

4. Miss Kachel Morrison, of Louisville, Ky., left two thousand 
dollars to two institutions of learning. 

5. Miss Amelia M. Cone left four thousand five hundred dol- 
lars for charitable purposes. 

6. The brothers Stuart, members of Dr. Alexander's church 
in this city, purchased a church which would seat eight hundred 

Disease and Benevolence. 127 

and sixty persons, and gave it for the free use of a German 
Presbyterian congregation, who were too poor to raise the ten 
thousand dollars required. 

7. E. H. Porter, of Memphis, Tennessee, has donated ten 
thousand acres of land, valued at fifty thousand dollars, to the 
Presbyterian college at Danville, Kentucky, having previously 
given ten thousand acres of land to a Methodist college in Ten- 

8. George W. Johnson, of Louisiana, has directed that two 
hundred slaves shall be sent to Africa at his own expense, with 
fifty dollars in money each — equal to an estate of near a quarter 
of a million of dollars. 

9. William Brown gives sixty thousand dollars for a town 
library, and in addition, appropriates a hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars towards erecting a free library building. 

10. George Peabody gives three hundred thousand dollars in 
cash, and promises two hundred thousand more, towards establish- 
ing an institute in Baltimore for the moral and intellectual cul- 
ture of its inhabitants. 

11. Moses Shepherd left over half a million of dollars to 
found an insane asylum in Baltimore. 

12. Josiah Bradlee sent a check for four thousand dollars, on 
last New Year's day, for the relief of poor old women, having 
previously given six thousand dollars for that purpose. 

13. John Knickerbocker sent twentj^-five hundred dollars, 
on Christmas day, for benevolent purposes. 

14:. David Hunt gave fifty thousand dollars to Oakland 
College lately, having previously given sixty thousand. 

15. A New Yorker sent a New Year's present of twenty- 
five hundred dollars to the American Colonization Society, 
which will also have a credit, in a few days, for twenty-five 
thousand more, from Howland, Graham, and others. 

16. Mrs. Abbott Lawrence gives a thousand dollars to estab- 
lish a church. 

17. Charles Cook has given twenty-five thousand dollars to 
a people's college. 

18. A lady began nineteen years ago, to give a small sum 
of money annually to the Bible Society; the more she gives, 
the more does she seem able to give, until her annual donation 
is three thousand dollars. 

128 FlaWs Journal of Health. 

19. A gentleman began, five years ago, to give a hundred 
dollars a year to the Bible Society, and has gradually increased 
it until this year it will amount to between sixty-five and 
seventy-five thousand dollars. 

20. Not long ago, a gentleman offered to be one of four who 
would give twenty-five thousand dollars each, for the establish- 
ment of Furnham University. 

21. A New York family has given twenty thousand dollars 
for a clerical school. 

22. Mrs. Banyer and Miss Jay (sisters) gave over thirty-three 
thousand dollars for various charitable objects. 

23. Douglass Putnam, of Homer, Ohio, gives twenty thou- 
sand dollars to endow Marietta College. 

24. W. C. Pierpont bestows thirty-one thousand dollars for 
the distribution of good books among the people. 

25. A gentleman at Nyack, N. Y., has left ninety thousand 
dollars for benevolent objects, five thousand of which to a man 
whose whole u life is spent in the truly noble efforts to rescue 
from crime and elevate the characters of the children of mis- 

26. Mr. Gray has given to the Boston Athenaeum engravings 
worth twenty -five thousand dollars. 

27. Dr. Wales has given his library, worth three thousand 
dollars, and forty thousand dollars besides, to endow a profes- 
sorship in a college at Boston. 

28. Mrs. Dudley, of Albany, has contributed a hundred thou- 
sand dollars for purposes of learning. 

Indeed, space would fail to enumerate the thousands and 
tens of thousands which are steadily flowing into the treasuries 
of charitable institutions from living church-going and religion- 
respecting men, such as William H. Dewitt, Alansen Sumner, 
Kobert B. Minturn, James Boorman, Henry Chauncey, John 
T. Agnew, Mortimer Livingston, the Grinnells, and the Stuart 
Brothers ; while the gifts of Peter Cooper and William B. 
Astor amount in their life-time to hundreds of thousands of 
dollars each, for the diffusion of knowledge among men, and 
for the promotion of the health, comfort, and happiness of their 

Among the names we have given, we in vain look for one of 
whom it can be said, He has no respect for the Sabbath ; he 

Disease and Benevolence. 129 

never enters a church; he makes a jest of religion, and sneers 
at its ministers. On the contrary, it will be found, with a rare 
exception, if any, that they and their families are regular at- 
tendants on religious worship on the Sabbath day — persons who 
respect their ministers, and who in all their charities act from 

As to the other statement — that the children of clergymen, 
deacons, and prominent religious professors, are worse than 
others, it is only necessary, to show its groundlessness, to ex- 
amine almost any seminary record. Of all the members of the 
Allegheny Theological Seminary, two years ago, there was 
but one individual whose father or mother was not a church 

Of one hundred students at Andover Theological Seminary, 
only two could say that both their parents were without church 

On a recent occasion, when seven young men entered the 
ministry, it was found that they all had religious parents. 

Of 241 families of deacons and ministers, there were 1164 
children over fifteen years of age. Of these, 814 appeared to 
be pious persons, and only fourteen were dissipated; and of 
these, seven became so after they left their parents. 

But what has all this to do with a Journal of Health? Much 
every way, but chiefly this: the men who honor religion and 
its ministers, and who are habitual church-goers, are the men 
mainly to be relied upon in instituting and sustaining those 
organizations whose objects are human amelioration and human 
elevation above want, and disease, and crime; while the patron- 
izers of the turf, the admirers of the drama, and the frequenters 
of the card-table, do, by practice and example, cultivate habits 
of drunkenness, debauchery, and gluttony, and not only ruin 
themselves, but perpetuate in their offspring bodily diseases 
and mental temperaments, which, if allowed to mature, would 
soon corrupt the race and depopulate the world. Therefore, 
the great practical lesson is, if you want your children to grow 
up in comparative freedom from idleness, vice, and disease, let 
their evenings be spent at home, and not at the theatre ; let 
their Sundays be spent in religious worship, and not upon the 
street, or in Sunday "drives" or "excursions." Let them be 
taught to prefer the school-room to the circus or the race-course, 

130 HalVs Journal cf Health. 

and let their leisure hours be engaged in some instructive em- 
ployment, some practical handicraft, or some refining amuse- 
ment, and not at the engine-house, the street corner, the negro 
minstrelsy, or the ball-room. 

We are anxious to be understood, and as anxious not to 
wound the feelings of any one. We do not mean to say that 
all church-goers are good men and benevolent. We mean that 
the natural tendency of an habitual attendance on the house 
of God is to elevate the character, and that it matters not how 
bad a man may be, and though he may be far from being a 
Christian, such regular hearing of a preached gospel will have 
a greater or less restraint over his character — more or less of a 
moulding influence for good. 

On the other hand, while we admit that there are honorable, 
and high-minded, and liberal men, who, as husbands, parents, 
neighbors, and citizens, are worthy of high praise, and yet sel- 
dom, if ever, go to church, and look with contempt on religion 
and its ministers — we know of some such men personally, 
with whom we would trust our life and everything else with 
implicit confidence — and there are gamblers, and horse-racers, 
and stage actors, who have characteristics which we cannot but 
admire; at the same time, the actual tendencies, the steady 
results of these things are idleness, thriftlessness, profanity, 
drunkenness, debauchery, and almost every human degra- 

When William B. Astor gives ten thousand dollars towards 
enlarging the City Hospital, that there may be more room for 
those who are brought in with ghastly wounds, and fractured 
limbs, and broken heads, and follows it up with a hundred 
thousand dollars for an extension to a public library, where all 
can come, free of charge, and consult the rarest and costliest 
books in the world; when Peter Cooper expends three hun- 
dred thousand dollars of money, saved from the glue-pot and 
the iron shop, in erecting a building which fire can never harm, 
and which, to all appearance, will stand a thousand years, to 
be occupied as a lecture-room and library in part, -where poor 
young men can come, day or night, without cost, and read and 
study by the hour, in well-warmed and brightly-lighted apart- 
ments, and thus be won from vicious .place? of amusement and 
idleness — and in other part, where poor women can come, and, 

Disease and Benevolence. 131 

sitting by a comfortable fire and cheery gas-light, sew from early 
morning to bed- time, without expense to them, and thus be 
saved from the disease-engendering foul rooms, basement dwell- 
ings, and cold, damp houses, which make the early graves of 
so many of the industrious poor ; when Kobert Lenox devotes 
the annual income of his inherited millions, excepting what 
is necessary for his own personal expenses, to every well-di- 
rected benevolence which meets his sympathies (and long may 
he, and the Stuarts, and other living benefactors, live to continue 
their good doings !) — when men like these bestow their chari- 
ties, there is no return to them but the sweet, abiding con- 
sciousness of good done. That good inures to others — to per- 
sons whom they have never seen, to save them from suffering, 
and to elevate them in the social scale. But the horse-racer, 
with his boast of improving the breed of that noble animal, 
how long, think you, would he continue in that occupation if 
he were prohibited from betting on the race, and thus all chance 
of pecuniary profit be cut off? And how long would the stage 
player walk the boards to " elevate the drama," were he to be 
limited to the salary of the self-denying Methodist circuit rider, 
and more especially if the drinking bouts and other immorali- 
ties of the green-room were abrogated? And as to the re- 
morseless gambler, he makes no claim to human or even animal 
good, outside of himself, as an apology for his occupation. He 
calls it a "gentlemanly amusement," the trickeries of the trade 
included — the studied deceptions essential to success. As to 
honor among gamblers, what is it ? No rascality is dishonor- 
able to them, except that which is so vulgar as to be found 

As to the influences which they all three exert together — 
the theatre, the race-course, and the gaming table — the very 
atmosphere of their locality is polluted. More — it is pestilential. 
All, both old and young, are corrupted by it; attracting to 
them all that is mean, and low, and vile, and driving from 
them in a panic whatever was quiet, orderly, and refined that 
happened to be included in their precincts; so that drunken- 
ness, rioting, and obscenity, are left without a check, and all 
grow, and fester, and rankle, and rot together. 

That we may not seem to be alone in these views, we close 
with a paragraph, from Harper's Weekly ) which is not a religious 

132 EalVs Journal of Health. 

but a secular paper : " The drama in America, from its inapti- 
tude and rudeness, does not attract the taste of the refined, 
and from its grossness positively repels the sentiment of the 
moral. Its influence is confined to corrupting the inexpe- 
rienced, or fixing the habits of the vicious. Entirely a foreign 
thing in its nature and management, the so-called American 
drama has never touched the national sympathy, and accord- 
ingly its bad effects are, fortunately, very restricted. It is only, 
after all, a kind of chiffonier or rag-picker, which fumbles in 
the filth of society, and gathers up the loose ends and dirty 
shreds of humanity. These, however, are worth the trial of 
purification, and it becomes social reformers to attempt it. 
What better proof can you have of the evil influences of the 
theatre than the rapid corruption which ensues in a neighbor- 
hood on the raising of one of these temples of vice ? No 
sooner is the flaming poster stuck up, the doors opened, and 
the gas lighted, than decency flies it, as health would a plague- 
spot. The erection of a new theatre in a previously respectable 
quarter of one of our cities, is well known to destroy that 
quarter for any future decency of life. The private house is 
turned into the bagnio; the shop of honest trade into the faro, 
saloon, or bar room, and the playhouse stands a spectacle of 
vice, supported by its congenial aids of rowdyism, gambling, 
drunkenness, and prostitution. Yerily, the national taste and 
morality do well in scorning the 'Theatre and its Friends.'" 


The rich save, and remain rich ; the poor squander, and are 
poor to their dying day. The rich, especially those who have 
been so for a generation, or two, or more, are economical from 
principle, from inclination, from habit ; it affords them satisfac- 
tion to be so. The conviction within them that it is right, safe, 
and politic, sustains them in their course. 

But there is a class of persons who are of untold injury to 
society. They are not among the older and more respectable 
families ; their names are recent ; their origin nothing to speak 
of, nor indeed anything to be ashamed of. They are from 

Extravagant Living, 133 

worthy, industrious parents, who made no pretensions, nor had 
desired to be considered more than among the common peo- 
ple. By prudent economies, long practised, they have become 
rich, and having money, at least in perspective, their children 
have an ever-present, all-absorbing, eating ambition for asso- 
ciation with those who are socially above them — if you please 
the treble upper ten — there by reason of birth, wealth, and 
merit ; and there are a good many such persons in New York. 
The plan of ascent devised by tnese children of worthy, indus- 
trious, and successful parents, and by many who, by chance 
speculations, have become recently rich, with their vulgar 
tastes still hanging about them, is through the agency of glare 
and glitter, and profuse expenditure. They dress in violent 
colors ; their livery is in the extreme of fashion ; their dwell- 
ings are of brown stone or marble. Swarms of servants loiter 
about their premises ; while milkmen, butchers, green grocers, 
and all that, rub their hands with glee, at the fortune of getting 
hold of such liberal customers. Enter their dwellings of an 
evening, and we feel ourselves in a fairy palace. Gas-lights 
glitter from gorgeous chandeliers ; gilded mirrors dazzle the 
eyes ; the feet tread on the softest velvet ; frescoed ceilings 
compel our admiration; while costly paintings, statues of Italian 
marble, slabs of beauteous "Sienite," brought from distant 
Egypt, cover their tables, and delight us with their delicate 
hues. If these people sail for a season, they " water" at half a 
dozen places in a single summer, and at each become speedily 
conspicuous by the remarkable attention shown them by all 
the servants of the establishment, who were largely " douceured" 
on the first hour of their arrival, and who have a marvellous 
instinct, as instantaneous as it is certain, in aiding them to find 
out when they have got hold of a — fool. 

The observation of all of us teaches that the end of such 
persons is speedy and disastrous. They succeed in nothing but 
in getting clear of their money, in kindling up a flame to 
enable the community to see them the more clearly go down 
into their original and more appropriate obscurity. But this is 
not the last of them. They themselves may be never heard of 
more ; but they leave their slimy trail of pernicious influences 
behind them, to be felt by worthy people for a life-time. The 
servants they employed fell into wasteful habits, gormandizing 

134 Hall's Journal of Health. 

habits, habits of idleness and gossipping. Careless of fuel, 
careless of food ; gas wasted, water wasted, ranges burnt out, 
crockery broken, silver battered — destruction everywhere the 
order of the day. Sooner or later these servants get married, 
and carry with them all these thriftless habits to their own 
home. In a few months, the hard-working husband — a me- 
chanic, or drayman, or day laborer — opens his eyes to the un- 
welcome reality, becomes discouraged, idles about, takes to 
drink, and mutual upbraidings end in quiet desertion or mid- 
night murder. This, we are persuaded, is the large origin of 
the wife-beatings and wife-murders so often recorded in the 
morning papers. This accounts for the hordes of neglected 
children which swarm our streets and besiege the charities 6f 
our citizens — for the crowds of apparent widows who drain 
the treasuries of our benevolent associations in winter time, 
whose husbands are not dead to the world, but only dead to the 
women whose thriftless habits were learned in the houses 
whose masters are in the penitentiaries and whose mistresses 
have found refuge in some retreat or asylum, if not in some 
house of infamy. 

So much for the servants. 

Look for a moment at the influences these servants have 
in the first families they enter after one of these New York 
come-downs. Almost the first question asked by Biddy, 
who has advertised in the Herald, is, " What wages do you 
give ? I had eight dollars a month with the last lady — and a 
nice lady she was, too — but they broke up housekeeping, and 
have gone to Europe." 

"How many have you in family, ma'am? what other help? 
I suppose you have the washing and baking done out ? The 
fine lady I was with last, made the pastry herself, and we always 
had as much as we liked," 

Then comes the inquisition as to privileges allowed. 

1. There is to be an afternoon in the week ; to go out and see 
some cousin, or brother, or other relation — the "afternoon" 
being from three o'clock until eleven, P. M. 

2. Must go to church on Sundays, to return any time before 
twelve o'clock at night. 

3. Privilege to have some other relation to drop in now and 
then of an evening ; which means to have some beau, under the 

Tlie Plague of Servants. 135 

name of brother, come once or twice a week, besides gallanting 
home on Sunday nights and their " evening out," to sit in youi 
kitchen and enjoy your gas, and fire, and larder, until midnight. 

4. Then, there is the occasional privilege. Who ever had a 
servant that did not have a cousin to die, or a cousin's child to 
be born, or christened, on an average of two or three times a 
month? There is an extension of privilege on these "occa- 
sional" occasions; Biddy does not expect to return until after 
breakfast next morning. 

The influence which these trifling creatures exercise over 
weak mistresses, is amazing. They will tell you of the ways 
and habits of the " grand house I stopped at last," as a means 
of flattering you into an equal generosity as to high wages, 
profuse living, and little to do; and, before he knows it, the 
simple-minded master wakes up to a new idea. 

"Husband! Biddy has been living with the * * * and I 
am ashamed that anything should be set on the table a second 
time. It won't do to make turkey hash of the odds and ends 
of bread left at the several last meals, nor to make a bread 
pudding of it for the children." 

"But, my charming wife! does not cold turkey make a good 
relish for tea or breakfast, and don't our children all like tur- 
key hash ? — why, I like it myself." 

" Well ! but it looks mean to be so saving and close. The 
servants will talk about it." 

" My dear, delightful lamb, dove, angel, and humming-bird ! 
it would be better to look mean, and owe nobody, with some 
cash on hand always, than to be mean, by squandering what 
we have saved these long years, for the sake of having the 
good opinion of a parcel of ignorant, thoughtless, thriftless 
servant girls." 

" Husband ! that's the way you always talk; but if our chil- 
dren's playmates get to hear that we are penurious and stint- 
ing, they will set us down as mean people, and not associate 
with them. I never thought we would come to this, or I would 
have married Charles Slasher; he always wanted me, and his 
father was rich, and left him a large fortune — boo ! boo ! 
boo! " 

" Wifey, dear ! don't you know that reflections, and upbraid- 
ings, and tears, always move rae in the opposite direction ? Do 

136 HalVs Journal of Health. 

you know what has became of your old beau, Charley Slasher? 
One of my Southern correspondents writes me, yesterday, that 
he is now in the Louisiana Penitentiary, for forgery, with three 
years to serve. I don't want to follow. Please, say to the 
girls, their wages are ready, to the end of the present month ; 
and that they are expected to leave after dinner. We will get 
another set, who will allow me the privilege of dictating in my 
own house." 

Weaker husbands yield to tears and false reasonings ; and 
hence we may see every day the red flag of the auctioneer 
waving at the door of the aristocrat of an hour, or over the 
remnant of his "household gods," in the crammed auction 
rooms in Nassau street, the morning paper stating suggestively, 
" sold peremptorily, on account of domestic affliction !" 

Let all housekeepers who act maturely and from principle, 
reflect, that in keeping more servants about the house than is 
necessary for the work to be done — that in giving eight and 
ten dollars a month to ordinary cooks, nurses, and house girls — 
that in allowing late hours, and careless handling of crockery, 
and wastefulness of fuel, and soap, and food, they do but foster 
habits in their girls which are to be the thorns of their domestic 
life when they become the heads of families themselves. You 
do them this wrong without any corresponding benefit to them- 
selves, and without even adding to your own comfort or that 
of your families; for it is the nature of idleness, waste, and 
extravagance, to increase in geometrical progression. 

If the fanatical humanitarian wants to break the chains of 
bondage, and let the oppressed go free, let his sympathies and 
his corresponding personal and pecuniary aids, if he have any, 
find employment in rescuing our wives from the fear and des- 
potism of the servant girls of this city. Within ten miles of 
the City Hall there is work enough for them all to do, day and 
night — a field white to the harvest to-day, and broad enough 
to give working room to every one of them during the term of 
their natural lives. 

Is there a housekeeping woman in New York who is not in 
daily "fear," of some sort, of her servants? Eather broad, 
that question, reader. There is, at least, one family — our own. 
We have but one fear, and that is — that our "help" will take 
the underground railroad to Gretna Green, one of these days. 

Regulations for Servants. 137 

If our girls are not unbearable, we fear to "change," "lest 
a worse thing come upon us;" and, rather than tempt the un- 
tried, we put up, day after day, with a multitude of impositions 
of one sort or another. We wink at useless waste, and slighted 
work, and late hours, and loitering conversation at the hall 
door or front gate, "afraid to speak," lest "offence" should be 
given. Biddy offends you, deliberately neglecting your direc- 
tions, wastes your property, consults her ease in preference to 
your comfort, and yet you live in mortal fear of giving offence ; 
paying her to the last cent of what you agreed to do, and yet 
she making a systematic experiment as to h®w little she can do 
for you without absolute collision. 

This plague of servants is a foul spot on our domesticities, 
and ought to be eradicated. Concerted action among respecta- 
ble families would effect a happy riddance, as immediate as the 
total abolition of the Spanish currency, within ten days after 
the announcement of a passed " act" on the subject. The main 
points for observance we merely suggest : 

1. That no female servant be allowed more than a dollar and 
a half a week, under any pretense whatever, in private fam- 

2. That beyond half of each Sunday, all time spent out of 
the house should be deducted from the weekly wages, in pro- 

3. That receiving visitors be confined to one hour each week, 
and that hour be from ten to eleven o'clock every Thursday 

4. That servants be rigidly required to be in their bed-rooms 
for the night when the clock strikes ten. 

5. That all perquisites be abolished. 

6. That nothing is to be given or received, bought or sold, 
at the front gate, or basement door, except for the master's 

7. That the basement gate be always kept locked, and 
opened only for receiving orders for, or delivery of, family 

8. That the washing of clothing and house, and spring clean- 
ing — that all bread-baking and pastry-cooking, be required to 
be done by the servants in the house ; or in case persons pre- 
fer baker's bread, and to make their own pastry, then a rea- 

138 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sonable deduction be made, for this diminution of requirement, 
from their weekly wages. 

9. That servants be made to understand, that on chance oc- 
casions they are to do promptly, willingly, and as a matter oi 
course, whatever may be requested of them, whether it be in 
the particular line of their engagement or not, on the ground 
that their time is paid for, and that it is their duty to make 
themselves generally useful. 

10. That all waste and brokerage be justly estimated, and 
deducted from their weekly wages. 

11. That to every courteous and becoming requirement, 
prompt, and implicit, and quiet obedience be invariably given. 

12. That no servant be employed who cannot furnish satis- 
factory reference from the last employers, which reference is to 
be authenticated by presentation to the person who gave it. 

Here are a dozen regulations, whose rigid enforcement would 
deliver the wives of New York from an amount of domestic 
inquietude, and irritation, and worriment, absolutely beyond 
computation. It would replace discouragement with hope— a 
heart as heavy as lead with a buoyancy of spirit as light as a 
feather. It would give sunshine for clouds, smiles for frowns, 
quietude for storms, and endearments for belligerency. 

What else would this revolution accomplish ? It would break 
up habits of idleness, useless waste, and wild extravagance, and 
foster industry, carefulness, and economy, which would benefit 
the girls themselves in after life to an untold amount. 

In addition, it would sweep away that horde of dirty, ragged 
boys, girls, and women, who, with basket in hand, go from 
gate to gate every day the year round, and sometimes thrice 
a day, for the "leavings" of the table, and which, by reckless 
and unprincipled servant girls, are always increased by portions 
of the best in the house — thus encouraging idleness and Beg- 
gary, and adding daily actual theft to the same. 

But then, there are obligations resting on the head of the 
family likewise, among the most prominent of which are: — 

1. Eegular weekly pay, in United States coin. 

2. A humane consideration for the prejudices, weakness, and 
ignorance of servants. 

3. Special attention to their personal health and comfort, in 
whatever pertains to these. 

Divining Rods. 139 

4. The avoidance of untimely and unreasonable requisitions. 

5. A benevolent forbearance as to occasional short-comings. 

6. A kindly and unfamiliar courtesy in expressing every 
wish, and in enforcing every requirement. 

None can ever understand as well as a city practitioner, the 
wearing, wasting effect which constant domestic irritations have 
on the tempers, and happiness, and health, of the wife and the 
mother. Drop by drop will wear away the solid rock; drop 
by drop will drain the ocean dry ; and there is no temper 
however sweet — no spirit however buoyant— no health how- 
ever vigorous — but will be soured, and saddened, and broken 
down, by the incessant annoyances which trifling servants oc- 
casion ; and every husband, every father, every son, owes it to 
the wife, the mother, and the sister, who share so large a por- 
tion of their affection and their care, to seek the initiation of 
measures which shall rid us at once of the "plague of servants." 
It is a worm at the root of family quiet ; it eats out a large 
share of the happiness of domestic life; and we recommend 
that every husband who does not give this subject an effective 
consideration, have a mark set upon him, which shall indicate 
that dissolution of the present marriage tie is his end and aim ; 
and that while the servant plague is doing its fated work un- 
hindered by him, he is unblushingly looking out for a new 
alliance. Shame on ye, gentlemen ! 


With wonder and awe in the days of our childhood have we 
stood gazing at a man walking over the ground with measured 
pace and serious countenance, holding firmly in either hand a 
prong of a peach-tree twig, uniting in a forked end, which was 
uppermost. As he passed along in a certain direction the 
upper end would turn downwards, fairly twisting a prong off 
in the fingers of some stout unbeliever. We were told that 
where the twig turned downwards, there was the water. There 
our well was dug, and there water was found. There was the 
fact, and off and on we have thought of it ever since, in even 
doubt whether it was an imposture, a coincidence, or a realitv. 
A gentleman writes to the Scientific American from his southern 

140 HaWs Journal of Health. 

plantation as late as March of the present year, that his great 
trouble hitherto has been the scarcity of water for domestic pur- 
poses. He employed a diviner, who designated a spot within 
twenty feet of his old brackish, useless well, and has now an 
abundant supply of good water ; closing by saying, " If this is 
a humbug, I wish most sincerely that I could be frequently 
humbugged in a similar way." 

In a previous part of his concise communication, he says : " I 
have seen the divining rod point to a bunch of keys, or a 
purse hidden under leaves, and therefore think it very likely 
that it may also indicate beds of ores," and this brings us plump 
up to the subject of so-called " spiritualism" in connection with a 
note from a namesake of ours to whom reference was made in 
the March number as having invented an ugly word, if he has 
never done anything else — " VOLAUROLOGY ;" what a mouthful to 
pronounce — one has to go away down his own throat to get at 
it. It just takes two Dutchmen to manage that one word. The 
idea is that something goes out of man with power, and that it is 
this power which tips tables and can make fat people turn round 
like tops whether they will or no — an involuntary waltz solo! 
Never having been inside of a ball-room while the "per- 
formances" were going on, we do not know at this writing 
whether it takes two to make a waltz, or if one is competent to 
the transaction ; it is the turning round operation we are alluding 
to — perhaps it is the polka. 

Mr. Hall writes : u With regard tome,you say, if I have any- 
thing new, print it. I believe the agencies may be productive 
of good not yet understood — that murders can be found out, 
crime detected, and that mental philosophy will have to undergo 
a change; that thoughts may be read, distances overcome, health 
restored, and ores, lead, tin, silver, and gold, may be discovered 
without instruments, many feet under ground. These metals emit 
a peculiar something, an ' aura,'' which is not intercepted by the 
soil ; this meets an * aura' from sensitive minds, and they feel 
the different effects. Silver produces different sensations from 
gold, and gold from other metals. Electricity is known to pen- 
etrate the solid earth to the distance of ten feet. Over the graves 
of the newly dead, sensitives can see and do feel the decaying 
decomposition, despite the superposed earth. Baron Yon 
Reichenbach. who has demonstrated the power of the magnet, 

The Aural Theory. 141 

and made it visible so as to be produced on the daguerreotype 
plate, has shown clearly that every object in nature throws out 
an aura peculiar to itself, and when these aura?, come in contact 
with the cultivated perceptions of the highly sensitive patient, 
they are seen and felt. 

" Water can be felt fifty feet under ground, and by parity of 
reasoning, metals ought to be, as their ' aurd is equally power- 
ful. This is one of the new things I want to bring out of the 
study of the subject. How far 1 shall succeed, remains for the 
future to disclose." 

If all the other statements be as wholly and as unmistakably 
true as the last sentence of our enthusiastic and modest corre- 
spondent, we will throw all medicines to the dogs, which, by the 
way, we would have been glad to have done long ago, though 
we are sure they would have had more sense than to have taken 
it. Hitherto, we have thrown it to our patients ; for mind, this 
aura, when it can be " geared up" and the " reins" adjusted, is 
to " restore health." But there is another item we feel more in- 
terested in: it is the "golden" part, which will point as certainly 
to the place of deposit, as the peach-tree twig does to fountains 
of water. We have not the slightest doubt in the world, that 
this aura will indicate the direction where the gold is found in 
some localities. Can't exactly say that this is the point of diffi- 
culty. It is the getting at the gold when you have found out 
where it is, which has bothered us most. The aura in Gotham 
would always point to Wall street, but the more Herculean job 
is to get it out of Wall street when it once gets there. Millions 
go there every year, which practically, and to all intents and pur- 
poses, stay there. 

We beg leave to suggest to our correspondent a more eu- 
phonious name as the representative of his thoughts on the sub- 
ject. Call it, for example, the " Aural Theory." There 
is a silvery sound in that, while it is more philosophical. There 
may be volition about the "aura" of intelligent men, but there 
is none with inanimate objects. We know our term is the most 
comprehensive, sounds better, and is, critically, more accurate. 

Odors go out from all things. Magnetic power goes out of 
some articles. The armature attracts the needle. Electrical in- 
fluences go out of some objects, and enter others with great 
power. After all, there is some truth in all things ; and as to 

142 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the " Aural TJieory^ we will wait and see, not wait and shut our 
eyes, for that pov^er goes out of bodies there can be no doubt — 
that out of beauty's eyes, for example : we were struck dumb 
and blind by it ourselves once upon a time. 


We once sent a Sunday-school book by a lady patient of ours 
as a present to her little daughter. On inquiring afterwards 
how she liked it — "Indeed, doctor, I did not give it to her, as I have 
not yet had time to read it myself." That mother soon passed 
away, and doubtless to the better land, and long years have 
passed away also, but we have never failed to admire that 
mother's heart as often as the remembrance of her ceaseless vigi- 
lance has occurred to us, accompanied with the earnest wish, 
that all parents should emulate that mother's care. Up to the 
age of fifteen at least, and as long after as affection for the pa- 
rent will prevent the child from doing anything contrary to the 
known wishes of father or mother, no book should be read by a 
child without the parent's permission. Impressions are made 
for life, for eternity, on the mind, and heart, and memory of 
childhood- -impressions which mould the character for aye, or 
open up channels of thought which fix the destiny. 

Untold mischief has been done to the minds and morals of 
the young by reading books on u Physiology" so-termed, caus- 
ing apprehensions which have acted as a ceaseless torture to 
multitudes, until by consultation with honorable physicians, the 
groundless apprehensions have been removed, which had been 
excited by plausible falsities and brazen-faced untruths. 

Equal care should be exercised as to the religious, moral, 
and miscellaneous reading of the young. Very few of our 
daily penny papers are fit to be read at the family fireside. 
Certainly not one in a dozen of all city weekly papers, not con- 
nected with a daily issue, but is chargeable justly with being 
made up with the veriest trash, to say nothing of their 
frequent obscenity, their slang, their spiteful hits at religion, its 
ministers, its professors, and the Bible itself. 

A drop of water will ultimately wear through the solid rock, 
and drop by drop will empty the ocean, and so is the influence 

An Easy Death. 143 

of the repeated exhibition of bits of sarcasm, and infidelity, and 
profanation, which portions of the press are steadily throwing 
out. Not only are the minds of the young injuriously affected 
by these things, but persons of maturity, of intellect, of mental 
culture, will suffer by them. 

It is not long since that the death of Percival the poet, re- 
called to many memories his early promise, his later failure. 
— How, with a heart, a mind, a culture capable of achieving 
great things for humanity, his light went down in the night of 
misanthropy and almost atheism! What was it that froze the 
heart and made desolate the whole character of that gifted man ? 
Reading in the spring-time of life, the obscenities of Don Juan, 
the malignant diatribes, the ranting atheism of Lord Byron. 
Had other books been placed in the hands of this unfortunate 
man at that critical period of his life — books which would have 
cherished the better feelings of his nature, which would have 
invited out his sympathies towards his brother man, he might 
have died a Howard or a Harlan Page, about whom sweet 
memories will arise for ages to come, instead of dying as he is 
said to have done, an uncomely oddity, a misanthrope, and an 

Parents ! Have a ceaseless eye to what your younger children 


Not the least of all the rewards of a life of systematic tem- 
perance, is that of an easy death. The whole machinery of the 
body wears out together. Its fly-wheels and its rollers, its cogs, 
its scapements, and its springs, lose all their power by equal and 
slow degrees. No one part runs on in the full vigor of its 
newness, while others are wholly incapacitated. " He suffered 
a thousand deaths in his last illness," is the familiar description 
of the closing scene of many. And why ? Because one part 
of the complicated machinery had worn out before its time, from 
having been overtasked, or had been made a wreck of, by de- 
structive habits or exposures. It is the being " temperate in all 
things''' to which the sacred Scriptures attach the blessing of the 
life that now is, as well as of that which is to come : to which 
we may allowably attach the meaning, enjoyment of to-day, ex- 

144 HdWs Journal cf Health. 

emption from suffering on to-morrow. Present health and an 
easy death are the uniform perquisites of those who obey the 
Scripture injunction in 1 the love of it. 

No less a violation of the inflexible law of our being is it to 
wear out the throat by vociferous preaching ; or the voice organs 
by injudicious singing ; or the brain by ruthless habits of men- 
tal appliances ; or the eyes by persistence in night study ; or the 
imagination by unlicensed delving into the "hidden wisdom' 1 
in order to be wise above that which is written ; or the stomach by 
taxing it daily with a labor it was never formed to accomplish ; 
or the hands themselves or feet by imposing a task on their ca- 
pabilities which they were never made to endure ; we say these 
are no less infractions of physical law than are wilful violations 
of written moral precepts. As to the latter, we have an 
" Advocate" who can " clear" us ; from the former no power can 
deliver, short of the miraculous, and that, it is useless to expect. 

It is the regular and temperate who live long. It is the very 
old who die without sickness or pain — whose lamp of life goes 
out as gently as the last flicker of an expiring candle. Cornaro 
died at ninety-six, without the illness of a day. Old Aunt Hay 
died among the nineties, without the sickness of an hour. The 
Eev. Mr. Davies, of England, had no disease of any kind dur- 
ing his life except poor sight, and died at the age of a hundred 
and five years. 

If, then, we covet an " easy death 1 '' as to the body, let us obey 
the Booh of books in being 


And more, if we would " die easy" as to the more immortal 
part, the soul, let us still cling to the guardianship of that 
sacred volume, and be like Cornelius, men " without guile," 
striving a to have always a conscience void of offence toward God 
and toward men." 

In A Hurry. — " Doctor, mother sent me down to theshoticary 
pop quicker'n blazes, cos bub's sick as the dickens, with the 
picken chox, and she wants a thimbleful of pollygolic in this 
din tipper, cos we ha'nt bot a gottle, and the kint pup's got the 
bine witters in't. Got any ?" 

How to be Safe. 145 


A respected correspondent writes : " I took cold three weeks 
ago, preaching in a draft. It affected my throat and ears alsoi 
so that in speaking I was annoyed by a jingling kind of sound. 
I was foolish in taking it as I did." We replied in part, " Preach- 
ing in the draft has destroyed many a valuable clergyman. You 
should make up your mind never to do it again. Stand in the 
corner of the room. Is it likely that the effect of any given 
sermon is worth a minister's life, when he otherwise might have 
lived twenty years longer, with the chances of repeating this 
effect thousands of times ? Why don't you preachers study 
ecclesiastical economy more ?" 

We must say that clergymen many times act as if they were 
made out of steel, as if their health was impregnable, and that 
nothing could effect it injuriously. They ought to remember 
that they have no charmed lives, and that their only secure 
shield against the shafts of disease and death, which fly around 
all at every step, is a rational care. 


Be in proper places at proper times, and mind your own 
business. With such restrictions, we believe human life is as 
safe in New York as in any other city on the globe. Nine 
times out of ten, the reports of persons who have fared badly, 
or who have fallen into the hands of the Philistines, indicate 
one of two things — an out-of-the-way place, or an unseasonable 
hour. A young man attends a private party, leaves at two 
o'clock in the morning, and is heard of no more. Another 
visits New York, and, with his pockets full of money, prome- 
nades the river streets alone, an hour or two after dark. It is 
at one o'clock in the morning that a man was " knocked down 
and robbed of several thousand dollars" with no trace of the rob- 
bers — unless you get him to tell where and what he was doing 
between the hours of decent bed-time and those of early morn- 
ing. The fact is, a good many of the robberies fathered on 
large cities never took place. The assignation and the gamin g 
table are the maelstroms of half the "lost pocket-books" of 
the city morning newspapers. In case of a " respectable" citi- 

146 HalVs Journal of Health. 

zen being knocked down and settled at two o'clock in the 
morning, the police daily report the transaction as having 
occurred " last evening," which, on more minute investigation, 
will be found to have been not long " before day" 

From long observation of city life, we instinctively set a 
man down as a loafer, or rowdy, or a loose character, the mo- 
ment we see his name associated with a ''loss" or a "knock- 
down;" and we maintain the position until we have conclusive 
proof to the contrary. We never hear of such men losing 
their pocket-books, or of being clubbed or garroted, as William 
B. Astor, Peter Cooper, Hamilton Fish, Washington Irving, 
Erastus Brooks, Governor Bradish, and others of equal stand- 
ing. The fact is, respectable men — men of influence and posi- 
tion — are domestic men ; they spend their evenings at home 
amid their families, or in attention to the necessary duties of 
good citizenship. It is the man himself, and not " the city" 
that is the real father of the assaults and losses reported to 
have occurred from time to time. Not seldom are they men 
who have been intrusted with funds to pay out for other people; 
not always so, certainly, but this we do know, that if a man is 
courteous, minds his own business, and keeps good hours, he 
may walk the streets of every city in Christendom, and never 
meet a loss or receive a blow. 


To be old and to be well, to pass days, and weeks, and 
months without an ache, or ail, or pain, or grunt, or groan, to 
eat heartily every meal, to sleep soundly every night, and to 
enter upon every undertaking with the energy, and determina- 
tion, and zest of youth, at the age of seventy-five, is a blessing 
beyond computation ; it is a happiness worth more than millions 
of treasure. In fact, there is many a rich man who would 
cheerfully part with his wealth if he could purchase back the 
health of his youth. We knew a man in our childhood, who 
was familiarly called " Jake Allenthorpe;" he had risen to wealth 
by long years of laborious attention to business, but following 
the custom of the times, he was a daily liquor drinker, and as 
a consequence by no means unusual, he lost his health, and 

Thomas H. Benton. 147 

died long before reaching a good old age. On one occasion, 
when under acute suffering, he said : " I woi^d cheerfully give 
all I possess, if I could have the health I had when I was a 
young man and worked for fifty cents a day." There are thou- 
sands in this land who could make a like declaration. But it 
is recorded of Mr. Benton, that, " After a long and continuous 
tour through New England he returned to Washington on Sat- 
urday to leave in a few days for Yermont and elsewhere. (The 
thermometer having been below zero.) He seems invigorated 
by the contest with storms, snow sieges, ice barricades, and 
rather rejoices in the hope that the stuff in him may be 
put to new trial by fresh exposures. At midsummer he was in 
the West, traversing Missouri night and day, stumping after 
the most approved fashion ; and now, in midwinter, with the same 
energy, he is defying the elements under the eternal snows 
which look down from the White Mountains in the East." 

What made the immense difference between William Allen- 
thorpe, the Kentucky farmer, and Thomas H. Benton, the 
Missouri politician — the difference of uninterrupted good health, 
and twenty-five years of life besides ? The farmer took his glass of 
Bourbon whiskey every day, the old Eoman never took a drop, 
but from principle lived a life of systematic temperance in all 
things, except when he made faces at General Kearney at the 
trial of Col. Fremont. 

To live long, and well, and usefully, then, be temperate in all 
things, remembering that the only certain and effectual way of 
being temperate in reference to liquor is, never taste a drop. 

Coffee. — Just two hundred years ago (1657), a man was prosecuted in London 
for selling coffee, as a " nuisance and a prejudice in the neighborhood." There 
are a good many people now, who consider coffee a " nuisance and a prejudice." 
Are we advancing towards truth, or going back to it 1 

Doctors of almost every school are indebted to the inventive genius of Minthorn, 
of this city. His portable gum elastic syringe, weighing half a dozen ounces, easily 
carried in a small pocket, is the most perfectly simple, ingenious, and handy con- 
trivance of the kind we have ever seen ; opening and shutting one hand operates it 
with the utmost ease. Minthorn is, however, greatly chapfallen. "While medicated 
inhalation was all the rage, his versatility immediately fabricated the most convenient 
apparatus, and he found a ready and large sale for great numbers of them, to the 
admirers of plausible novelties and resurrected absurdities. In the winter of 1855-6, 
he sold privately, to persons in New-York, eleven hundred inhalers. During the 
past winter of 1856 and 1857, he sold but three. He says the word "inhaler" is a 
hissing and a stench wherever he goes. 


HalVs Journal of Health. 

" TJie Scalper is no doubt heartily welcomed back by its old readers to its comely 
quarterly octavo form. Tart, striking, vigorous, its mirth-provoking and highly 
instructive pages will make it a sought-for publication. It has one defect, and that 
so serious an one, that there are thousands of parents who would as soon see on 
the side-table a volume of Byron, Shelley, Tom Paine, or George Sands, as a number 
of the Scalpel, by reason of its repeated profanities, and ceaseless gibes and ill- 
natured sarcasms against professors of religion, and ministers especially. If its 
really talented editor will leave out this obnoxious element in the future "making 
up" of his wide-famed journal, we believe he would largely add to the number and 
respectability of his subscribers. If the editor has been more largely injured in any 
way by the professors or ministers of religion, let him direct his shafts to them 
individually, and not impugn the motives, sentiments, and conduct of one half of 
Christendom, for the malice he may owe to a score of derelicts. 

Rees' Medical Gazette . — Will the learned editor of this widely-known monthly, 
by the large circulation of any practical article which he may think proper to write, 
such as those on Tobacco and the Treatment of Burns, be stimulated to a more 
frequent delving into the most capacious pockets of his memory and intelligence for 
articles alike true, useful, and practical] 



Antecedents, 87. 
Architecture, Defective, 

Beard Wearing, 71. 
Benevolent Men, 126. 
Bodily Carriage, 8. 
Bodily Endurance, 90. 
Burying Alive Prevented, 

Children's Reading, 44, 

Christian Missions, 91. 
Church and Theatre, 113. 
Civility, 97. 

Clergymen's Children, 129. 
Clerical Health, 11. 
Coffee, 147. 
Common Sense, 19. 
Constitutions Ruined, 117. 
Consumption, 77, 49. 
Cornaro and Cornelius, 66, 


Death Made Easy, 143. 
Disease and Crime, 5. 
Divining Rods, 139. 
Dr. E. Nott's Munificence, 

Dr. Livingston, 92. 
Drinking at Meals, 115. 

Eating and Drinking, 63. 
Eating, A Year's, 33. 

Family Music, 21. ' 
Flour too White, 69, 102. 

Getting Worse, 120. 
Gloves and Shoes, Tight, 

Healthy Houses, 106. 
Heart Diseases, 81. 
Horseback Exercise, 80. 
How toGrow Beautiful, 57. 
How to Live Long, 66. 

Insanity, 110. 

Insanity and Suicide, 16. 

Insanity of Blacks, 21. 

Insect Bites Cured, 43, 51. 

Inverted Toe Nails, 97. 

Is it Right] 122. 

Isms of the Times, 111. 

Journal's Work, 46, 58. 

Kentucky's Daughters,103 

Life's Last Sight, 47. 
Living 100 Years, 66. 

Make Home Happy, 41. 
Milk, Use of, 64. 
Mistress' Rules, 137. 
Morning Walks, 30. 
Mother, Watchful, 142. 

Occupation on Health, 49. 

Out-Door Activities, 86. 

Painless Cure of Corns, 32. 
Plant a Vine, 94. 
Pone, 101. 
Position in Sleeping, 45. 

Railroad Precautions, 14, 

Rat Exterminator, 51. 

Scarlet Fever, 53. 
Secret Remedies, 122 
Servant Plague, 132. 
Servants' Rules, 134. 
Snake-Bite Cured, 51. 
Soap Suds, 121. 
Spinal Affections, 81. 
Spiritualism, 37, 139. 
Supporters, Bodily, 35. 

Tea and Coffee, 63. 
Theatre, its Effects, 129. 
The Early Dead, 51. 
Thomas H. Benton, 146. 
Thoughts for Parents, 50. 
Throat Ail Causes, 145. 
To be Safe, 145. 
To Make Corn Bread, 105 
Tooth- Wash, Best, 32. 
Travelling for Health, 69. 

Waste and Want, 133. 
Water Cure, 89. 





VOL. IV.] JULY, 1857. [NO. VII. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


" Mr. Editor : — Having spent the past winter in Florida for 
the relief of pulmonary weakness, I will venture to offer to your 
readers some of the results of my experience and observation, 
as bearing on the question, whether this oft-tried experiment is 
likely to prove successful in the cure or the alleviation of con- 
sumptive disease. Every invalid who goes to the South to 
spend the winter, has quite a sufficient appreciation of the ad- 
vantages to be gained ; but very few have any idea of the sacri- 
fices involved, until they actually experience them. Strange 
enough is it, that consumptive persons should cling to the ex- 
ploded notion that a warm climate simply, without any attend- 
ant aids, will effect their cure. Yet this seems to be the prac- 
tical belief of almost every invalid who visits Florida. Few 
comparatively abandon this fallacy, till death stares them in the 
face. We do not exaggerate, when we say that the life led by 
the great proportion of invalids whom we saw during the past 
winter, was a life of moping, despondent indolence. The poor 
victims of consumption, for the most part, do nothing but eat 
and sleep, and brood over every sad symptom of their decaying 

u But, under the most favorable circumstances possible, it is 
seriously to be questioned, whether a winter's residence in Flo- 
rida is likely to benefit more than one consumptive person out 
of ten. Let us look at the daily round of the invalid's life. If 
he wants any of the comforts of civilization, he must take up 
his abode in a hotel or large boarding-house. There is no 
alternative to this, but to camp out in the woods. At breakfast 
in the morning, one finds himself in the company of sick people. 
Hollow cheeks, emaciated forms, are all around him. Ten 
chances to one, the conversation will be taken up with the 
symptoms of disease. I have sometimes almost wished myself 
deaf, when forced to listen through a whole meal, to a de- 

150 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tailed account of some poor sufferer's maladies. One may be 
comparatively well ; but companionship of this sort is enough 
almost to make him believe that he is sick. 

" Breakfast done, some plan must be devised to occupy the 
forenoon. The best practicable thing, is a ride on horseback. 
You would like a companion, but think it better to go alone, 
than have the company of a sick man, to remind you at every 
step of your own infirmities. A lonely ride, then, through level 
pine barrens, is your only resort. There is no scenery to attract 
the eye, scarcely a trace of civilized life, nothing, absolutely 
nothing, to prevent your mind from brooding sadly over every 
real symptom of disease, and imagining a thousand that have 
no reality. Such exercise, submitted to^br the sake of itself with 
no ulterior object, is a poor prescription for the invalid. 

" The day having worn itself tediously away, night is welcome, 
if one can forget his lonely exile and lose himself in quiet sleep. 
But often the stillness of the night is interrupted by the sound 
of some poor invalid's distressing cough, falling upon your 
wakeful ear, like an omen of the grave. Not even the night, 
shall release you from the dreadful consciousness that you are 
virtually imprisoned for long weary months in an hospital. 
Who, that has lived for a single month in such an atmosphere, 
cannot testify to its depressing influence ? Add to all this, that 
almost every invalid in Florida is far away from all the com- 
forts and endearments of home. No loved and familiar face is 
near to beguile the tedious hours of exile. How many have 
we known to turn their eyes wishfully back toward their dis- 
tant domestic circle, and wish, but in vain, that they might only 
be spared to die amid its hallowed light. I must not weary 
the patience of your readers, though much more might be said, 
adverse to the experiment which so many consumptives are 
every winter trying, to little or no good purpose. For myself, 
I will say, in closing, that, after a winter's residence in Florida, 
under the most favorable circumstances, I have no inclination 
to repeat the experiment." 

The above, from a professional gentleman of observation and 
culture, who had leisure and means to secure every possible 
advantage from a trip to the South, merits the mature conside- 
ration of every invalid who contemplates a journey thither, 
for the recovery of health. Nor should it pass unheeded by 
those, the multitude, whose ready advice is, "Go to the South," 
which to many involves not only the abandonment of their 
means of support, but an expenditure in addition, which is only 
to be met by large sacrifices and painful economies. "We think 
the religious press, especially, would do a public good, by giving 
the entire communication a wide distribution. 

Sleep of Children. 151 


Many a bright and beautiful child is destroyed or made idio- 
tic for life by their nurses, in one of two ways. 

By the administration of laudanum, paregoric, opium, or 
other form of anodyne. 

By teaching self-abuse, in order that the exhaustion it pro- 
duces should promote sleep. 

Medical books abound in cases of this lamentable character. 
How to guard against them with most efficacy, is worthy of 

All children, under five years of age, will be made the better, 
healthier, happier, and more good natured, by an undisturbed 
sleep of one or two hours in the forenoon. 

Children, under eighteen months, may require two day naps 
in summer time. 

If a child is regularly put to sleep at the same time, for only 
three or four days in succession, the habit will so rapidly grow 
upon it, that with the aid of quiet, and a little darkening of the 
room, it will, if well, fall to sleep within a few minutes of the 
time, for weeks and months in succession — such is Nature's love 
for system and regularity. 

We appeal, then, to every mother, as she values the security, 
the health, happiness, and sanity of her children, to adopt 
this inflexible rule. Never allow a child to be put to sleep by 
any servant, on any pretence whatever, nor permit it to go to 
sleep at any other than the regular time ; and then put the child 
to sleep yourself, and, if properly managed, all that you have 
to do is, to take the child to a quiet, darkened room, place it in 
the bed, with a few affectionate words, uttered in a kindly tone, 
leave it, and it will be asleep in five minutes, without rocking, 
singing, coaxing, or anything else. 

It is wonderful how soon a child learns to do a thing as a 
matter of course, when it is put in a proper habit by a quiet 
and kindly firmness. 

By such a plan of operation, it will be seen that all induce- 
ment to make a child sleepy, by either of the fearful practices 
named, is taken away from the servant. To all mothers we 
say, you cannot safely trust your children out of your sight 

152 HalVs Journal of Health. 

with one servant in a million, and, least of all, to one of the 
plausible sort, who have a ready " yes, ma'am," to every 
inquiry or request you have to make. 


The secret sorrow of the mind, a sorrow which must be kept; 
how it wilts away the whole man, himself all unconscious mean- 
while of its murderous effect! He cannot feel that he is ap- 
proaching death, because he is sensible of no pain ; in fact, he 
has no feeling, but an indescribable sensation perceived about 
the physical heart. Lord Raglan, commander-in-chief of the 
British army before Sebastopol, the bosom friend of the Puke 
of Wellington for forty years ; of whom partial friends have 
often said, "his character seemed without a flaw,' 7 such a man 
died, figuratively, of a broken heart. In a moment, almost, 
trouble came like a whirlwind, avalanche followed avalanche, 
in such quick succession, that no time was left for the torn 
spirit to rise above its wounds. The British government, quail- 
ing before popular clamor, left the brave old man to bear the 
brunt alone, because it could not afford to recall him, and yet, 
had not the courage to sustain him. While the tone of official 
communications deprived him of his sleep, weighed heavily 
upon him, and broke his gallant spirit, the failure at the 
Redan closely followed. On reaching head quarters, a letter 
was in waiting, which announced the death of the last surviving 
member of a large family of brothers and sisters ; the next day, 
the death of a general, his old companion in arms. Next came 
the news, that the gallant son of Lord Lyons was sinking under 
his wounds. These things, coming so rapidly one after another, 
in the course of a few hours, as it were, caused such a change 
in his appearance, all unknown to himself however, that his 
physician had to request him to take to his bed, and within 
forty-eight hours, he — died, without supposing himself to be in 
any danger whatever. 

Within a year, a worthy lady in Ohio, sickened, in conse- 
quence of some wholly groundless rumors affecting her charac- 
ter, in the community into which she had recently moved. 
She knew they were groundless, and knew the motives of the 

Death of Goldsmith. 153 

miserable wretches who originated them ; but her delicate and 
sensitive spirit shrunk before the shock, retreated within 
itself, and all torn and bleeding she died ! 

Within a few months, a most excellent clergyman found 
the feelings of his people so generally against him, that he re- 
signed his office. The resignation was accepted ; but all under 
such circumstances, that it was really a dismissal, and that, too, 
for causes which ought to have made every member of the 
community stand up to him like a man. Conscious of his inte- 
grity, and feeling that he had been badly dealt with — his sen- 
sibilities received a shock, which carried him to a premature 
grave in a few days. 

11 You are worse than you should be from the fever you have. 
Is your mind at ease?" said a quick-sighted physician, to a 
sleepless, wasting patient. " No, it is not," was the frank replj 
and the last recorded words of Oliver Goldsmith, whose Vicar 
of Wakefield and The Deserted Village will only die with the 
English language. Died at the age of forty six, of a malady of 
the mind, from blasted hopes and unkind speeches of the world 
around him! He was a man whose heart was large enough and 
kind enough to have made a whole world happy, whose 
troubles arose from his humanity; yet the base things said of 
him, so undeserved, so malignant, and untrue, " broke his heart." 

In view of these facts, let parents early impress on the minds 
of children — It is not what they are charged with, but what 
they are guilty of, that should occasion trouble or remorse ; that 
a carping world should not blanch the cheek or break the spirit, 
so long as there is conscious rectitude within. 

And let all learn, what the commonest humanity dictates, to 
speak no word, write no line, do no deed, which would wound 
the feelings of any human creature, unless under a sense of 
duty, and even then, let it be wisely and long considered. 

Tyrannical. — Don't talk about the despotism of Mayor 
Wood or the Great Mogul. A more inflexible tyranny pre- 
vails about our very hearth stones, the tyranny of the servant 
girls and the milliners of New York. If our abolition friends 
have any surplus of philanthropy, they would do well to ex- 
pend it in " ameliorating the condition" of their own wives. 

154 HaWs Journal of Health. 


One of our lady correspondents writes : " The June number 
of the Journal of Health is filled with articles unusually inte- 
resting. 'The Watchful Mother,' has strengthened my former 
resolutions. At present, I do all my own work, cook for five 
in family, sweep, dust, and build fires; take care of my two 
little ones, teach eight piano pupils, giving to each two hours a 
week, give three lessons a week to a class in vocal music, be- 
sides classes in the school room, several hours every day. In 
addition, I canvass for pupils, receive our friends, retire at half 
past eleven, and rise at five in the morning. But I find my 
eyes growing heavy, and my bones ache with servitude." 

Who does not feel that a woman of such energy ought to 
succeed ? Who does not regret that she should be called to 
perform labors so multifarious and so incongruous. In view 
of this, there are multitudes of married women .not " wives," 
who may well hide their faces in shame, who, with no larger 
family, have a cook and housemaid, and yet, are ceaselessly 
complaining of how much trouble they have, how they are worn 
out with work ; who can dilate indefinitely on the hardness of 
their lot, and who, without earning a dollar a week, complain 
of being tired of living in such destitution, and cry and pout 
by the hour, whenever a coveted silk dress, or beauty of a bon- 
net, or love of a point lace collar or cuff is not procured, on the 
slightest intimation of being wanted — we do not say "asked 
for." There are women who think themselves descending, to 
ask their husbands for anything; who want money placed 
where they can get it at will, without any account of its expen- 
diture; women, who in the vacillation of business, meet the 
prudent suggestions of retrenchment with impatient reproaches, 
if not with downright epithet and rage ; who never inquire, 
M Can we afford it?" who cannot brook the delay of a few days, 
until the "quarter's rent" is paid; who would not fail to be 
present at the "opening" of an autocratic milliner, even if it 
risked their husband a bank protest. 

What was the manner of the rearing of such wives ? As 
daughters, they were allowed to have their own way; every 
wish was gratified, every obstacle was removed from their path 
without any effort of their own. They were never allowed the 

The Marriage Relation. 155 

opportunity of a self denial, and were practically taught that 
the convenience and comfort of mother, father, brothers, every 
body, must be sacrificed to their own; hence they grew up 
selfish, impatient of control, and, too often, to their own undoing 
and that of their husbands. 


That the relation of marriage is the more natural condition 
of man, and, in the main, promotes happiness and long life, is 
demonstrated in the double fact, that unmarried adults do not 
live as long as an equal number of married people ; and that 
there are more, insane single persons in our asylums, in propor- 
tion, than of married. 

Whatever then promotes marriage, and tends to make that 
relation permanent, does to that extent advance the well being 
of the race. Hence the Scriptures hedge up the way of escap- 
ing from that relationship, when once formed, and admits of 
but one ground for divorce. This is one of the plainest intima- 
tions, that the causes of unbappiness between man and wife, 
when such exist, should be removed, not by dissevering the 
relation, but by the large cultivation of those virtues, the germs 
of which are found in every human bosom : to wit, a patient 
forbearance, and an affectionate sympathy as to each other's 
faults, errors, and weaknesses. 

We commend these views to the consideration of those of our 
exchanges which are devoted to the revolution of our social 
condition, with a view to promote u Human Progress and Well- 
being,'" and whose " Tracts for Thinkers," as to the philosophy 
of Woman's Rights, Dress, Reform, Free Love, and kindred 
topics, are thrown broadcast over the community. We do not 
doubt their motives. We are willing to believe that they are 
sincere in their efforts for human advancement. But we are 
satisfied that the same intelligence, tact, and energy directed to 
the ordinary channels of undisputed philanthropy, would tell 
far more efficiently for the happiness of mankind. We do not 
think that we would promote public morals by a more definite 
requested " notice" as to the place, name, and terms of their 

156 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Idiotcy is arrested development. There is in all cases a defi- 
ciency of brain, a low physical organization, or functional dis- 

The humane and accomplished Dr. Wilbur says, that out of 
a class of twenty pupils, only three could count ten. Their 
most universal fault was gluttony. Their great want is the 
power of attention. Many cannot talk ; it often requires two 
or three years to enable them to utter a single word distinctly. 

In almost all cases, home treatment only confirms the malady. 

In three hundred and fifty-nine cases, all but four originated 
in parents who had brought on some confirmed disease by the 
violation of the laws of nature. In every single instance, the 
four excepted, either one or both parents were either very un- 
healthy, scrofulous, disposed to insanity, indulged in animal 
excesses, or had married blood relations. Let every reader 
commit to memory these five causes, for to have an idiotic child, 
how terrible the infliction I 

More than one fourth of three hundred and fifty-nine idiots 
were the children of drunkards ; one out of every twenty was 
the child of the marriage of near relations ; in one such family 
five children out of eight were idiotic. If then, health, tempe- 
rance, and chastity are not duties, then are we irresponsible. 


Some months ago, a young lady from the country, of unusual 
intelligence and energy, called for medical advice. She had a 
pulse of a hundred and twenty, a steady bedtime cough, stick- 
ing and sore sensation in the throat, tiredness on ascents, unre- 
freshing sleep, daily pains and soreness about the chest, frequent 
attacks of sick head ache, fever and night sweats, palpitation of 
the heart, with other minor symptoms. She attributed her ail- 
ment to having gotten her feet wet at a peculiar season, some 
months before. 

During the winter, when the roads in the country were too 
muddy for walking, and at other times the thermometer was 

The Longest Livers, 157 

often as low as thirty degrees below zero, she would, rather 
than forego daily exercise, open both doors of her father's old- 
fashioned broad hall, and let the wind sweep through it, for 
some time, until she felt that the air was purified ;. then closing 
the doors, she would walk back and forth by the hour, and 
during the same season^ould sleep with a window slightly 
open, regardless of the weather, and without any fire in the 
room. On one occasion, when a city cousin was on a visit, she 
allowed herself to have the window down and a fire made, espe- 
cially as it was a damp, raw, windy, chilly season. The result 
was, she spent a restless night, and had a copious night sweat. 

Seven months later, she writes, not having a single remain- 
ing symptom of all those previously named, " The prospect 
now seems to be, that my health will be permanently restored." 
The lesson of her letter is, " As I look back a few years, I can 
now see many things I did which were wrong, and how much 
I erred in not taking care of my health. Had I done so, it 
would have saved me much suffering. Now, I have learned by 
experience. Some will learn in that dear school only. I come 
under that head." 

This article presents several strong points, for the mature 
consideration of all practical and reflecting minds. 


Are they who dwell in Palaces and Poor Houses. As con- 
tradictory, as this appears, it is not the less true. The reason 
of it is, in the fact, that, knowing they are provided for, the 
mind is at rest, and is wholly disencumbered of that eating 
anxiety, that care for to-morrow, which press so heavily upon 
the mass of mankind. The very rich and the very poor are 
not the healthiest ; on the contrary, they are seldom entirely 
well ; this indisposition takes away what little appetite a loafing 
life allows them, hence, for a short time, they eat almost nothing : 
this gives the stomach time to recuperate, while nature works 
off the surplusage, and by this double operation, they are made 
as well as ever in a few days. Hence, the best " Life Insur- 
ance" is to secure for yourself, at the earliest possible day, a 
moderate, uniform, and CERTAIN income. 

158 HalVs Journal of Health. 


. In reference to the proper preservation of the teeth, J. W. 
Clowes, of Abingdon Square, offers some useful suggestions in 
Life Illustrated, No. 131. He claims that legitimate den- 
tistry is a science ; but that not more^han one dentist in twenty 
brings any credit to his profession, because there are more 
theorists than practitioners. We desire to assure the candid 
Doctor, that his is not the only calling which groans and lan- 
guishes under the incubus of " theorizers." And when he 
claims that " ignorance and laziness are two afflictions, which 
weigh heavily on Dental Progress," we can give him the com- 
forting assurance that such afflictions are not peculiar to his 
favorite science. We are glad that Dr. Clowes speaks in 
such decisive terms against the literally u dreadful" practice of 
" killing the nerve." He says, with great truth, that the nerve 
is the life of the tooth, and that to destroy it, is the inevitable 
destruction of the tooth itself. We were in hopes that, all 
fearless of professional prejudice, he was going to abnegate the 
use of the " file," — how we instinctively scringe at the idea of the 
harsh grating of that villanous instrument across our ivories ? — 
but he calls it " blessed !" Only think of a " blessed file !" Now, 
if it were a " file" of " Hall's Journal of Health," there would be 
a literal " blessing" attending its proper use. But, Dr. Clowes 
may be right, after all, that the "file," in Dentistry, is a "bless- 
ing" in knowing hands — a curse, otherwise. 


" How to Behave," is the title of a handsome thirty cent 
book of Fowler & Wells, which merits a very general circulation 
among the youth of our common country. It justly urges that 
the foundation of true politeness is in a kind heart and healthy 
body, that kindness is allied to intelligence, and that health is 
intimately associated with personal cleanliness, founding both 
propositions on the assertion, that " Cleanliness is akin to godli- 
ness." One of its sentiments, which, from its truthfulness, made 
a strong impression on our mind, was, M Unless children and 
youth are taught, by precept and example, to abhor what is 

The Last Wish—The Air We Breathe. 159 

selfish, and to prefer another's pleasure and comfort to their 
own, their politeness will be altogether artificial, and will be 
used only when interest and policy dictate." We have fre- 
quently noticed persons to be crusty, haughty, and unyielding, 
when they believed themselves unknown, but become all smiles 
and deference on the instant of recognizing some acquaintance 
of position. 


We never fail to feel, when the powerless witness of the last 
gasp of the dying, It is worth the effort of a life time to he able to 
die well. And then, as well as in the crowded street, or the 
solitude of our study, we find the inquiry stealing over us, 
" What would you most wish, when yourself the actor in that 
last sad scene?" The mental answer has been so prompt, so 
frequent, so uniform, that it has become stereotyped on the 
tablet of our memory, and we read it off this beautiful day of 
departing May, " That 1 had been kinder, more indulgent to my 
fellow strugglers in the great field oflifeP 

Eeader ! How is it with you ? Let you and I begin this 
moment to practise that glorious lesson, and ravishingly sweet 
will be its memories when we come to die. 


Is composed of one part oxygen and four parts nitrogen. 
The former supports life, the latter extinguishes it. The more 
oxygen there is, the livelier, the healthier, and the more joyful 
are we; the more nitrogen, the more sleepy, and stupid, and 
dull do we become. But if all the air were oxygen, the first 
lighted match would wrap the world in instant flame ; if all 
were nitrogen, the next instant there would not be upon the 
populated globe a single living creature. 

When oxygen was discovered by Priestley, nearly eighty 
years ago, there was a universal jubilation among doctors and 
chemists. The argument was plausible, and seemed perfectly 
convincing, " If oxygen is the life and health of the atmosphere, 
as we have found out how to make oxygen, we have only to 

160 HalVs Journal of Health. 

increase the quantity in the air we breathe, in order to wake 
up new life, to give health to the diseased, and youth to the 
aged." But, on trial, it was found that it made a man a maniac 
or a fool, and, if continued, a corpse ! Various other experi- 
ments have been made to improve upon the handywork of the 
all-wise Maker of the universe, but they have been successive 
failures, and thinking men have long since come to the conclu- 
sion, that as there can be no improvement upon the cold water 
of the first creation, in slaking thirst, so there can no addition 
be made to pure air, which will better answer its life-sustaining 
purposes. And as there is not, in all nature, a still, warm at- 
mosphere, that does not instantly begin to generate decay, cor- 
ruption, and death, so there is no chamber of the sick, gradu- 
ated to a degree, that will not hasten the end desired to be 
averted. Nor is there an atom in nature which can add to the 
health and life-giving influence of the pure air of Heaven; for 
if it displaces the oxygen, in the same proportion does it dimin- 
ish its life ; and if it displaces the nitrogen, just to the same ex- 
tent does it loosen the conservative power of nature, and kin- 
dles up a fever which is to burn up the body. 


Of how much of our indignation against even a deliberate 
wrong would we be disarmed, if we could but know for our- 
selves a tithe of all the sorrow, and trouble, and disappointment 
the poor erring heart had passed through ! What efforts were 
made in youth to stand up against the pressure of the world, 
and how, when fallen, from miscalculation, or an over confiding 
nature or want of tact, it bravely rose up and tried again ; and 
when hard necessity came and drove it to the wall, how it 
looked around for help, and waited, still striving to stand up- 
right, and fell while striving, and even when fallen, how it 
yearned for one more chance to rise and be a man, how loth at 
at last to give up all for lost! — could we but see a thousandth 
part of these struggles, as they rend our brother's bosom, and 
almost break his heart, how should it disarm us of our vindic- 
tiveness, and incline us even to run to him, and raise him up, 
and stand by him, and with godlike forgiveness, bid him, in 
tones of encouragement, " Try, try again !" 

True Teachings — School Studies. 161 


Our sons are taught how to make money, and our daughters 
how to attract attention ; but little if any thing is done toward 
imparting to them that instruction which would enable them 
to preserve and maintain unexceptionable health, without 
which, the admiration of courts is a bare endurance, and the 
glitter of costliest gems as valueless as the dust of the street. 


Our shoemaker is an inveterate punster. In a recent note 
to us, he says : 

" I send the articles requested, and will take pay in journals. 
I hope they will last long, and that there will be no end to the 
wear of them ; but whether so or not, I intend to stick to you 
and your journal like a plaster ." 

One who can pun so well, not only on the technicalities of 
his own calling, but on those of one of the learned professions, 
and who has the intelligence to so fully appreciate Hall's 
Journal of Health, must be a practical, finished, and philo- 
sophical workman, and we should judge that the boots and 
shoes of Mr. J. B. Miller, of three hundred and eighty-seven 
Canal street, New York, will keep out dampness and disease 
rather better than any others. 


Had I the choice of only four things to be taught my chil- 
dren, they should be: 

To sing well : 

To read well : 

To write well : 

To sketch well. 

Perfection in these will earn their possessor a maintenance in 
any country, and will enable him to amuse himself or entertain 
a company, whether it be under a rock in the desert, or upon a 
crag in the sea. 



HalVs Journal of Health. 


In Philadelphia one person dies out of every fifty, annually. 

Lowell 1 in 50 New York . . . . 1 in 27 

S. C. . J in 48 Belgium (country) . 1 in 46 
1 in 41 " (town) . . 1 in 36 

London . 
Boston . 
Berlin . 

1 in 40 

in 39 
in 33 
in 33 
in 32 
in 29 
in 29 

New York . . . . . 
Belgium (country) . 

" (town) . . 
Sweden (country) . 

" (town) . . 
France (country) . 
Paris (town) . . 
In all England . . 
Surry county, near ) 
London ... J 

in 44 
in 28 
in 40 
in 33 
in 46 

1 in 53 

The general practical fact apparent from these tables is, that 
the country is twenty-five feet per cent, more healthy than the 

There is no large city in the civilized world, which has 
facilities of air, water and drainage equal to New York, yet 
more people die every year in New York, in proportion to the 
number of the inhabitants, than in any other city named on the 
list. We account for this extraordinary result in the fact of the 
crowded condition of the population, which most contributes to 
this alarming mortality. We need not be surprised at the 
result, when to this is added the fact that multitudes live in 
cellars, from one to three feet under ground, and these mainly 
in the lowest parts of the city, where the drainage finds its 
level, and where narrow streets are covered with moist filth 
from two to a dozen inches in depth — and in some places are 
encumbered with piles of corrupting rottenness three feet high, 
and undisturbed for months in succession. 

That the crowded condition of the houses of the masses is 
more prominently the cause of our greater mortality, is dedu- 
cible from the fact, that Philadelphia — not much cleaner than 
New York, with not half the advantages of air, and water, and 
natural drainage, having scarcely more than half our mortality, 
— has one house for every six and a half persons, while New 
York has one house for every thirteen and a half. Boston has 
nine, St. Louis and Cincinnati, each eight. That crowded apart- 
ments have death-dealing tendencies, more instantaneous some- 
times than a plague, the incidents of the Black-hole of Calcutta 

Happiness.. 163 

afford a terrible warning ; where, just a hundred and one year3 
ago, a hundred and thirty-six persons were crowded into a room 
twenty feet square, with only one small window. In the morn- 
ing, one hundred and twenty-three of these were piled up, a 
putrefying mass of dead men ; only twenty-three gasping, dis- 
torted living corpses staggered out of the dreadful charnel 

With the greatest earnestness then, do we impress upon every 
citizen, and every head of a family, to secure for themselves 
and for those under them, at least proper sleeping apartments, 
for in these we spend the larger and more exposed portion of 
our daily in-door life. 

At any cost within our means, the rooms we sleep in should 
be the largest, highest, lightest, cleanliest, dryest and most 
barren of furniture in the whole house. 


A peasant boy once said he would be perfectly happy, if he 
had nothing to do all day but to swing on the gate and eat 

The poet Gray is reported to have declared, that his highest 
conception of enjoyment, was to lie all day on a sofa and read 

Dr. Scudder, the great and good missionary, tells of one of 
his heathen pupils of seven years, that she said to her mother 
one day : 

" Mother, I have found out how to be happy." 

" How, my dear child ?" 

" By trying to do all I can to make others happy." 

When a child of a dozen years we succeeded, after a long 
trial, in making and placing a marten-box on a building near 
our honored father's dwelling. The twitterings of this beauti- 
ful bird of a summer's morning, add no little life to the quiet 
of a country village. As vivid, as if it were but yesterday, is 
the recollection of the feeling that we would be perfectly happy 
if the martens would only come to our box. Happy for us, if 
our after ambitions had been as innocent as that of our child- 
hood's summer. 

164 HaWs Journal of Health. 

The little heathen girl was nearer the truth than the peasant 
or the poet, for self was the god of their idolatry. But there 
is a still nearer approach to happiness than was embraced in 
her idea, a happiness sweeter (although subdued) than any that 
entered her mind — it is that of trying to be good, and doing 
good all the days of our appointed time, till our change come. 


A fair correspondent from one of the most beautiful towns 
of interior Pennsylvania, writes : 

" I know of no place where ladies work harder and are so 
much enslaved by the hirelings of the kitchen, as in this quiet 
town of three thousand inhabitants. Six weeks ago I hired a 
girl, who recommended herself as being very capable of doing 
work and exceedingly fond of children. I soon found that her 
capabilities consisted mainly in washing, starching, and ironing 
her own dresses, of which she never had less than three, with 
half a dozen collars, in the weekly wash. The second day after 
she came to me, she walked into my room to use my hair-brush. 
I looked at her with astonishment. She next went to the wash- 
stand. ■ Mary, there is a basin, towel, soap, and glass in your 
own room ; these articles I do not use in common with any 
one.' ' Yes, but 1 like this soap of yours so much,' replied the 
1 capable 1 Mary. 

" The first sabbath I allowed her to attend church, leaving at 
noon, to return before supper-time. At ten o'clock she had not 
come home, so I locked up the house and retired. An hour 
and a half later there were voices at the door, asking admit- 
tance, but they were not heeded. Next morning, about seven, 
my 'capable' Mary came in, with many reasons for not return- 
ing at the specified time. She always came home before night, 
after that. But she would not get up early enough in the 
morning. It was necessary for me to call her, and even then, 
seven o'clock usually found her in bed. This was intolerable, 
and I dismissed her. She is now in a minister's family, whose 
wife says, that * Mary is poor help ; she does very little ; we 
must call her two or three times every morning — but what can 
we do, we are so dependent on our servant girls ?' " 

The Strife of Business. 165 

From this it would seem that there is rather more trouble in 
being suited as to help, in the rural districts, than in the city ; 
but whether in city or country, it is not to be denied, that much 
of the worthlessness of our servants depends on the incompe- 
tency of their mistresses. The chief defects are a want of pa- 
tience, firmness, and due consideration of their ignorance and 
infirmities. The best servants are those who are sternly held 
up to the fullest performance of their duty. But, while we do 
this, we should be considerate in our requirements, courteous 
in our bearing towards them, and prompt in our payments. 


As, with a stamp of the foot he dashed on the table the pen 
which had just made him a bankrupt and a beggar, was the 
exclamation of a gentleman of sixty, who had been born and 
reared in luxury and wealth. This excellent man, in the 
course of business, had become involved, but was hoping and 
striving, as honorable men do, to " work out of his embarrass- 
ments ;" and, for all that long time, he did work, and worked 
hard — allowed himself no indulgences, sacrificed his large pro- 
perty freely, whenever necessary to "meet an engagement/ 
But all would not do ; and he closed the strife by saying, " I 
am old, and poor, and have no home P 1 

Not long ago, a gentleman who had failed in business, but 
had subsequently paid all his debts, and was now acting in a 
capacity which, while it involved no pecuniary responsibility, 
was sufficient to enable him and his family to live comfortably, 
said, "lam one of the happiest men in New York, and no 
amount of money could induce me to repeat my former career. 
I could not do it. The efforts to keep up the name of our firm 
would now eat out my mind." 

Another gentleman, still in active business, who lives in his 
own house, and who is adding to his fortune every year, said, 
with the seriousness of a man who in a moment's retrospection 
had lived over the strifes of a quarter of a century of business, 
" Could I have known, the day I entered New York a poor 
boy, the cares and anxieties which I have had to encounter, 

166 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Manhattan Island, and all that is upon it, would not have pre- 
sented the slightest inducement to undertake the task." 

Within a month, a gentleman, whose " house," in a single 
year cleared six hundred thousand dollars in legitimate busi- 
ness, has been sent to the lunatic asylum, and has since died, 
at an age but little beyond that at which men are fairly pre- 
pared to live to purpose. 

Little does the careless, and penniless, and light-hearted 
passer-by of the splendid palaces of Fifth Avenue, and Union 
Square, and Fourteenth street, imagine what storms of passion 
and of fear, what wrecks of heart and hope, what withering 
of the sweet joys and anticipations of youth, what a drying-up 
of the better and purer feelings of our nature these stately man- 
sions have sometimes cost their owners, 

11 What did that house cost you?" is not an infrequent in- 
quiry. " I am ashamed to tell you ;" or, " More than it is 
worth," is a very common response. The true answer in too 
many instances is, " It has cost me my soul /" 

To maintain a good name at bank, at the exchange, or on the 
" street," is an idolatry with many New Yorkers ; and to that 
idol, rather than be sacrificed, men will offer heart, conscience, 
independence, everything. A good name certainly can never 
be overvalued ; it is worth more than millions of money to the 
man in business, it is as much his duty as his interest to 
maintain it at any pecuniary cost, at any personal sacrifice ; 
and it is highly creditable to our business community that so 
honorable a feeling generally prevails. But the error consists 
in men placing themselves in positions which present the 
strongest of all possible temptations to sacrifice independence, 
and heart, and conscience, in order to maintain their standing 
in the business world. Beyond all question the great, the most 
universal error of the age in this country is, the disregard of 
the scriptural warning against "hasting to be rich;" and this 
neglect brings with it, in multitudes of cases which we never 
dream of, the premature decay of body and mind together, 
and in the sweeping ruin carries with it down to death, truth, 
manliness, heart, conscience, all !— confirming the saying, " They 
that will be rich fall into temptation, and a snare, and into 
many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction 
and perdition ;— which, while some coveted after, they have 

Hydrophobia, 167 

erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many 
sorrows." And again, " He that maketh haste to be rich, shall not 
be innocent?' " He that hasteth to be rich hath an evil eye, 
and considereth not that poverty shall come upon him." 


The gardener of A. A. A., Esq., heard his neighbor of Fifth 
Avenue, say, on Tuesday, May 26, that his son had been bitten 
on the cheek by a dog, and that he would not have had it to oc- 
cur for ten thousand dollars. This statement made such a strong 
impression on the gardener's mind as to the fearful nature of 
the bite of a dog, that, on reaching home, he complained of 
being unwell, and went to bed ; in a short time he felt darting 
pains running up his arm towards the shoulder ; subsequently, 
on offering him a drink of water, Mr. A. heard him make a 
noise like the bark of a dog, accompanied with a shuddering. 
The symptoms increased apace, and he died in horrible agonies 
on Friday, the fourth day. 

Nine months before, this man was bitten on the complaining 
arm, but it soon healed, and nothing more was heard of it. This 
shows in a striking manner, what an influence the mind may 
have on the body. It is possible that the gardener might have 
had the attack, if he had not heard the conversation, but it is 
not probable, because he was in his usual good health. 

We should learn from this not to nurse our symptoms, nor to 
allow the mind to dwell on any bodily infirmity, but if we 
have any ailment to make every possible effort to divert the 
current of thought, by mixing in cheerful society, engaging in 
good doing, or by embarking in some occupation which, while 
it secures bodily activity, compels the mind away pleasurably 
to things which feed and engross it. Earnest industry is a 
necessity of our nature ; there is no persistent good health with- 
out it. No man was made to be a loafer. The idler, the do- 
nothing, is a drone among his fellows, the curse of his kind. 
All have much to do. The time is short, and the night cometh, 
when no man can work. Be busy, then, one and all. 

168 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Nearly one-fourth of all the deaths in Massachusetts during 
eighteen hundred and fifty -five were from consumption ; — the 
next greatest human destroyer was dysentery, commonly called 
bloody flux. Consumption is seated in the lungs, — dysentery 
is located about that portion of the bowels immediately under 
the stomach. Cough is the most universally observed symptom 
in consumption ; passing blood is the inseparable attendant of 
dysentery. The spark which kindles up consumptive disease 
is sudden changes in the temperature of the body from a heat 
above what is natural to one that is below. The most uni- 
versal cause of dysentery is the breathing of a bad air between 
sunset and breakfast- time in warm weather. 

The practical knowledge of these things, a possible and wise 
avoidance of them, would sweep from the list of human mala- 
dies the two deadliest of all diseases known to civilized life ; 
and yet, not one in a dozen can be induced to wisely guard 
against cooling-off too soon after exercise, or to avoid the 
breathing of an unwholesome atmosphere in warm weather, 
especially in August and September, with their hot days and 
cool nights. The result of this ignorance and inattention is, 
that the average of human life in the most intelligent State in 
the Union, and the thriftiest, does not exceed twenty-eight 
years, when it ought to exceed M three score and ten P y 


Thirty years ago a schoolmistress, in a rage, caught hold of 
the arm of a little girl not in fault, gave it a violent jerk, and 
with a swing threw her to the other side of the room. To-day, 
that little girl is a wife, a mother, the accomplished mistress ot 
a princely mansion, happy in her social position, happy in her 
husband — who is one of the best of men, but that arm hangs 
powerless at her side, as it has done from the days of her child- 

Two years ago, a beautiful young girl, just budding into 
womanhood, was going to school in mid-winter ; she, with other 

Intussusception, 169 

scholars, was sent out for recreation for half-an-hour, as was the 
daily custom. Not knowing any better, she sat on a stone step 
in the sun, and daily did so. Thus, coming from a warm school- 
room, and remaining still in the open air, until most thoroughly 
chilled, she acquired a permanent cough. She sleeps in the 
churchyard now. How many bright hopes have been blasted ; 
how many an only child has been sent to an early grave, by 
ignorant, careless, and incompetent teachers, is frightful to 
think of 


Turn a stocking wrongside out part way, then turn it up 
with the toe downwards, any weight or force downwards only 
pushes the toe still further down. That is what we mean, by 
that speedily and terribly fatal disease, " Intussusception of the 
Bowels." It is an upper portion of the bowels pushing down 
with a kind of pocket within a lower portion. In such case 
nothing passes through the body, and death is inevitable. One 
of the most eminent and admired men of South Carolina 
perished with that disease ; and so, most probably, within a 
short time, the Eev. Daniel H. Peterson, of the New York An- 
nual Conference of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, a worthy 
clergyman of great industry and decision of character. 

It is not the design of this journal ever to advise medicinal 
means, that is the province of the regular physician. But when 
ailments can be removed by any article of food, or by air, exer- 
cise, and the like, we feel free to recommend them. In a case 
of •• intussusception ,"■ where quicksilver, croton oil, and other 
powerful means had failed, and for nine days the patient had 
nothing to pass through the bowels, the drinking of a pint of 
hot molasses, without stopping, gave immediate and permanent 
relief, without vomiting, nausea, or anything of the kind. How 
it acted, is worthy of investigation. The facts we know to have 
been as stated, and we hope onr exchanges will give this a wide 
circulation. An attack cf " intussusception" comes on so sud* 
denly, we know so little of its causes, it is attended generally 
with such intense suffering, and relief is so seldom obtained, 
that physicians generally regard it with hopeless alarm. Per- 

170 HalVs Journal of Health. 

haps an equal amount of any other hot, mild liquid, by its re- 
laxing effect, might answer as well as hot molasses, — success 
depending, perhaps, to some extent, on the exact locality of the 


The berries, the peaches, the apples, and the plums — not only 
of these, but of all others, eat freely, as often as you can get 
them. There are only two restrictions. 

They should not be eaten later than dinner time. 

They should be eaten while fresh, ripe, perfect, and in their 
natural raw state, without milk, cream, sugar, spices, water, or 
any other liquid, within an hour afterwards. 

Fruits are known to be cooling and healthful; the reason is, 
their acidity, like that of some other articles, stimulates the 
separation of bile from the blood, this causes an " open" con- 
dition of the system, the attendant of high health, an active 
body, and a joyous heart. Hence, if that acidity is corrected 
by sweets of any kind, in such proportion they fail of their 
natural good effects. 


It may be well for persons travelling during the summer to 
know, that, in case a physician is not at hand, a safe remedy, 
of considerable efficacy, is found in stirring a little wheat flour 
in a glass of cold water, until it is of the consistency of thick 
cream, drink it down, and repeat it several times in the course 
of the day, if needed. Meanwhile, eat nothing, drink nothing, 
and lie down, if practicable. The flour may act mechanically, 
not medicinally, by plugging up the relaxed mouths through 
which the watery particles are poured into the intestinal canal. 

Here, diarrhoeas are often the result of the greater coolness 
of morning and evening over mid-day, and the injurious effects 
of bad air on an empty stomach ; hence, one of the most impor- 
tant rules for travellers, in all seasons, climes, and countries, is, 







VOL. IV.] AUGUST, 1857. [NO. VIII. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


The utterly trifling character of many of our cooks, nurses, 
and housemaids, is one of the chief ingredients of domestic 
inquietude. It makes more mad women, more grumpy men, 
and keeps up more incessant annoyance in a family, than all 
other causes combined. It worries the wife, saddens the hus- 
band, breaks in upon the enjoyment of the children, and keeps 
multitudes of houses in a state of irritation and unrest, which 
eats out half the enjoyment of domestic life. No wonder the 
disappointed husband flies to the club-house, the billiard table, 
the whist party, or the "saloon" of gilded guilt, where external 
gorgeousness pleases the eye, and delusive drinks steal away the 
senses — while the high priests of the faro-bank and the card- 
pack steal the purse ; and lower down still, where painted 
beauty steals the virtue, leaving nothing to tell the tale but the 
bloated face, the bankrupt counter, and the blasted reputation. 
No wonder that young girls stray away to the ball-room, and 
young boys to the theatre or the negro opera. No wonder that 
the overtaxed wife fails, and fades, and pales away, — or, mount- 
ing a mettled nag, rows her husband up salt river ! 

Let then, all independent housekeepers make a strike for 
higher compensation for the monthly seven dollars paid the 
nurse or chamber-maid, and the eight dollar cook, who can eat 
44 pastry" but can't make it, who expects you to get all your 
bread at the baker's, and " stipulates" that your washing is to 
be hired out ; who gives you to understand that she must have 
loaf sugar in her tea and coffee, as "brown" gives her the head- 

174 Hall's Journal of Health. 

ache ; who must have green tea for breakfast ; that the front 
gate must not be kept locked, as it looks as if you didn't want 
any of her friends to come and see her; whose "perquisites" 
are all the "soap fat," for which she gets two cents a pound, 
made up of fresh lard costing sixteen cents, and butter at 
thirty -four cents, with an occasional slice from the sixteen cent 
ham, and the fourteen cent fresh pork — it being " understood'' 
that besides the weekly afternoon out, which extends from 
three o'clock P. M. to midnight, she is to have a chance at 
church on Sunday, and the occasional christenings and funerals, 
averaging, as every housekeeper may conjecture, once a week, 
on which occurrences you need not expect to see them until 
next day after breakfast, stupefied with want of sleep, worn 
out with the all-night carousal, and far more fit for a bed in a 
hospital than for the duties of a house servant. We have ob- 
served these impositions literally in families, with many others 
as onerous ; happily, for our own selves, such experiences have 
not been ours, having had the "help" of an excellent colored 
family, by birth, " Jersey," by profession, Methodist. And 
thus we navigate, not burdening the reader with too many par- 
ticulars, rather designing suggestive hints. All our regulations 
are by " mutual consent" — so there is no hardship anywhere. 
Washing, bread-baking, pastry cooking, every thing is done 
in the house. The washing of nine persons is completed by 
Monday noon. All our bread is made of flour or meal, not of 
cream of tartar, soda or saleratus ; such things do not enter our 
dwelling, except in the stomachs of the people whom the use of 
such things brings to our office, so if we do not live on saleratus 
we live by it. Saleratus is a valued friend of ours, wherever 
met, except in our own daily food. Our girls visit nobody, 
from one year's end to another ; they want nobody to visit 
them. Until nine at night, they read our exchanges or sew for 
themselves. At nine they go to bed, we setting the example, 
summer and winter, except on necessary occasions, for we make 
it an inflexible rule in our own family, to be a slave to no habit 
or regulation, good or bad, leaving ourselves to be governed in 
all cases by the circumstances of the moment— this only is 
rational liberty. Thus, we never require a promise from any 
member of our family, child or servant. We endeavor in plain, 
and courteous, and kindly language, to let them know our 

Hannah, the Model. 175 

wishes, and if not met, we never fail to notice it with the same 
kind courtesy, and to require a satisfactory reason. It is per- 
fectly marvellous how soon children and servants fall into line, 
and scarce once in a month, we do not remember that once in 
a year, has it been necessary to repeat a wish a second time to 
one of our girls. Can't exactly say the same of our 3, 5, T and 
9-year olds. Line upon line, and now and then the " tincture 
of birch" seem to be "indicated," as doctors write. Our girls 
do not expect to be waked up of mornings. They wake them- 
selves regularly at day-light, and a radius of five minutes 
includes the meal oalls of a year. In short, the faintest scintil- 
lation of upbraiding is not needed, nor remembered in a twelve- 
month. The " range" is dampered down, the moment the food 
is placed on the table. The coal in the cellar is taken up from 
the cellar floor, and the dust swept after, so at the end of a 
whole fall, winter and spring burning, there is not a peck of 
coal dust in the cellar. Not an ounce of ash or cinder is ever 
thrown there. Not a thing in the house is kept under lock and 
key. Sweetmeats, pastry, tea, coffee, sugar, every thing is 
open. We say to them, what you want take freely. Their 
faithfulness merits it. It is a pleasure thus to treat them. By 
a kind of instinct or natural tending, we cannot remember 
when we have given a positive order on any subject. They are 
so willing to do anything requested, that we find ourselves 
putting it in the form of request — "Mightn't it be well to have 
a turkey for dinner, to-morrow?'' u Would it be much trouble 
to have some buckwheat cakes in the morning?" " No, sir." 
"But have you any rising, and it is a rainy night?" " No, sir, 
none in the house, but I can easily go for it." Now, my poor 
afflicted New York housekeeping sister, don't you fairly love 
our girls, " unsight, unseen?" As for ourselves, we respect 
them, and respect their lady-like mother, and their aged clerical 
father, for the wisdom and tact which they have exhibited in 
bringing up their houseful of children, all good, not a "black 
sheep" among them. 

Said we to wifey one day, " I see no charges for yeast, for I 
can't tell when, what is the reason ?" 

"Oh, Hannah says the proceeds of the 'soap fat' pays for 

Not long ago, we noticed that Saturday's turkey, as left at the 

176 HalTs Journal of Health. 

close of dinner, appeared on the table next day (for we aim to 
have no cooking on Sundays, except coffee, tea, and a little 
warming-up sometimes) undiminished ; on inquiring the cause, 
the cook stated that it was smaller than common, and she and 
her sister thought they would eat something else, that there 
might be plenty for our dinner to-day. With such considera- 
tions and self-denial for the benefit of their employers, our 
esteem is compelled — while we are daily thankful, for the good 
fortune which has befallen us in respect to our "help." 

The Croton Aqueduct Department is a debtor to Hannah'' s 
consideration. She had read in the daily papers, that in con- 
sequence of the water faucets being allowed to run too freely, 
the supply in the reservoir was alarmingly low, and in case of 
any large fire, would be disastrous. This was in early Febru- 
ary, and as soon as the weather became very mild, the water 
was shut off in the kitchen entirely. The consequence was, 
that next morning we had no water. She did not know that 
the cold had penetrated the ground, that it was frozen in some 
places to the depth of several feet, and that it would require at 
least a week or two of moderate weather to unthaw the ice 
beneath the surface. It may be of service to remark here, that 
it is a useless and reprehensible practice to let the water run 
during the night in a full stream, in order to prevent freezing. 
A continuous stream, which prevents the water breaking into 
drops for four inches below the nozzle of the faucet, is amply 
sufficient in our house to prevent freezing in the coldest 
weather. It will be worth the price of a year's subscription to 
any of our city subscribers to know, that our plumber, En t never, 
180 Third Avenue, thawed out our water-pipe in half an hour, 
by one of those simple, yet philosophical ideas, which the 
thoughtful mechanic so often throws off from the brain, without 
any tearing up of the pavement, digging frozen earth with 
crow-bars, and keeping fires burning in the holes for days and 
nights together. One of our neighbors was three days rectify- 
ing his hydrant, at an expense of fifteen or twenty dollars, to 
say nothing of the inconvenience of being without water, and 
having no cooking in the family for all that time, except with 
great danger or trouble. But we have digressed, and perhaps, 
transgressed, but as we wish to be practically useful in the way 
of preventing as many of the annoyances of life as possible, we 

Jersey and Erin. 177 

will offer no apology, but proceed to "resume the thread of our 

" Once ago," as our little Bob says, when he wishes to speak 
of a past occurrence, Hannah wished a vacation, and " Mary" 
fell to our lot for a few months, when she became ill, and an 
opening was made for Hannah's welcome return. Now Mary 
was a maiden lady from the north of Ireland, who never would 
confess beyond forty, although really a "quarter" short. Mary 
was a nondescript. She had no visitors, and never would visit. 
Worked from morning until night, if there was anything to do, 
and yet hated work with a perfect hatred. She would talk you 
to death one day, if you would listen, and for the following 
week utter nothing but a " yes," or " no," and not even that, 
unless spoken to. Never behind hand in anything. Not a 
spoonful of dust or dirt anywhere within her range. Punctual 
to a minute with her meals, the year round. Honest as could 
be desired, careful to save every ounce of food, never to give 
an atom away, as she agreed with our inflexible rule, not to 
give or receive, purchase or sell, to the amount of a morsel or 
the value of a penny at gate, or basement, or hall door. This, 
reader, is a kink of ours, as being neither profitable nor 
beneficent. For what you have to give in money, food, or cast- 
off clothing, let it be placed in the hands of the various societies, 
whose members make it their business to bestow on worthy 
objects, and on those alone. It is the impostor, or the un- 
worthy idler, who begs from door to door, three times out of 

But Mary had her drawbacks, — at least one worth speaking 
of. She was a perfect wretch for temper and contrariness. 
The children hated her— absolutely hated her. She never 
was willing to cook anything else than what she felt like eating 
herself, and the very best of everything she would keep back 
for her own use — the sweetbread of veal, the breast of the 
spring chicken, the liver of the turkey. In short, she knew 
what was good to eat, and would have it. Mary's temper met 
wifey's temper, and the amalgamation resulted in "continued 
fever," as doctors love to speak. Wifey talked the fastest, but 
Mary beat her in the sound. How fast and loud it went, how 
the sparks flew, how the eyes snapped, how the lips quivered, 
and the cheeks of the respective parties colored, we cannot 

178 HalVs Journal of Health. 

pretend to describe. But, somehow or other, "Jersey" would 
always beat " Erin," and Mary would come up to our office in 
tears. " Doctor, I'm a lone woman ; ye're a gentleman, so ye 
is, an I kid liv wid ye til I was as old as Methuzlejig, and the 
madam is the kindest-hearted lady iz iver I knowd, sept when 
she aint 'cited. Please, sir, I'ze cum to give ye warnin." 

" Very well, Mary, whenever you are tired of us, your wages 
are ready; but mind, you go away yourself — we don't send 
you off." 

For the next month or two, Mary would be a model. At 
last, sickness incapacitated her from performing her duties, and 
we saw she needed rest. Taking her all in all, Mary was a 
worthy woman ; and to any lady housekeeper, who was quietly 
firm, and had no will of her own, she would be invaluable. 

Looking over the whole subject of servants, we should con- 
sider their ignorance, and pity and bear with them ; treat them 
courteously ; keep them at a respectful distance ; require system 
and punctuality in all things. Let them feel that your will is 
law, that no injunction is to be given beyond the second time, 
and that their whole duty to you will be exacted by you, as 
much as the last cent of their wages is exacted by them. 
Patiently instruct them, and always speak kindly, or if in re- 
proof, even that may be mildly done ; and when they leave, 
let certificates be given, whose literal truth shall do even- 
handed justice to the one who has left you, as well as to the 
household where she may next find employment. Such a 
course, would work a domestic revolution within a year. 


It is best for the light to fall on the page from behind, a 
little to one side, the person sitting in an erect position. 

All persons under parental control should be peremptorily 
forbidden to read by artificial light, except occasionally for half 
an hour at a time. This injunction would require no repetition, 
if parents could know as physicians do, in how many cases the 
sight is prematurely impaired, or actual disease of the eye is 
engendered, which, after heavy expense, and weeks and months 

Consumptio?i Loca lities. 179 

of starvation and dreary confinement to darkened rooms, is 
found to be intractable. 

It ought to be known that reading by gas-light is very 
much more injurious to the eyes than candle-light, from the 
flicker caused by the unsteady jet of the gas from its fountain, 
and also from the particular tinge of gas-light. A candle 
flickers some, this is remedied by having two candles burning 
at the same time; they should be rather behind the person, the 
eyes should never be allowed to face artificial light in reading. 

The habit of reading by artificial light in bed, is so reprehen- 
sible, if for no other reason than by its perilling the lives of 
others by burning the house up, as has been the case in multi- 
tudes of instances, that it is not worth while to address any 
argument to those who practice it, — whose absorbing, predom- 
inant characteristics are recklessness and selfishness. 

Many read in the daytime, while reclining on a sofa, or in 
bed, this occasions an unnatural strain of the sight, which may 
very well induce organic disease, by a persistence in the abnor- 
mal tension. Our countryman, Crawford, is believed by 
persons most familiar with his habits, to have brought on the 
malady which affects his eye at this time, by the constant habit 
of reading in the position referred to. In seeking relief he has 
made repeated journeys between Paris and Eome, then to 
London, at which place, the eye beginning to protrude fright- 
fully on the cheek, by a supposed cancerous formation from 
behind, has been entirely removed. Only think of it, — to have 
an eye cut clean out of the head, in the hope of saving life. 
Even this seems in vain, as he is on the point of returning 
home, to place himself under the care of some person here, who 
is reputed to be successful in cancerous cases. 


From information derived from many portions of the United 
States, the conclusion is clearly warranted, that all low, damp 
places facilitate the development of consumption of the lungs. 

On the other hand, high and airy situations are largely 
exempted from this malady. The city of Mexico is many 

180 HalVs Journal of Health. 

thousand feet above the level of the sea, and tb 

deaths there, from consumption, than in any city <_ _ .... « 

on the globe, of which we are informed. 

The practical conclusion therefore is, that hilly countries, 
being high and dry, should be sought out by the consumptive. 
If this is a legitimate conclusion, then the last place in the 
world for a man to go, who is laboring under consumption, is 
Florida, Louisiana, or any other flat, wet country, north or 
south. — See Hand-Book of Consumption. 


Is an almost universal condiment Black pepper irritates 
and inflames the coatings of the stomach, red pepper does not: 
it excites, but does not irritate, consequently it should be used 
instead of black pepper. It was known to the Romans, and 
has been in use in the East Indies from time immemorial, as it 
corrects that flatulency which attends the large use of vegetable 
food. Persons in health do not need any pepper in their food. 
But to those of weak and languid stomachs, it is manifold 
more beneficial to use Cayenne pepper at meals than any form 
of wine, brandy, or beer, that can be named, because it stimu- 
lates without the reaction of sleepiness or debility. 


The three greatest medicines known, and the best ; — for when 
employed in moderation and in proper proportions, they give 
health to the body, vigor to the mind, and lovingness to the 
heart. They brighten the eye, quicken the intellect, and 
elevate the soul. In their train follow a sharp appetite, good 
digestion, and sound sleep. The blood is purified, the strength 
is renewed, and the whole physical man is invigorated. They 
plant perennial roses on the cheek of beauty, add largely to the 
powers of endurance in mature life, and give to old age the 
bodily agility of younger years, with the kindliness of childhood. 

Circling Knowledge. 181 


As to pecuniary condition, the movement is after the manner 
of the see-saw, now we go up, up, up, then we go down, down, 
down ; but fashion delights in the circle, with most unequal radii, 
as erratic as those of the most incalculable comet. But know- 
ledge is also circular. The present age knows a thing, the next 
succeeding forgets it ; anon, a new generation springs up and 
claims it as a new discovery. We do not wonder that 
knowledge and invention and art, often died out in the night of 
ages, when there was no printing press to stamp it on the 
recorded page. But that useful knowledge should now dissolve 
almost from our view, and then be resuscitated with the claim 
made and the palm yielded for a new discovery, is at least of 
curious interest. 

Within a year, the papers have announced it as the discovery 
of a Frenchman, that if a scion of a tree, or slip, has one end 
stuck into a potatoe, it seldom fails to grow. One of our earli- 
est remembrances is of making the experiment with willow 
twigs. And even at that early day, we were familiar with the 
reason, that the moisture was better retained ; we presume a 
turnip or parsnip, or beet or carrot, would answer quite as well 
as a potatoe. 

Within a few days, another new discovery is announced as 
having come from France, for which high laudation is given to 
the ingenuity and perspicacity of M. Lundestorm, for making 
matches which rats cannot make go off, which cannot " go off" 
themselves, nor poison children, nor fill our premises with vil- 
lainous smells. The wood is dipped in chlorate of potash, 
which, when applied to a surface covered with a preparation of 
phosphorus, (which having been kept at a high temperature for 
several days, becomes red and looses all its poisonous qualities) 
instantly ignites. A quarter of a century ago, before the 
modern match was ever heard of, we daily witnessed this strik- 
ing of fire in the chemical lecture-room, by Prof. K. Peter, and 
now it is gravely announced, that " A paper was submitted to 
the Society for the Promotion of Industry, at Paris, which 
pointed out the evils and remedy of phosphorus matches, the 

182 Halts Journal of Health. 

practicability of which has been tested by several scientific 
men." yes, certainly I 

Within a few years, hatching chickens by artificial heat, was 
paraded as a French discovery. The Chinese have practiced it 
for centuries. 

There is much of this new discovery in medicine, that is no 
discovery at all, and instead of being new^ is as old as the hills. 
The cures of various forms of fever, the breaking up of fever 
and ague, by the application of cold water, is heralded by the 
disciples of Preisnitz, as a new thing, as a mark, of the progress 
of the age. All these things were told us in our youthj as the 
experiments of Allopathic practitioners of ages before. But 
considerations of humanity allowed the practice to fall into 
desuetude. Cold water is a too powerful, and a too dangerous 
remedy for ordinary use, and safer, surer, and more available 
means have been sought for. The ignoramus, the charlatan, 
the quack, the imposter — these are the people who trifle with 
human life.: The educated practitioner acts with a steady and 
cautious deliberation; with him, the life of a fellow creature 
confidingly placed in his keeping, is too holy a thing to be 
placed at the risk of random experiment or hap-hazard con- 

The regular practitioner, feeling the incompetence of his art 
in many instances, makes common cause with his brother, and 
considers it the business of his life to hunt out new and still 
safer, and more efficient remedies, and as soon as discovered, 
he throws his knowledge into the common fund, and the whole 
world is the wiser. But then there comes along, now and then, 
the mere semblance of a man, he, too, makes common cause as 
long as he is on the receiver's side, but the moment he discovers 
a gem, he secretes the treasure, and under the darkness of the 
night, carries it away to his own mean home, gloats over it 
awhile, then proclaims to the world its real, but oftener its only 
pretended virtues, its miraculous powers of cure. But what it 
is, he keeps to himself. He practically proclaims, " -Come to 
me, or die." To place it in the hands of those who were once 
his brethren, that each one might aid the suffering in his own 
community, and thus its savi ng benefits be felt by myriads, 1 
who otherwise must perish, he refuses. And, with remorseless 
repetition, he exclaims still, " Come to me, or die." For this 

Bad Colds. 183 

reason is it, that the regular physician looks upon those who 
keep their remedies to themselves with unutterable loathing, 
and if their names are ever uttered, it is but to express a depth 
of scorn and contempt which ordinary phrases fail to reach. 
And yet there is a meaner crew still farther down ; festering 
beneath all these, in their own appropriate rottenness— the men 
who claim for a remedy the virtue which they know it does 
not possess. And of a brotherhood are they, who profess, 
but do not truly give the constituents of their remedies, in 
order to have themselves ranked among regular practitioners, 
giving their fabrications some popular designation, when, in 
some cases, there is not an atom of the article named, in a gallon 
of the preparation; coming within these Categories, are the two 
"cathartics and pills," whose proprietors-names meet our eyes 
in almost every paper we take up, secular or religious, daily or 
weekly, headed by some historical ineidentj or some startling 
expression altogether inconsonant with the main subject of the 
article. " Inhalation" includes all these. - 


Very many of the most hopeless forms of consumption 
are the indirect result of colds taken in the summer time, more 
perhaps, in the six Weeks embracing the fourth of July, than 
any other three months in the year. The reason is, that a very 
little exercise, especially if unusual, causes large perspiration, 
and from that, as well as from that bodily debility which is 
always present in midsummer, the system has but feeble pow- 
ers of resistance, and is to a great extent helpless against the 
onsets of disease, especially against cold. While thus debili- 
tated and perspiring, if the person is at rest but a few minutes 
in a draft of air ; or, if having been in a shower of rain, he is com- 
pelled to remain still, from being in a carriage, or from any 
other reason, a severe cold is almost inevitable. We have a 
long list of women, (especially at the age of about eighteen, far 
more liable at the critical season) whom no skill could save 
from the effects of causes just pointed out. 

The same amount of "a wetting" in mid-winter, would not 

184 HalVs Journal of Health. 

have caused any special inconvenience, because there is some- 
thing in cold weather which impels to exercise, and this keeps 
up a vigorous circulation of the blood, a condition in which it 
is impossible to take cold ; and this circulation dries the cloth- 
ing by the heat which it generates. 

The rule, applicable universally is, whenever you get wet, 
especially in summer time, set yourself instantly in motion and 
keep it up until you can change your clothing. The best way 
of doing which, is to take a hearty drink of " something," or 
red pepper tea or other kind, the hotter the better, the moment 
you enter the house ; and while undressing have the dry clothing 
made hot by the fire, lose but a single minute in wiping your- 
self dry. Dress rapidly, " take another drink,' ' eat a meal, or 
exercise about the room until completely warmed. 

To show how much out-door exposure in winter-time, may 
be encountered with impunity, it may be stated, that in March 
last, a party of Indians at Spirit Lake, Iowa, took Mrs. Marble 
from the residence of her husband. Her warm clothing was 
divided among the squaws, leaving her very thinly clad. In 
this condition, with a deep snow on the ground, she was com- 
pelled to march, and carry on her back a bag containing fifty 
pounds of shot, on which was placed an Indian child three years 
old. At times, when suffering from hunger, she would almost 
faint with fatigue, when the savages would point their guns to 
her head, and threaten instant death unless she proceeded. She 
was glad to get the bones which her captors threw away from 
their meals, and often ate the wing-feathers, plucked from ducks 
which had been shot. At the end of many days she arrived 
at a station in good health, and was redeemed by some 

The Abbe Lemmenier, as a witness in an important trial says, 
that of sixty thousand pilgrims who passed the night in the 
snow, with their heads uncovered in a freezing fog, he did not 
know of a single person who took cold. Persons who are im- 
mersed, religiously, in open streams in mid-winter, even when 
the ice has been broken, seldom take cold ; but jumping into 
a river to bathe, in the summer time, while a little heated, has 
often induced fatal diseases. Beware then, of draughts of air, 
wet clothing, and damp rooms in warm weather. 

New York City Mortality, 185 


1853. 1854. 1855. 1856. 

Deaths from all causes, 22,702 28,568 22,787 21.658 

" « Throat and Lungs, 5,648 6,174 5,770 5,382 

■ " Consumption only, 2,739 3,032 2,624 ' 2,478 

It was procured to be stated in a certain class of newspapers, 
in the early part of last year, that the number of deaths from 
consumption, during 1855, was twenty-five per cent., or one 
fourth less than during 1854, and that this diminution was 
owing to the efficacy of Medicated Inhalation. But on exam- 
ining the figures, it will be seen that there was a difference of 
four hundred and eight, or about fourteen per cent. Still the 
statement was originated in New York, and published all over 
the land. But there were twenty per cent, less deaths in 
New York during 1855, than in the preceding year, from all 
causes, so that in reality, there was not as great a diminution of 
deaths from consumption, as there was in all diseases. This 
greater fatality in consumption might be attributed to Medi- 
cated Inhalation, with some show of truth. 

Medicated Inhalation was in full blast, in New York, in the 
latter part of 1855. In comparing the consumptive mortality 
of the first quarters of 1854, '5 and '6, a steady diminution was 
observed, of ten per cent., and then of twenty-five per cent., and 
the statement was made at the time, that " additional skill in the 
application of Inhalation for lung diseases, acquired by obser- 
vation and experience, would afford the most conclusive proof 
of its remedial power, for good." As it would require months 
and years to verify these statements, time was afforded to reap 
a rich harvest from this false gloss, and now what does time re- 
veal ? 

Consumption Deaths in N. Y., 1854. 1855. 1856. 1857. 

For Jan., Feb., March 843 776 580 779. 

All Diseases for 1st quarter 6,282 5,681 4,598 5,851. 

By which it will be seen, that the deaths from consumption 
during the first quarter of the present year, were greater than 
during that of 1856, by thirty-four per cent. ; so that " addi- 
tional skill in the observation and practice of Inhalation/' for the 

186 HalVs Journal of Health. 

cure of consumption, has not diminished the mortality of that 
disease, but that mortality has increased in spite of that skill, 
by the large percentage just named. This presents a different 
view of the efficacy of Medicated Inhalation, from that given 
in the following item, which has appeared in many papers. 

u The New York Herald says, that Dr. • -, of that city, 

has been accomplishing the most extraordinary results in the 
treatment of consumption, by Inhalation, decreasing the mortal- 
ity more than one thousand, in the past two years* Deaths from 
consumption, in New York, for 1854, were 3,032, for '55 were 
2,624, for 1856 were 2,357, showing an actual saving of life, 
truly miraculous, when we consider that this disease has hitherto 
been regarded as hopelessly fatal." 

How " more than one thousand lives" were saved, during 5§s§ 
and '56, by Inhalation, is certainly not demonstrated by the above 
figures; and it is a striking illustration of the blind careless- 
ness with which many papers are made up. If the number of 
consumptive deaths was diminished in New York, for 1856, by 
267, or ten per cent., through the agency of Inhalation, how can 
we account for the fact, that during the first quarter of the 
present year, the number of deaths by consumption was one 
hundred and ninety-nine greater than for the corresponding 
quarter of last year, that is thirty-four per cent. 

Eeflecting men will readily conclude from these statements, 
that the diminution of the number of deaths by consumption, 
was from accidental causes, that the later increase of that kind 
of mortality is from accidental causes, and that Medicated Inha- 
lation has no appreciable agency in the changes which these 
figures indicate. 

If we were disposed to resort to the ad captandum argu- 
ment, we might insist that this increased mortality^ of over 
thirty-four per cent, of the first quarter of 1857 over 1856, was 
owing to the large number of persons drawn to New York by 
the excitement of false hopes, and have only come to die by 
scores and hundreds, while Inhaling. Will the . newspapers 
which lent their aid in exciting these groundless hopes in their 
confiding patrons, publish this correction, and let them see how 
things really stand? The real truth being, that consumption 
with other diseases, increases or diminishes in the main, with 
the increase or diminution of the deaths from all causes. To 

Clerical Health.. 187 

claim a diminution from the agency of the practice of a single 
individual, exhibits a recklessness of truth, and an impudence 
of assumption, which richly merit the contempt of all reflect- 
ing men. 


Henky MELViLii is one of the eminent clergymen of London, 
and an old man ; he looks like a stout, burly, beef-eating Eng- 
lishman, of good height, broad shouldered, erect, full cheeks, 
and of a good color. It has been his habit to make one sermon 
a week, an exclusive labor, beginning early, and excluding all 
callers from his study many hours every day, writing it out in 
full, adding, erasing, transposing, modifying, until it is ready 
for being transcribed by a secretary, to be studied on Saturday, 
and delivered on Sunday. 

In six years past he has preached and published two hundred 
and seventy-seven Tuesday lectures, not one of which ds to be 
repeated; his published " sermons" make quite a library. 
Besides the lectures above, which admit of no substitutes, he is 
chaplain of the Tower, chaplain in ordinary to the Queen, and 
principal of a college where cadets are prepared for the East 
India Company's service. These offices involve a large amount 
of labor, and yield a large income. And this is the secret of a 
healthy, hard- working, and enduring old age : to be employed in 
a work which is our meat and drink, with a handsome compen- 
sation for the same ; thus the worker is relieved of all care, all 
solicitude, of that eating, heart-shrivelling, brain-wasting, soul- 
destroying anxiety, which attends a high, honorable sense of 
pecuniary obligation. 

A minister in debt, or stinted for means to supply his daily 
necessities, labors with a mountain weight upon him, and no 
wonder that, with an average pay of three hundred dollars a 
year, so many of them sink, in this country, long before their 
prime, into invalidism, if not into an early grave. " He studied 
too hard," is the verdict of the people ; He died of want, is the 
verdict of truth — want of that liberal and sufficient support, 
which would enable them to labor with a cheerful heart and a 
singleness of purpose, which are essential to high success in any 
human calling. 

188 HalVs Journal of Health. 

We have seen lately, a statement that some seventeen 
Methodist churches were closed in a small district in New Eng- 
land. Of two hundred Baptist clergymen in Massachusetts, 
only twenty receive salaries exceeding three hundred and fifty 
dollars. And when it is remembered, that nine or ten years 
must be spent, with several thousand dollars in money, to 
qualify these men for their office, it is a burning shame, a 
living disgrace to church members of all denominations, that 
such a niggardly provision is made for those learned, talented, 
self-denying men, who are the salt of the earth, and without 
whose personal labors, in introducing the people into the 
knowledge of social, domestic, and civil duties, duties to each 
other, and duties to the state, as founded on Bible principles, 
this Democratic government of ours would go to pieces within 
any five years. We repeat it, as the dishonor of every law- 
abiding citizen, of every true lover of our Kepublican institu- 
tions, that the men to whose daily lives and labors, and weekly 
preaching, we owe so much, are permitted, in so many instances, 
to eke out a painful subsistence by resorting to various kinds of 
labor, that they may not become bankrupt at the end of any 
year. The hardest toil of all, for daily bread, is the toil of the 
brain. But to have to endure it, under the daily influence of 
skimpy food and clothing, is hard indeed. Well is it, that these 
men have something to feed upon, of which the world knows 
nothing, the hope of immortal bliss beyond, in the bosom of 
their Father, who is the King of all worlds. 

the tkue physician- 
is sadly forgetful of his high, mission, who supposes that 
his aim and duty end in relieving the ailments of those who 
seek his assistance from day to day ; that should be regarded 
as only the means to higher ends, the means of experience and 
wisdom and leisure to institute measures for the discovery and 
removal of causes, which, in their silent and stealthy progress, 
have in all past time, eaten out the vitality of families, and 
nations, and races, which once lived in glory, but of which, the 
habitable globe affords not now a single living relic. 

Some Health Principles. 189 


No small share of disease and suffering is owing to the error 
of one man making another's experience a guide for himself, 
in matters pertaining to bodily health. Nothing can be more 
true, than that one may do with impunity, what would kill 
another. We know a lady who will instantly take cold, if she 
passes across a room or hall which has just been washed. The 
life of such a person would seem to hang on a very uncertain 
tenure. But, like a true philosopher, having found that passing 
through a recently washed room gives her a cold, she simply 
avoids it, and now, at the full age of three score years and ten, 
scarcely misses a meal from sickness, in a whole year. 

When a man finds out that his constitution is a frail one, his 
wisest plan is to study its infirmities, to find out its weak 
points, and like a beleaguered general, the winner of a hundred 
victories, be always on his guard as to those weak points. An 
old hat is never made better by being banged about, while by 
care, it may be made to look respectable for years longer. A 
worn out horse obtains no re-invigoration by hard usage. A 
man's body, whether frail or strong, is made capable of greater 
endurance by being well watched over. And take our word 
for it: 

The best way io harden the constitution is to take care of it. 

That the popular sentiment should prevail that the human 
constitution is hardened by exposure, when there is nothing 
like it in the whole range of animated nature, must be classed 
among the unaccountibilities. 

Some men thrive in spite of a given evil habit. This arises 
from two distinct causes, a vigorous constitution, or from the 
nature of the human body to adapt itself to the evils of life. 

One man may chew tobacco largely, and live to the age of 
seventy years ; another may survive a glass of grog at every 
meal, or may take a regular spree at certain intervals, and yet 
seem hale and hearty at the end of three score and ten ; while 
a fourth may live equally long, who sits up late and never 
rises before noon. But it is the utmost of folly to conclude 
that these are healthy practices, or that they are even innocu- 

UO HaWs Journal of Health. 

ous. Multitudes adopt certain habits of life, on the ground 
that they are healthy, because others are healthy who have 
adopted them, not taking into account the difference of consti- 
tution, and least of all, the difference of habits of life. A weakly 
youth of Fifth Avenue, who never did a hand 's turn in his life, is 
placed to feed on pure, rich milk, fresh eggs, and newly-made 
butter, on the ground that farming people have robust health 
who eat such things habitually, if indeed, such diet be not a 
myth in these latitudes. But to have a farmer's health, it is not 
sufficient that we eat what farmers eat, we must in addition, 
dress and work as farmers do, otherwise an ordinary farmer's 
diet will kill off these AaZ/-imitators in double quick time. 

These sentiments will strike the common observer as being 
justly true, and by taking the principle of the thing as our guide, 
we shall be saved from many dangerous errors in reference to 
human health. We have of late, seen several pernicious prac- 
tices inculcated in the newspapers, made pernicious by this 
glaring want of consideration. 

Cotton stockings are recommended to be worn in winter, in a 
recent medical journal, as being more healthful, comfortable, 
and safe than woolen. The reason the author gives far his 
advice is, the benefit he derived from the change, corroborated, 
as he thinks, by the fact that a clergyman who made the change 
by his counsel, was relieved of a troublesome throat-affection. 
It would seem incredible that any one of experience should 
hazard such a rule of health, on such a trifling foundation. 
The reader has only to try the experiment. Now and then, 
there may be a person who will be benefitted by the change, 
but there will be a thousand to be injured by it. We all know 
that the feet of some are habitually cold, of others dry, of 
others damp, of others hot, and to -recommend cotton stockings 
in winter, as best for all, or even for a majority, is unpardon- 
able recklessness, or it is the result of inexcusable inexperience. 
So critical a thing is the change of a covering for the feet, at 
times, that we never advise any specific change in that respect ; 
we uniformly say, try both, and adopt that which is most comfort- 
able to yourself In our practice as a physician, we strive, at 
least to give no killing advice, even if we do no good. 

To make the illustration more impressive, we give the fact 
that John Ford, of Auburn, New York, has gone barefooted foi 

Some Health Principles. 191 

two winters. His feet become warmer as jolder weather is 
setting in. He wears shoes in summer, but cannot be induced 
to do so in winter time. One of the most estimable citizens of 
our native village, now living, approaching his eightieth year, 
William S. Bryan, Esq., used to get up on the coldest nights, 
and walk barefoot over the snow, to cool his feet. The cele- 
brated weatherologist, E. M., writes to the Journal of Commerce 
of the "cold Sunday" night, January 18th, 1857: "Notwith- 
standing the great refrigerating power of the wind on Brooklyn 
Heights, when the thermometer was at zero, I continued my 
observations hourly, throughout the night, clad in my thin, 
cotton night-dress, with bare feet, except loose slippers, and was 
at times, five minutes in the open air, without feeling the least 
sensation of cold." 

Mr. Merriam is an old man, in apparent good health-; but 
who does not know that such an exposure would kill half the 
people in the land? To conclude that such a practice was 
healthy, because it was his habit, and he maintains good health, 
would be just as wise as to commence drinking liquor habitu- 
ally, or chewing tobacco, or taking snuff, or any other filthy 
habit, simply because persons who have persisted in these things 
have grown old. 

This same gentleman writes from Albany, N". Y., a few days 
later, with the thermometer at thirty degrees below zero. 

"I walked three miles this morning in the open air, before 
sunrise, without any overcoat, and with the same dress I wore 
in July and August, without feeling cold. 

" In the early part of next week, if the roads are passable, I 
proceed to the Adirondack and other mountains, clad in my 
Summer costume, and anticipate no difficulty as to cold." 

The ability to do such things with impunity, is the result of 
what is termed an "Idiosyncrasy" that is, something peculiar, or 
as Dr. Eeese expresses it, with greater scientific accuracy, in his 
Medical Lexicon, now among our standard works, a " morbid 
singularity of constitution" 

It is well known that some crazy people can endure a degree 
of cold which would destroy healthy life in an hour. 

Some persons survive a cold shower-bath of a winter's 
morning : the same would send multitudes to their grave in a 

1J)2 Hall's Journal of Health. 

week, and make other multitudes invalids for life. In summing 
up the whole matter, our advice is, 

1st. If you are well, let yourself alone. 

2d. If you are not well, make no change in any of your 
habits without consulting an educated physician. 

3d. Do not take it for granted that any habit or practice is 
advisable for you, simply because others have health in their 
observance. But if you want to make the experiment, first 
place yourself in all their conditions. 


A worthy dominie, whose heart flows over with lovingness 
towards all his kind, writes, " I send my subscription to keep 
the machinery in operation for 1857. Ever since I got a little 
of your sunshine, I have desired its continuance. Whether in 
propria personal, or through the medium of the press, it always 
does me good. I hope ere long to hold the veritable luminary 
by the hand, and would be glad to see your face in my study, 
as of yore." 


Is best removed from knives, &c, by rotten-stone and oil ; it 
is prevented as to stoves and grates, when put away in damp 
places for the summer time, by painting them with a mixture of 
three parts of lard and one part of rosin, melted together ; but 
the best way to keep men from rusting, is to give them steady 
employment of an active, pleasurable, and profitable character; 
without this, the health declines, the mind is enervated, and life 
itself is eaten out before its time. 

Better far, to wear out in moderate and useful activities, than 
to rust out in inglorious ease. Sun, moon and stars ; air, earth 
and ocean ; rill and river; cascade and cataract ; all, by their 
ceaseless motion, live. There is not an atom wholly idle in the 
wide universe. Nor should man be. They are for time. He 
for eternity. Their destiny is fixed for them. Man makes his 
own, according to the work of his hands. 

The Patriarch's Letter. 193 


Doctor Hall: — I received your June Journal yesterday 
Thanks for your kind attention. How old are you ? where did 
your father live sixty years ago ? Where were you born ? 
With my soul, body and spirit, I subscribe to every letter in 
your first article in this number, Disease and Benevolence. I was 
intimate with the Misses Jay and Gelston, fifty-five years ago. 
John Jay and family prayed to God in old Trinity. David 
Gelston and family, Robert Lenox, Senior, and family, prayed 
to God in the old Wall Street Church, Dr. Rodgers, Pastor ; 
while Dr. John M. Mason prayed, and I read, line by line, and 
set the tune to the old Scottish version of David's Pslams, as 
sung by the Covenanters, in sixteen hundred and sixty-six. 
Dr. Mason's church was in Cedar Street, between Nassau and 

I landed in New York in June, in seventeen hundred and 
ninety-four ; Dutch laws, Dutch language, Dutch customs, and 
Dutch preaching reigned paramount. I was much annoyed by 
the tooth -ache. The Dutch vrows advised me to smoke the 
pipe. It eased the pain. So I have continued to smoke five 
pipes every twenty-four hours, to the present day. Dr. Bran- 
bread says that tobacco is a slow poison ; in my case he is cor- 

I never was drunk in my life. Having cleared my dinner- 
plate of one-half its contents, I walk in the yard, smoke ten 
minutes, and cut wood with a buck and saw, fifteen. In long 
days and warm weather, sleep from two to three, P. M. Retire 
at nine, and rise at six. I have been only ten days confined to 
bed by indisposition, during the sixty-four years just passed. 

I drink one pint of coffee with sugar, no milk, at breakfast, 
one pint without milk or sugar at dinner, and one pint through 
the afternoon and evening. I never drink cold water, and 
seldom swallow anything hotter than blood. 1 walk without 
a staff. I sleep without rocking, and eat my food without 
brandy, or bitters. I know what kills one man, may cure 
another, but such has been my manner of life during twenty 
years, just past. 

All the hospitals and institutions for mitigating the miseries 
of man, are the fruits of Christianity. Hume, Gibbon, Voltaire, 
and Fanny Wright, never gave a dollar to any useful purpose, 
as far as I know. 

N. B. — When you see my young friends, Doctors Francis and 
Mott, tell them I am well, and prefer beefsteak to Brandreth's 

I am now living with my third wife, a buxom Yankee lass, 
of forty-two summers, thus meeting me half way. She is a 

194 HalVs Journal of Health. 

daughter of the Puritans, a lady by birth, education, and refine- 
ment. She reads Shakespeare, as I think, better than Fanny 
Kemble. This day, twelfth June,, we are four years married, 
with the honeymoon still in the ascendant. 

Grant Thorburn. 
New Haven, Conn., June, 1857. 

Thus writes the hero of " Laurie Todd," in his eighty-fifth year, 
in a bold, clear hand, every letter fully formed, every word cor- 
rectly spelled, and every punctuation well placed. With a 
heart so joyous, on good foundation, and a spirit so buoyant, 
may we enter the frosty years, a full half-century hence. 


Whose children people our Penitentiaries? They are those 
of parents who were too indulgent, or too proud, or too indif- 
ferent, to bring up their children to some honest trade. Of the 
six hundred crushed and blasted creatures in the Ohio Peniten- 
tiary, whose days are spent in bootless and ignominious toil, 
and whose narrow night-dungeon is the mute witness of demoniac 
defiance, or unavailing remorse; of vain curses, fierce and deep, 
or of feeding on the fires of sharp pointed memories— two-thirds 
never knew a trade, five-sixths are unable to read or write. 
How much of truth is there in Franklin's reputed saying, "He 
who fails to teach his child a trade, teaches him to become a 
scoundrel !" 


We propose to "Lord" Alexander, of Kentucky, the Lenox, 
the Stuart, the Douglass, and other millionaire bachelors, to 
Howardize themselves, by founding an institution for qualifying 
American born girls to be cooks, nurses and housemaids, and 
thus, in some slight measure, atone for their celibate derelic- 
tion, and the wives of New York will rear a monument to their 
memories, more immortal than the pyramids 

Reviews, Notices, dbc. 195 


How to Write — How to Talk — How to Behave — How to Do Business. — 
Four volumes, thirty cents each, or the four for one dollar. By Fowler & Wells, 
308 Broadway, New York. These are useful books, and well worthy of a place in 
the library of every young man and woman in the land. 

" The Country Gentleman," Albany, N. Y., $2 a year, is a weekly publication 
on agricultural subjects, which merits a wide patronage. It is edited with industry 
and ability, and ought to be liberally sustained. 

Littell's Living Age, weekly, Boston ; $6 a year, 8vo. — Dialogues on Divine 
Providence, No. 685 — Vision of a Studious Man, No. 684 — which ought to be 
read and studied by every married person living. Edgar Allan Poe, No. 686 — 
Goldsmith, by Macaulay, No. 670 — Charlotte Bronte and Sir John Franklin. 
No. 683. In fact, every No. of Littell has one or more rich articles of permanent 
value. Single Nos. sent, post-paid, for twelve cents. 

Chicago Magazine; or, The West as it is. June No. has twelve illustrations — 
History of Chicago, Biographies, Poetry, Sketches, &c. $3 a year. 

Blackwood, No. 81, opens with a novel by Pisistratus Caxton, W T hat will He 
Do with It 1 — The Athelings — New Sea-side Studies — American Explorations — 
Scenes of Clerical Life. $3 a year. 

Scalpel, for July ; $1 a year. Mechanically, the neatest and comeliest quarterly 
we receive ; and as to contents, without a second. Whatever Dr. Dixon chooses 
to write about, he will command readers. He writes rousingly, and always instruc- 
tively. Even in defending indefensible positions, wholesome truths sparkle out 
with delighting profusion. 

We commend to our subscribers, scattered throughout the wide West, that excel- 
lent Agricultural Weekly, The Ohio Farmer, published at Cleveland, O., at two 
dollars a year. American Agriculturist does not reach us. 

We are indebted to our indefatigable City Inspector, G. W. Morton, Esq., for 
Mortality Reports for 1855, bound in muslin ; and also, to Mr. Geo. T. Falls, his 
Secretary, for an accurate and neatly-prepared abstract of items for 1857 — from all 
of which, we are selecting some suggestive facts for a future number. Will the 
proper authorities hurry up the " Reports'* for 1856. 

The Messrs. Wood, .of 389 Broadway, have issued the second edition, revised 
and improved, of Brown's Grammar of English Grammar, 1070 pages, 8vo, with a 
beautifully-executed engraving of the Author, lately deceased. It is sent, p. p., for 
Five Dollars, and is believed, by many of the first scholars in the land, to be the 
most complete aod elaborate English Grammar ever published. It should be in 
the library of every professional man in the country, of every scholar, and of every 
teacher, who can at all afford it. We will notice it again. 

Dinsmore's Railway Guide, 9 Spruce street, arranged monthly, gives every 
desired information as to all the lines of travel in the Union. An indispensable 
vade mecum, in the travelling season especially. 

Sewing Machines, at $75 each, are for the rich only, and they do not want them, 
unless it be some notable matron, like Jessie Fremont, who has been learning how 
to use them. We are glad to learn that Watson has invented a sewing machine, 
for ten dollars, which a child can easily work. E. Sampson, of Ypsilanti, Michi- 
gan, supplies them for that region. Mr. Watson should make known his where- 





VOL. IV.] SEPTEMBER, 1857. [NO. IX. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sicknes* 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


Haying been strongly and repeatedly urged by a lady sufferer 
at the National Hotel about the middle of March, and who came 
under my care during a relapse in New York, about the first 
of May, to publish my views of the malady, I have thought it 
might be of some service possibly to do so, as I have been in a 
position to obtain information not only from facts coming under 
my own observation, but from scientific men on the spot, who 
were personally familiar with the whole history of things from 
the beginning up to the present time. 

Having lived in the midst of those malarial districts of the 
South, for a great portion of my life, opportunities have been 
afforded for becoming familiar with diseases of that nature and 
their various symptoms. My opinion is, that bad air, malaria 
will account for all the phenomena observed, and that no other 
supposition can. 

Some five or six years since, diarrhoea was very prevalent at 
that hotel. 

One gentleman was seized at the National last October. 

An eminent physician at Washington says : " The first case 
of the diarrhoea I met with at the National was in the latter 
part of January." 

It cannot be denied that several persons who never ate any- 
thing at that house were attacked by the disease. There were 
many who took all their meals there through the whole season, 
and remained well. 

198 HalVs Journal of Health. 

It is not in proof that there were any cases in the neighbor- 
hood. A wide street bounds, the house on three sides. 

Ladies who spent all their time in the building, suffered less 
than men who were absent a good part of the time, thus eating 
at the house less often than the women. 

There was every grade of intensity in the symptoms in differ- 
ent persons. 

The symptoms themselves were much varied. The attacks 
usually came on early in the morning and suddenly, with a 
copious and repeated discharge from the bowels of a light, 
colored, frothy, sourish fluid, of custard consistency, without 
pain, griping, straining, tenderness, chilliness, or fever. 

In most cases, the stomach was not affected at all in the be- 
ginning, and the appetite would remain good. 

If the disease went on for a few days, the stomach became 
irritated, and the food only was thrown up, especially if the 
bowels had been checked by opiates and astringents. 

Sometimes very violent pains would be felt in the bowels, 
seemingly due to spasm and flatulence. 

At a later period, inflammation, soreness, tenderness, and 
fever, would manifest themselves, with loss of appetite, great 
thirst, and in a very few cases, cramps. 

A copious rash appeared in a gouty patient. 

There were few, if any, cases of bloody or mucous stools. 

The best results generally followed the use of absorbents and 
antacids, such as charcoal and magnesia. 

The best diet seemed to be rice, farina, starch, and the like. 

Quiet and confinement were less beneficial than courageously 
keeping out and about. 

Kelapses most frequently occurred from imprudence in eating, 
especially meat. 

The stomach was only secondarily affected, and sometimes 
not at all. 

One man would eat a single meal in the house, leave it, be 
taken sick, and remain so for weeks ; another would eat and 
live in the house for days and weeks, and escape altogether. 

Several persons who remained in the house and procured 
their own food and water, did not escape an attack. 

Many parts of the house were filled with a most offensive 
odor, some parts were comparatively exempt. 

The National Hotel Disease. 199 

No practical chemist has critically examined a body dead 
from the National Hotel disease, and declared under his own 
name that there was any trace of a mineral poison. Examina- 
tions of the dead body have been critically made, without the 
discovery of arsenic or of any other mineral poison, as in the 
case of Mr. Petriken, of Harrisburg, Pa. In epidemics from 
bad air, this bad air including miasma, that is, decaying vege- 
tation, as well as malaria in general, such as chills and fever, 
fever and ague, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, yellow fever, and 
the like, half the people escape altogether. If mineral poison 
is in the food on the table in sufficient quantities to affect a 
single person decidedly, such effects will be observed within a 
very few hours, and not one in ten can possibly escape alto- 

In large doses, arsenic kills in five or six hours, before inflam- 
mation takes place. 

In moderate doses, there is inflammation and irritation, of the 
bowels, and death occurs in three or four days. 

In a third class of cases, there is a nervous irritation causing 
a kind of palsy or lockjaw, hysterics, mania, and the like. If 
death does not take place in a few hours from arsenic, there is 
inflammation of the stomach, as well when it is applied to a 
fresh wound as when in the stomach. 

For a hundred persons to sit down to a table and partake of 
food poisoned with arsenic, causing death in some instances or 
severe sickness within a few hours, and yet the greater number 
to escape, is a chemical and physiological impossibility. 

Heat destroys the effects of malaria as to the human body by 
rarifying it, and carrying it above the breathing point. Cold 
brings it nearer the floor or earth, and in a more condensed and 
virulent form. Hence women sitting in warmer rooms with the 
larger supplies of air from without through window crevices, 
suffered less than men who were in colder rooms with a supply 
of new air from frequently opening doors from the passages in 
the hotel, the outer doors being kept closed. 

Mineral poisons affect the stomach almost instantly, if in large 
doses, causing fearful vomitings or excessive burning or pains 
in throat, stomach, or bowels. 

A person entering a house in a tired and wearied condition, 
and breathing a concentrated malaria while eating a single meal, 

200 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and then leaving the house, may very easily imbibe a fatal dis- 
ease in that short time, from the operation of two causes — his 
debilitated state, and the empty stomach drinking in the poison 
from every swallow of saliva, until he eats, and then the vigor 
of the system being expended on the digestion of the food in 
the stomach, leaves other parts of the system proportionably 
weak and unprotected against disease- engendering agencies. 

Anomalous secondary symptoms and phenomena would at- 
tend the disease, from the fact of the extraordinary combination 
of simple miasma, with the more general malaria, and the extra- 1 
ordinary concentration of these gases, from sewers, cesspools, 
kitchen offal, noisome cellars, and the heat of cooking, washing, 
and ironing in the lower rooms of the building, not very acces- 
sible to the outdoor air. 

It is believed that not a single statement has been made in 
the preceding article that cannot be literally substantiated in a 
court of justice by the testimony of personal observation of the 
facts of the case — the testimony of scientific men, favorably 
known to fame. The aim has been to write a reliable paper, 
hoping that competent minds abroad, as well as at home, may 
be able to deduce therefrom conclusions which will shield the 
National from a warrantable suspicion that there could exist, in 
its whole extent, a heart so base as to attempt the death of the 
President elect, all regardless, too, of the certain fatal conse- 
quences to hundreds of helpless women and innocent children, 
and unoffending fellow citizens. 

The above was written by us for the New York Herald, about 
the first of June last, and copied from that paper by the " States" 
of Washington, at a time when our most learned city contem- 
porary wrote : " The attempt to ascribe its origin to Miasm is 
everywhere justly ignored. We have never doubted that poison 
in food or drink was the source of all the disease and death 
which has resulted." Two months later, after a fuller investi- 
gation of authenticated facts, this writer declares his " belief 
that the source of the epidemic at the National Hotel at Wash- 
ington, was solely a poisonous atmosphere. This foul air we 
regard as the one common cause which exposed (?) all who in- 
haled it to a predisposition to the malady, which itself was 
modified in individual cases by previous health, and developed 

The National Hotel Disease. 201 

with greater or less promptness and severity, by excesses or 
indiscretions in diet, drinks, exposure," &c. 

Our Fifth Avenue Dissector, in his fearless, slap-dash style, 
says: " We have been amused at the solemn announcement of 
the medical committee appointed to pronounce this awful event 
— the secret of miasm. That this epidemic should have pro- 
duced the set of symptoms it did without a specific or material 
poison acting on the stomach and its appendages, is absurd. 
Arsenic mechanically diffused from the decayed rats, and slowly 
, acting on the stomach, is sufficient to account for all the symp- 

Dr. Dixon is not afraid to do anything, not unbecoming — 
even to make an acknowledgment that he was mistaken. By 
the way, let every untidy housekeeper in the land send twenty- 
five cents to Sherman & Co., No. 1 Yesey street, New York, for 
the Scalpel of July, and read with wholesome fear, the effects 
of filthy housekeeping, page 116. 

A medical writer in Cincinnati dogmatizes thus: ■" We have 
no doubt that every one was poisoned with arsenic. Any one 
either in or out of the medical profession, who will deny these 
facts, will at once prove to the world that he knows nothing of 
the action of this poison upon the human structure." 

The New York Academy of Medicine, after a patient collec- 
tion of evidence from the most reliable sources at Washington 
and elsewhere, declares, "that no known poisonous article from 
either kingdom of nature, would have produced all the group 
of symptoms which so uniformly characterize all the cases, and 
certainly not without involving the stomach itself in more 
serious mischief than is alleged to have been present in any 

Dr. J. C. Hall, of Washington, who had a larger number of 
cases in his care than any other, himself one of the ablest phy- 
sicians in the country, and one of the brightest ornaments of the 
medical profession, expresses himself in the most decided terms, 
that bad air was the cause, and the sufficient cause, of the Na- 
tional Hotel endemic. 

• On the other hand, a correspondent of so staid a paper as 
the New York Observer, writes, May 9, from Washington : " The 
exhalation theory is full of absurdities." The only reason given 
is, " One of my own family is certain he was poisoned." 

202 HaWs Journal of Health. 

These conflicting opinions are presented, not because we have 
any doubt that bad air was the sole cause, but to show that bad 
air alone can have an effect on the system sufficiently violent 
to induce unintelligent persons to believe them to be of arseni- 
cal origin. The practical point is this, let every reader hate 
dirt of every description, in atoms, as well as in tons, with a 
perfect hatred. The National Hotel disease is one of the most 
impressive lessons ever given as to the deadly nature of foul 
air— of filthy housekeeping. There was death in the pot, in 
the olden time, and death in it now every day ; but foul cellars, 
back yards, kitchens, and dormitories, are the unsuspected causes 
of many a childless household. 


We very much wish that poor people would patronize our 
Journal. We had rather have ten thousand poor subscribers 
than as many rich ones, because our object is to abate disease, 
and poverty is the principal cause of vice and crime, and sick- 
ness and death. Thus it is that we have so often directed 
the attention of our readers to the economics of life, and to the 
practice of those things which prevent thriftlessness and waste, 
and their consequent destitution. Besides, the poor need all the 
aid that can be given them in their hard, struggle for bread ; 
and we consider that we do a greater favor to humanity by 
teaching them how to avoid want, and thus helping them to 
stand upright, than in supplying those wants in the most 
princely manner, after they have fallen, for having fallen, few 
ever rise again ! as every observant keeper of our city prisons 
will any day tell you. The poor are victimized at almost every 
step they take in our large cities: the penny swindle is a ery- 
ing example, practised hourly in every block in New York. 
Cheated are they in the quantity and quality of every pound 
of meat*they purchase, of every peck of vegetables. Thus it is 
that they who hardest earn their money, get the least value for 
it on its expenditure. Quite as cruel as any of these are the 
impositions practised on the poor in their purchases of coal. In 
the first place, there is that of short weight, which very few have 
the means of detecting. New York coal dealers, in purchasing 

Coal 203 

coal, get twenty-two hundred and forty pounds for a ton; in 
retailing it, they never pretend to give more than two thousand 
pounds: how many of them fail to give even that, we do not 
pretend to say, A very effectual stop may be put to this 
shameful fraud, by the adoption of Martin's self-weighing cart, 
as sold by Mr. 01 wine, of 377 Water street, New York. It 
would be a humanity, for every citizen to refuse taking coal 
from any other kind of cart, or to adopt some other equally 
efficient mode of securing fall weight. 

But there is a class of retail coal dealers, like advertising 
doctors, and patent medicine men, who would never become 
known for their virtues through ordinary channels, but call the 
newspapers to their aid, and, with a great show of honesty, 
guarantee full weight, or forfeit the coal. If coal were coal 
always, that would be fair enough, but advantage is taken of the 
unwary purchaser as follows: Of two carts of coal, standing 
side by side, an ordinary housekeeper would have no choice, 
while a practised coal dealer would gladly take a cargo of one 
while he would not be hired to admit the other into his yard, 
if compelled to send it to his best customers. How a poor man 
may tell one from the other with absolute certainty and in- 
stantly, is the object of this article, because one kind will burn 
almost entirely up, leaving but little residue except a few ashes, 
while in a single day's burning, the other will leave the grate 
nearly, if not quite full of rocks. One kind has only fifteen per 
cent, waste, the other has fifty or sixty. So one ton of coal, at 
one dollar a ton, may be dearer than another at four dollars, 
and yet, not one man in fifty could tell the difference. We have 
never seen that difference described in print. And much of the 
information contained in our pages is of this sort, as far as 
intended for popular enlightenment. 

A shiny square fracture is what an honest coal dealer loves 
to see. He considers the article good in proportion as it breaks 
at right angles firmly. If it shatters in breaking, or breaks 
unsquarely, he will not look at it. If the coal has among it 
flat pieces, with a dull, coal-dust look, it is "bony." Such a 
piece gives no more heat than a bone: it is a black rock, nothing 
more; it is hard to kindle, and goes out directly. So, to give 
in a few words, the best idea of a good or bad load of coal, we 
say, the more square the lumps of coal are, the better it is. A 

204 HalVs Journal of Health. 

good quality of Red Ash coal, such as is almost universally 
burned in New York grates, has not a dozen pieces of flat coal 
in a whole load ; the pieces are " as broad as they are long. 11 On 
the other hand, the more flat pieces there are, the more worth- 
less is the article as fuel. 

We have been speaking of what is called Anthracite coal, 
the kind that the generality of the people in New York use to 
burn in the grate. 

The coal most highly prized to burn in New York, for com- 
mon use, is called " Red Ash 11 coal, because the ashes it leaves 
in the grate are of a reddish color ; and observation has shown 
that such a coal gives out the most heat, and leaves the least 
waste. Our range coal is called " White Ash," because the 
ashes it leaves are very much the color of wood ashes. It is 
used in stoves and in ranges for cooking purposes, because, 
being subject to a greater draft than in a common grate, it 
" clinkers" less than the Red Ash would, and, at the same time, 
gives out a more intense heat. By clinkering less is meant, 
that the White Ash coal leaves behind it less of that hard, molten- 
looking refuse, than the Red Ash would, if exposed to the same 

But there is a kind of coal called " Red Ash," and sold afc 
such, between which and the real Red Ash, there is as much 
difference as there is between the same article of goods in Broad- 
way and the Bowery. It is really a pink ash, not gray, like 
wood ashes, nor decidedly red as the real Red Ash. The Pink 
Ash is scarcely distinguishable from a wood ash at a casual 
glance. The Red Ash is more of the color of the cover of the 
June number of our journal, or of the cover of the first six 
numbers in one, of this year. It is not much redder than the 
palm of the hand — than common sand-paper. Some might say 
it approximates to the color of iron rust, having only here and 
there a flake of white ash, when spread out on the hand as we 
do flour, when we look at it. 

As there is full fifty per cent, difference in the coal we burn, 
and as it costs an ordinary family nearly a hundred dollars a 
year to supply it with coal, we have thought the space we have 
given to the subject will well repay our readers, especially as 
this is about the time for laying in the winter's supply of fuel. 

If any of our readers were to ask us how to insure them the 

Coal 205 

cheapest and best coal for their money, we would say to them, 
go to such men as Randolph and Skidmore, Henry Reeves, the 
brothers Truslow, Thurston, and men of that character, who 
got a good custom and wealth by selling a good article of coal, 
and kept that custom by continuing to do the same thing, and 
tell them to send you from their yard a certain quantity of Red 
Ash coal You will then pay the highest price, but then you 
will get full weight, the cleanest article, and the best of its kind. 
You may in rare cases, get it for seventy cents less a ton, by 
taking it from the boats of another class of dealers, but by 
neglect of screening, by its bony nature, and its grayish instead 
of reddish ash, you lose in the end, at least double what you 
supposed you were saving. We mention a few names, not 
because there are not others just as good, not because of any 
partiality to the men named, or even because we know them by 
sight, but simply because we wanted to be definite, and had pri- 
vate means of knowing the qualities of coal in which these men 
have been in the habit of dealing. 

"While speaking of coal, which is a particularly black subject 
to us, it may be farther interesting to state, especially for the 
comfort of our other half, (and those like her,) who are afraid all 
the coal will be burned, and the world will one of these days 
freeze up, that although the steam frigate Niagara, when mov- 
ing ten miles an hour, consumes in that hour very nearly two 
tons of coal, that is, in exact numbers, four thousand four hun- 
dred and eighty pounds, there is in England alone enough coal 
to last seventeen hundred years, at the rate she is now consum- 
ing it. 

Not many families in New York consume more than twenty 
tons of coal in a year, but a single ocean steamer consumes 
twice that much in twenty -four hours. To carry a Collins 
steamer from New York to Liverpool, requires eight hundred 
tons of coal — enough to keep an ordinary family forty years, 
and a thousand steamers leave the port of New York alone 
every year. 

Coal beds are measured like anything else, by their length, 
breadth, and thickness. A bed of coal, measuring three feet 
every way, yields a ton of coal : thus it is found that while 
England has enough to last her seventeen hundred years — or 
eight thousand one hundred and thirty-nine square miles, the 

206 HalVs Journal of Health. 

United States alone has one hundred and thirty -three thousand 
square mile3. Missouri alone can furnish a hundred; million 
tons of coal a year, for the next thirteen hundred years, so we 
are safe from freezing for the next two thousand years, and by 
that time Mr. Payne, or some; other genius, will have set the 
river on fire, and commenced burning up the Atlantic. 

CoaL is supposed to be the product of vegetation kept under 
an j immense pressure for countless ages. Anthracite coal (such 
as the eastern part of Pennsylvania yields,) is Bituminous coal 
(such as comes from Pittsburgh, Cumberland, and Liverpool) 
without the gas — gas Jight of cities being made from Bituminous 
coal, obtained from the places just named, the Anthracite being 
by a longer pressure, with perhaps other agencies not yet 
known, deprived of the gas. The supply of Red Ash coal is 
less than that of any other, confined, as far as we yet know, to 
a limited territory, about a hundred miles from Philadelphia; 
and yet the Philadelphians seldom use it — they prefer the 
harder kind of Anthracite, because it gives a greater heat. New 
Yorkers prefer the Red Ash coal from the Schuylkill, because, 
having some flame, it makes a more cheerful fire, because it 
kindles easier, and does not make such a dry heat. 


Mr. Editor : — 1 was glad to observe in a late number of youi 
Journal, some suggestions to invalids respecting a winters resi- 
dence at the South. The season is now approaching when 
many of those who are afflicted with consumptive disease, or are 
threatened with its premonitory symptoms, will begin to dread 
the chill autumn winds, and prepare to emigrate to a warmer 
climate. I shall say little or nothing in this letter about the 
fallacy of the idea that such a change of climate will cure or 
tend to cure consumption. Having spent the whole of the past 
winter in Florida, I wish to give to your readers some intelli- 
gence respecting matters interesting to every invalid contem- 
plating such a journey. 

It is a very significant fact that there were not, during the 
past winter, as many invalids in Florida, by more than one half } 

Going to the South. 207 

as there were the previous year. Why such a marked diminu- 
tion ? Some say that invalids were afraid of the Indians who 
infested the Everglades in the extreme south of the peninsula. 
Billy Bowlegs would think himself and his crew of some conse- 
quence if they should be informed of this. Others have thought 
that the political estrangement existing between the two sections 
of our country is almost enough to account for the fact. One 
can hardly repress a smile at such reasons as these. Undoubt- 
edly multitudes of invalids have become convinced, both by 
medical advice and by the testimony of those who have tried 
the experiment, that "going south" is not the sovereign panacea 
which it was once supposed to be. 

Nevertheless, many will yet resort to this means in the hope 
of curing, or at least alleviating, consumptive disease. To such, 
the communication of a few facts respecting the expenses and 
mode of living in Florida maybe useful. It is a fact well 
known to every observer, that the great majority of those who 
go to the South for health, are persons of scanty or moderate 
means. Many of them are ministers of the Grospel, who have 
worn themselves out on half pay, and are turned off by their 
ungrateful people, who borrow or beg as they find it most con- 
venient. To most invalids, the expenses of a winter's residence 
in the South are a serious burden. Sixty dollars a month is the 
very lowest figure for a single person, and with incidentals and 
the few luxuries which are added, this amount will be consid- 
erably exceeded. 

The invalid who goes to Florida, almost invariably deprives 
himself of many things absolutely indispensable to comfort. 
The hotels and boarding-houses are mostly supported by inva- 
lids, but on very few tables will be found some of the articles 
of diet most essential to persons of weakly constitution. If one 
endeavors to economize at all in the matter of board, he must 
put up with the poorest possible fare. I did not find a good 
cut of beef in the whole State, and a good joint of mutton is a 
rare dish. Venison and fowl are plentyj but even upon a vege- 
table diet one can hardly secure variety. 

If the invalid wants a hair mattress, he must bring his own 
with him ; for the luxury is not to be obtained in Florida. 
Whether the moss which is universally used there for beds is a 
suitable substitute, I am unable to say. I rarely slept in a room 

208 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

with plastered walls and ceiling. Men have little or nothing 
to do with masons in building their houses. For amusement, 
one finds almost nothing. The rivers, it is true, have fishes, 
and the woods have game ; but few invalids that I met were 
rugged enough for such sport. One must seek his society 
among sick people ; there is scarcely any other to be had. Once 
or twice a wefck is as often as one can get letters from home, 
under the most favorable circumstances. 

I went to Florida in the fall of '56, intending to remain six 
months ; but three months had not passed before I was worn 
out with the dull monotony of such a life, and often almost 
frantic for want of something — anything, to divert and occupy 
the mind. 

Procuring a hard trotting horse about the first of March, I 
travelled over two months in the saddle, towards the North. 
Such a journey has its advantages for an invalid; but it has 
also its serious objections. In the first part of our route we 
camped out in the woods, and found a bed upon the ground 
more welcome than such lodgings as were afforded in wild and 
almost uninhabited pine barrens. Through a journey of a 
thousand miles, from Florida to Virginia, we stopped for the 
most part in log houses, with wide crevices as the only media 
of light and ventilation. In some respects the journey was 
beneficial; but if we could have persuaded ourselves to take 
half the amount of exercise at home, or in a colder latitude, we 
doubt not that we should have reaped double the advantage. 

L. F. C. 


My manner of life, from my youth up, I think, has been 
dictated by the laws of Nature. From my earliest recollection 
I never could swallow any food or drink hotter or colder than 
the blood, without a painful sensation, nor drink spirits, as it 
burnt my mouth and throat. Some seventy years ago, by the 
help of a powerful microscope, I saw scores of living things 
swimming in a tumbler of water. Thinks I to myself, if we 
must swallow whole fish, we had better boil them first. I think 
every thing that goes into the stomach ought to pass through 
the fire. 

Going West. 209 

I love all kinds of fruit, after a fiery trial in a pie dish, pud- 
ding-bag, or dumpling ; but I can't recollect that I have eaten 
a raw apple or peach in seven years. The good fruit and vege- 
tables I delighted to honor at my table fifty years ago, are as 
much my favorites now as they were then. The reason is 
obvious. In that long period I never ate enough. My young 
unsatisfied appetite continued to say, "Give, give!" In 1802 
I kept a retail grocery in New York. Often in the middle of 
my dinner I was called to wait on customers ; being detained 
fifteen or twenty minutes, on going back to the table my appe- 
tite was gone ; I returned to the store and ate no more until tea 
time. Observe, had I not been called off, I would have eaten 
the whole plateful, before rising from the table. This thing 
often occurring, I noticed that I always felt more comfortable 
through the afternoon, and never wished for my tea until the 
usual hour. So I put myself on short allowance, on which I 
continue to live, move, and have my being, at the present day. 

When I see people at table heap their plates with fish, flesh, 
and fowl, potatoes, cabbage, cucumber, and sour krout, apple, 
mince, and custard pies, says I to myself, " They are digging 
their graves with their teeth." Grant Thorburn, Sr., 

" New Haven, 18th July, 1857. Aged 84 years, 5 months. 


That is the rage now. Everybody is going west, or wants 
to go — except the wise ones. The " West" is a glorious 
country. It was the home of our childhood, and youth, and 
maturer years, and we love every foot of it; at the same time, 
it is not a " heaven" to everybody. Our personal experience 
capacitates us for making a safe judgment. While we have had 
every comfort and every convenience that many thousands could 
procure, we have known the exceeding comfort of a drink of 
spring water in a boundless waste, and the convenience of a 
saddle blanket for a covering, and a log for a pillow, the hard- 
ships " between times." 

No married person, who can by close economy and steady 
industry make a moderate living, ought to think of emigrating 
after the age of forty years, except in very rare cases, for the 
following chief reasons : 

210 HalVs Journal of Health, 

1st. 'In a great many instances, you forego the advantages of 
good schools and a convenient attendance on Sunday worship. 

2d. You abandon the old associations, and acquaintances, and 
friendships of earlier life, and go to form new ones in your old 
age, among people you never knew, and never can know, like 
those you left behind you : hence your attachments must be as 
uncertain as they are hazardous, and in both cases frail. 

3d. You go "to get land for your children." If you want 
to pursue a course which shall most certainly insure them 
H success in life," teach them the efficiency of honorable indus- 
try, and, with your blessings on them, bid them go out and 
work for themselves as you did, and it will be a more enduring 
and a more elevating " fortune" to them, than if you could leave 
each child a thousand acres of the best land in the Mississippi 

4th. If you go " west" you will have more land, but you will 
have to work harder, and as long as you live. That harder 
work will never secure you the same domestic comforts and 
conveniences which you left behind you, to say nothing of your 
strugglings against inevitable sickness. Everybody will tell you 
that his neighborhood is healthy, but we do not believe that 
there is, to one born in the East, a single healthy spot, one yard 
square, between the Alleghanies and the Sierra Nevada. Any 
part of the " West" may become healthy to you in a few years, 
if you do not go to your grave in the mean time. As a private 
observer and a physician, we don't believe that any farm in 
the Mississippi valley is worth a " shake" of three years, pro- 
bably seven. 

An Ignis Fatuus, a kind of Jack-o'-Lantern delusion, possesses 
a man the moment the Western Mania seizes him. His acre 
here is worth two hundred dollars, and this value he transfers 
to his western farm. He soliloquizes thus : " My fifty acres 
here, will bring ten thousand dollars; that will purchase five 
hundred acres there, to be worth in a few years fifty thousand 
dollars," and at once he sees himself a millionaire. In a few 
years t — within that time a " farm" of six feet by two will be all 
that he can use. 

Then again, there is a rating of the product of the soil there, 
at the retail price it brings here, leaving out of sight the ninety 
per cent, of profit that is swallowed up between the producing 

Going West 211 

place and the market-house. Where we were " born and raised," 
the plenteous vision passes this moment before memory's eye, 
with associations mournfully pleasing. Eggs were brought to 
our father's bounteous table, by the peck, at "tuppence" a 
dozen; the largest turkeys at twenty-five cents a-piece; the 
best hams at three cents a pound, and prime beef-steak at four 
cents, the highest; the most splendid apples at fifty cents a 
barrel, and potatoes at twenty cents a bushel. Solid hick- 
ory wood cost, delivered, a dollar a cord ; the best flour, two 
dollars a barrel, and others of the good things of life in the 
same proportion. Fresh grass butter went a-begging at ten 
cents a pound, and milk such as New York never sees, was fed 
to the pigs. 

Things were cheap there for want of purchasers. Everybody 
had enough of his own. There were no beggars, and no loafers. 
All worked, and all had a plenty, as would be the case now 
under the same conditions. This blessed moment do we almost 
wish that we could be transported back again to those good old 
times, and to those plenteous places, a thousand miles from any 
railroad, and a week's wagon journey from any river in winter 

We used to make many inquiries as to the clear gains of fine 
western farms and splendid southern plantations, for we have 
lived on and among both, and counting everything at a reason- 
able cash value, it was a rare occurrence, and it is a rare occur- 
rence still, that any mere farmer or planter clears, above all ex- 
penses, over six per cent, on his entire capital and labor. Mul- 
titudes there are who have waited a lifetime to get rich by the 
"rise of property," and died poor at last, or the thriftless pos- 
sessors of unproductive acres. 

What tens of thousands of hearts have yearned their lives 
away for their eastern homes, but had not the means to return 
them there 1 These things are said of persons who have fami- 
lies, and are over forty years of age. To young persons, who 
have strong hands and willing hearts to work, and have nothing, 
we say, " Go to the West." 

But one of the greatest curses of the "West" is the mania for 
possessing land. The absorbing ambition is to possess the 
largest number of acres possible, and the next insanity is to 
have the widest extent of land under cultivation with the least 

212 BalVs Journal of Health. 

labor. We have seen many a twenty acre field, which had 
scattered over it the labor due to one acre, with a less yield 
than the single acre well manured and thoroughly cultivated. 

There are farmers in the very garden spot of Kentucky, em- 
bracing Bourbon, Scott, Clark, Fayette, Montgomery, and 
Woodford counties, who owned hundreds of acres of land that 
would produce, without manuring, a hundred bushels of corn 
to the acre, and yet, when they got to be sixty years of age, 
were only worth the land they lived upon. 

Compare this with many a Dutch gardener around Cincinnati, 
who has grown rich in less than twenty years, by cultivating a 
few acres of side hill; or with a farmer in "Jersey," with its flat, 
sandy soil, which would not produce a mullein stalk or a jim- 
son weed, without manure, who in eighteen hundred and fifty 
six " cleared," from twelve acres of land, on which he put two 
thousand dollars' worth of manure, yes cleared, above all ex- 
penses, seven thousand dollars! Such is his own statement. 

Depend upon it, what we want in the East, as well as in the 
West, In order to make this country many times greater, more 
powerful, more productive, is, 

First — Bring up more young men to the expectation of mak- 
ing a living by the cultivation of the soil. 

Second — Let their expectation be to make a fortune by the 
product of the land, irrespective of any change in value. 

Third — Teach them that one acre thoroughly cultivated, is 
more profitable than the same amount of labor spent on twenty 

Fourth — That to till the soil to the greatest advantage, the 
money which will yield the highest dividend by a hundred fold ? 
is that expended in well-conducted agricultural periodicals. 
In short, that the requisites of successful farming are, intelligence, 
liberal manuring, and thorough cultivation. 


Population. Size in Acres. Park Reserves. To each House. Mortality. 

London, 2\ millions, 76,000, 1537, seven, 1 in 41. 

New York, | million, 14,000, 950, thirteen, 1 in 34. 

Philadelphia, ± million, 70,000, six, 1 in 50- 

London includes five times as much space as New York, with 

Health of Cities. 213 

only one-third more park room. " Central Park," containing 
seven hundred and seventy-six acres, is just double the size of 
Hyde Park, the boast of England. Leaving out Hyde Park, the 
Central Park is larger than any other two parks in London. 
The Croton water is the purest supplied to any large city in 
the world. Yet, with the purest airage and the finest water, 
more persons die every year in New York than in any other 
large city on the surface of the globe, whose statistics are known. 
What is the reason ? It is found in our dwellings. Too many 
people live in the same house. Too many sleep in small, dismal, 
ill-ventilated rooms, cellars, attics, and the middle one of three 
rooms deep. 

"We wish that the Editors of the Scalpel and Medical Gazette, 
whose heads are larger and whose experience has run through 
more years than ours, would lend their minds to the practical 
inquiry, why is New York the highest of all large cities in its 
mortality, notwithstanding its superior advantages as to drain- 
age, park room and sea air, to say nothing of the six miles of 
running water area on its eastern and western boundaries ? It 
will not do to say that our city is filthier as to its streets than 
other cities, nor to attribute the increased mortality to the 
larger number of persons who land here from abroad, because 
the foreign mortality at all the public institutions for eighteen 
hundred and fifty-five was fourteen hundred and seventy, of 
which number thirteen hundred and five were from the Emi- 
gration Hospital at Ward's Island, where poor sick immigrants 
are sent on arriving here. That is, of the 136,000 immigrants 
during 1855, there were 1305 passenger deaths, out of the 
entire foreign death 6103, and an entire mortality of 23,042. 
This is a great practical question, and we wonder that it has 
not engaged the attention of medical pens to a greater extent 
than it has done. If, on examination, it is found that crowded 
houses, tenement dwellings, and confined dormitories, are the 
demonstrable causes, then let corresponding efforts be made to 
remedy the evil. 

Night itself predisposes to disease, and sleep adds largely to 
that predisposition, by reason of its slow breathing and languid 
circulation ; and if in that highly predisposed state, we, for a 
third of our existence, breathe a vitiated atmosphere, vitiated 
by that heavy dampness which characterizes the night time, to 

214 HaWs Journal of Health. 

say nothing of the most disagreeable closeness which is percep- 
tible on entering the sleeping apartment of even one person, in 
the morning, we cannot wonder that so many are sent to the 
grave every year, where this state of things prevails. The 
subject certainly commends itself to the mature reflection of the 
humane, for it is a higher humanity by far to prevent disease, 
than to build hospitals and found asylums. No one should 
sleep in a room smaller than twelve feet square, nor lower than 
the second floor, and even then, a fireplace, and a door or win- 
dow, should be open, even in the country. 


On the fifth of February, 1854, two ladies of New York were 
conversing about the great suffering among the poor. One of 
them, Mrs. Thomas Addis JEmmett, who had long been a mana- 
ger of the Marion Street Lying-in Asylum, spoke of the miseries 
of infants, of their neglect, and the suffering of mothers whose 
poverty forced them to give the nourishment intended for their 
own infants, to the children of the rich. She told the following 
story : "A well-known sick-nurse, Miss Sarah Bichards y called 
the evening before to see a lady whom she had attended, and 
while looking at the infant, she observed its wet-nurse was in 
tears. Miss Richards expressed her surprise that she should 
manifest such unhappiness while surrounded with every com- 
fort. The poor nurse replied : \ It's just that makes me cry; for 
see what a nice bed, and good meals, and comfortable fire / 
have, while my own dear child may be starving or freezing, for 
I have promised the lady whose child I am nursing, never to 
nurse my own while I am nursing hers, and mine must be 
nursed by some one else.' On hearing this, Miss Richards, with 
a true woman's heart, sought out the child, and at night time, 
in a dirty basement room, found a sick woman lying on a mise- 
rable bed, who on being asked for the ' baby,' said, ' my baby 
died yesterday of the small- pox.' 

" ' But where is the nurse's baby?' 

" ' Oh ! if that's what you want, here it is;' as she leaned over 
and drew from under her bed, a basket of soiled clothes, among 
which lay the child, whose mother might well weep for its utter 

Take Care of the Children. 215 

wretchedness, neglect, and danger. The visitor stripped every 
rag from its little body, wrapped it in her shawl, took it to her 
own home, bathed and dressed it, sent for a physician, had it 
vaccinated that same night, and it was saved. ;? * 

Within a month from that night, ten thousand dollars were 
subscribed by generous citizens, a charter was obtained, and a 
society was organized for the purpose of taking care of the 
children of poor women; a home was procured ; the whole 
thing went into immediate Operation, and now, within three 
years, a building is in the course of erection, which alone will 
cost twenty-five thousand dollars. Since that memorable night, 
553 persons have been taken in and cared for, — of these only 
thirty-six were American born. Of 160 children received, all 
but twenty were in a diseased state from pure neglect, such as 
burns, bruises, falls, or drugging. Some of these poor little 
creatures were frost-bitten. Yet, all but forty were saved, while 
in some of the European institutions of a similar character, 
according to the usual mortality, a hundred and twenty-eight 
would have died, instead of twenty; only thirty-two would 
have been saved instead of one hundred and forty. 

Such are the ameliorations of disease, and such the life-saving 
results which spring up from sound medical views as to the best 
method of aiding the poor, the friendless, and forsaken of our 
race ; such the results of woman's heart and the true physician's 
head, working together, thus preventing disease, and suffering, 
and death, rearing roses on the thorn bush, and planting flow- 
ers in the desert. To be co-workers with such, let every good 
citizen have a high ambition, and make a prompt, liberal, and 
cheerful donation to the Nursery and Child's Hospital of 
New York, conceived in woman's kindness, founded by woman's 
fair hands, and advocated by the eloquence of one of our own 
noblest senators. 

Sunday School Scholar. Are all them old fellows living yet ? 
Teacher. Who, my child? 

Scholar. Why, Abram, and Moses, and Deuteronomy, and 
all them. 

* See Address of Hon Erastus Brooks, at the laying of the corner stone of the 
Nursery and Child's Hospital, in New York, Lexington Avenue, June 22rf, 1857, 
by Mrs Cornelius Dubois. 

216 HdlVs Journal of Health. 


The mechanics and farmers are the pillars of any nation of 
enduring greatness. Of the two classes, the farmer is the most 
important. Taking out now and then the brightest intellect 
and the best heart for doctors and clergymen, it would be a 
grand thing for our country, if every young man, at the com- 
pletion of his twenty-first year, was required to be a practical 
farmer or a finished mechanic, and this to continue for fifty 
years, and thus allow all politicians, lawyers, gamblers, drunk- 
ards, dandies, go-betweens, gentlemen-loafers, bachelors, and all 
such dispensable characters, to die off. A plan like this would 
give a stability to our nation beyond all that whig or democrat 
ever dreamed of. 

We have a territory large enough, north of the Missouri and 
west of the Mississippi rivers, large enough to give a good-sized 
farm to every competent agriculturist that can be prepared for 
it, in the next half century, while the mechanics will build their 
houses, erect their mills, dig their canals, and stretch out their 
railroads ; a territory as large in extent as that of the twenty- 
four States, east of the Mississippi river — vast plains of territory 
teeming with vegetation, and swarming with animal life — plains 
which pasture twenty millions of buffalo, and provide shelter 
for fifty millions more of wild animals of every description. 

On these magnificent plains, a thousand miles broad, "with- 
out a single abrupt mountain, timbered space, desert, or lake, 
running smoothly out to the navigable waters of the St. Law- 
rence, the Mississippi, the Missouri rivers, and the Texan coast," 
with scarce a rock, or stone, or tree within the circuit of many 
miles on these great plains — now swarming with millions of 
buffalo, the Yankee of another century will make his mark, the 
mark of the church and the school-house, the plantation and 
the city. 

But without wood or yet discovered coal, how would the 
teeming millions of a score of States live? The great God is 
always wise and always good. His benevolence precedes the 
need of man, his child, by untold ages. There is wood enough 
growing under all these plains to last for uncounted generations, 
to be had anywhere for the digging; for the dry atmosphere 

Miasm and Malaria. 217 

stunts the vegetation above ground, and all the strength goes 
to the roots, which spread out in all directions as large as a 
man's arm. 

By a late- discovered document, it is ascertained that a census 
of the Chinese empire was taken in 1852, and that it amounted 
to three hundred and ninety-six millions of souls. We have an 
uninhabited country beyond the Mississippi, equally large and 
quite as capable of sustaining an equal population, and it will 
be peopled by our own race, speaking our own language, and 
maintaining, we trust, our own religion, the religion of the 
Bible. What work ! how boundless the field for the clergyman, 
the schoolmaster, the physician, to give them morals, learning, 
and health ! 

These things are worth the matured thoughts of all the good, 
of the philanthropist, the sage, and the Christian. May the 
church, the school-house, the manufactory, and the farm, all do 
their meet and just share in founding well that great nation yet 
to come. 

Are the great death agents throughout the largest portion of 
the habitable globe. 

Miasm is Malaria, but Malaria is not Miasm. 

Miasm is an emanation from decaying vegetation. Malaria 
is bad air, whatever may be its source. All impure air is 

Miasm is so rarified by a sun of ninety degrees, that it rises 
rapidly above us, and is innocuous. The cool of the morning 
and evening of summer time condenses it, and causes it to fall to 
the surface of the earth, where it is breathed by man, and is the 
fruitful cause of pestilence, plague, and epidemic fevers. Thus 
the higher persons sleep above the surface of the earth, the 
healthier is the atmosphere. 

While as a general rule it is better to sleep in apartments 
having a window and the fireplace open in all seasons, yet, 
where miasm abounds, evidencing its presence by chills and 
fever,' fever and ague, diarrhoeas, and the like, it is better to 
sleep with closed windows than to have them open, because 
men are known to fatten in jails and small prison cells, while 
the breathing of malaria a single night has originated diseases 

218 HalVs Journal of Health. 

whic'L, from the violence of their action, are scarcely distin- 
guishable from the effects of swallowing corrosive poisons, as 
witness the National Hotel disease. 

But although the air inside of a house is supplied from the 
outside, yet, if the windows and outside doors are closed, it is 
supplied in such small quantities, through the crevices, that it 
is at once heated by the indoor air, and carried to the ceiling, 
where it is above reach. The difference between the thermo- 
meter in our hall and the one outdoors, about five o'clock of a 
summer's morning, is ten degrees. Hence, during the preva- 
lence of miasm, at least in August and September, it is better 
to close the chamber windows, but let an inner door and the 
fireplace be kept open. 


Year. Population. Total Deaths. Foreign Deaths. Immigrants. 

1847 400,000 15,788 5,224 

1848 15,919 4,490 189,176 

1849 Cholera. 23,773 8,381 220,790 

1850 515,394 16,978 5,060 212,796 

1851 22,024 6,351 289,601 

1852 21,601 6,492 300,992 

1853 22,702 7,104 284,945 

1854 Cholera. 28,568 9,948 319,223 

1855 629,810 23,042 6,103 136,233 

1856 700,000 21,658 141,672 

During 1855, the fewest deaths occurred in November and 
December, being 2918 ; the highest mortality was in July and 
August, being 5121. 

The fewest colored persons died in June, while three times 
as many died in February, indicating that a warm climate suits 
colored persons the best. 

Most consumptive persons died in March — 287; the fewest in 
May— 141. 

The most births occurred in February — 1402 ; the fewest in 
November — 944. 

The most marriages were in April — 459; the fewest in Au- 
gust— 279. 

Of the- five chief destroyers, scarlet fever was 1035 ; cholera 
infantum, 1135; wasting, 1563 ; convulsions, 1895; consump- 
tion, 2635. 

Beviews, Notices, &c* 219 


The Evening Post says, that " J. H. Higginson, 71 Maiden Lane, has just published 
a highly-finished New Railboad Map, which he claims with justice to be the largest 
and best ever prepared in this country. Its greatest merit, probably, is its accuracy ; 
every route having been compiled from maps furnished by railroad companies — a 
feature never before attempted in works of its class, and one which will be duly 
appreciated by travellers. There is not a route finished, commenced, or projected, 
between Maine and Texas, which is not here given, and as the information is the 
latest, so is the map the best and most intelligible to consult. The engraving and 
coloring are excellent." 

We fully accord with the above, and add, that the map is beautifully colored, is 
about six and a half feet long, on rollers, with linen underground, making it as 
durable as it is convenient for reference. It will be sent, free of cost, to any part 
of the United States, for eight dollars. 

It is also put up in Atlas form, twelve by fifteen inches, in sections, so as to be 
portable in a common travelling trunk, and is furnished at the same price. To 
persons who contemplate moving to the West, or desire to make investments there, 
this valuable map imparts information at a single glance, of the very highest im- 
portance, while to every intelligent traveller, the map in portable form, as a means 
of reference, reliable and satisfactory, is indispensable. 

Mr. H. is preparing a map of the United States, intended to be the largest and 
best ever published. But it is of higher interest to New Yorkers that a map of the 
City of New York is in progress, to be completed within a year, which will be of 
great value to every property holder on the island, as it will give, in addition to 
ordinary maps, the original farm lines, showing at a glance, to each lot owner, the 
first proprietors' names, thus affording a key to title highly satisfactory to every 
purchaser. It will be after the manner of the Brooklyn Farm Line Map, prepared 
by Mr. H., and which the authorities have adopted. 

Brown's Grammar of English Grammar. " Noah Webster has heretofore 
been claimed as indisputably the greatest of American authors ; but we confess to 
a large degree of sympathy with those who claim for the author of the Grammar 
of English Grammar, the high distinction of being 4 the greatest author of the 
nineteenth century.'" — Illinois Teacher. " We know of no work on this subject 
which equals this in merit." — Advertiser. Published by S. S. & W. Wood, 389 
Broadway, New York. 

Littell's Living Age. Boston, weekly, 8vo., $6 a year. Single numbers 
twelve cents. Edited with uniform ability, interest, and sound judgment. 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, weekly, $2 a year, is the favorite me- 
dical publication of New England, and the oldest. 

Ranking's Abstract of Medical Progress, for the past six months, No. 25, vol. 
13, published by Lindsay & Blakiston, Philadelphia, semi-annually, pp. 384, at 
$2.00, is not inferior to any of its predecessors, containing no less than 215 differ- 
ent articles. 

220 HalVs J<mrnal of Health 

Braithwaite's Half-Yearly Retrospect has been published seventeen years, 
in thirty- four parts, bound in 15 vols., sheep, library style, $2 a volume. The whole 
set, delivered free of charge, for thirty dollars. Stringer & Townsend, of New York, 
with characteristic enterprise, have published a complete alphabetical index of all 
the contents, from Part 1 to 34 inclusive, embracing the whole term of republica- 
tion. With this general index, Braithwaite's Half-Yearly Retrospect forms 
for the young graduate, as well as for the old practitioner, the most desirable, com- 
plete and available medical library, for constant, convenient, and reliable reference, 
ever published. It gives a complete view of medical progress up to July of the 
present year, and to medical men is invaluable. 

The Pacific, a Weekly Journal, devoted to Religion, Education, and Useful In- 
telligence, is edited with an ability and consistency, which, with its mechanical 
comeliness, and taking into account the local history and character of San Fran- 
cisco, which, within a decade, was almost unknown to the civilized world — all these 
things make " The Pacific" the most remarkable " fact" of modern times. We trust 
it meets the success which it so largely merits. 

The British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, or Quarterly Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery, republished at three dollars a year, free of postage, if paid 
in advance, continues to be " one of the cheapest, as well as best, of medical 

How to Write — How to Talk — How to Behave — How to do Business. — 
4 vols., sent by Fowler & Wells, 308 Broadway, New York, for one dollar ; 30 cts. 
single. They are truly useful books — true, practical, and of permanent value. 

The Impending Crisis of the South : How to Meet it. By Hinton Rowan 
Helper, of North Carolina. " Fourth thousand." 420 pp., 8vo. Published in 
good style by Burdick Brothers, 8 Spruce street, New York. This book is perma- 
nently valuable for the large amount of reliable statistical matter which it contains, 
which has been collected at great expense by its industrious and indiscreet author. 
The South will add to its prosperity by studying the statistics of this volume, for 
by so doing a spirit of inquiry will be aroused, which must lead to good results. 
We believe that the publishers, who are excellent men, will do the country a ser- 
vice by abridging the book, and leaving out all that Mr. Helper says himself, retain- 
ing only the statistics. He has failed to write with the courtesy which belongs to 
a Southern gentleman, irritating all, convincing none. 

Putnam's Magazine. Lake GeoTge, Mendelssohn and his Music, Witching 
Times, Pistol Philosophy, Notes, Gossip, Hufnor, Little Joker, Glimpse at my 
Hotel, are amusingly instructive. 

Blackwood's Magazine, for August, is of unusual interest. 





VOL. IV.] OCTOBER, 1857. [NO. X. 

Pronounced with the accent on the ante-penult, or second 
syllable, teaches the measurement of the breath, and, by a little 
license, the lungs themselves, as the breath is contained in the 
lungs. If a man has all his lungs within him, in full operation, 
it is impossible for him to have consumption, whatever may be 
his symptoms, because consumption is a destruction of a portion 
of the lungs, and when that is the case they can no more have 
the fall amount of breath or air than a gallon measure can hold 
a gallon after its size has been diminished by having a portion 
of the top off or removed. 

It becomes, then, of great importance to accomplish two 
things : — 

First, to measure accurately, and with as much certainty as 
you would measure wheat by a standard and authentic bushel 
measure, the amount of air contained in the lungs. 

Second, to ascertain what amount of air the lungs ought to 
contain in full and perfect health. 

The chemist has no difficulty in measuring out to you a cubic 
foot of gas. The gas which lights our dwellings and which 
burns in the streets of cities, when the moon don't shine, is 
capable of being accurately measured, and so is the air we breathe, 
with equal simplicity and certainty, even to the fraction of a 
cubic inch. 

Take a common tub or barrel, of any height, say two feet, 
and fill it with water; get a tin cup of equal length, and of such 
a circumference that each inch in length should contain ten 
cubic inches of air or water, turn this tin cup bottom upward 
in the barrel of water, make a hole in the bottom of the tin 
cup, insert a quill or other tube into this hole, take a full 
breath, and then blow out all the breath you can at a single 

222 HalVs Journal of Health. 

expiration through this quill ; the air thus expired gets be- 
tween the surface of the water and the. bottom of the tin cup, 
and causes the tin cup to rise ; if it rises an inch then you 
have emptied from your lungs into the cup ten cubic inches 
of air ; if you cause the cup to rise twenty inches, then your 
lungs have measured out two hundred cubic inches of air, and 
by dividing the cup into tenths of inches, you will be able to 
ascertain the contents of the lungs to a single cubic inch. 

This is a lung measure of the simplest form ; it must be so 
arranged with a pulley on each side of the cup, each pulley hav- 
ing a weight of half the weight of the cup, so as to steady the 
cup when it rises, and keep it at any point, as lamps are some- 
times suspended in public buildings. 

Being able then to measure the amount of air the lungs do 
hold, down to an inch or even a fraction of an inch if desired, 
the next point to know is how much air ought a man's lungs 
contain when he is in perfect health ; for if a man in sound health 
can expire or measure out two hundred cubic inches of air, it is 
easy to see that if his lungs are half gone he can give out but 
one hundred cubic inches, and so of any other proportion large 
or small, and the grand practical conclusion is that when a man 
can breathe out the full quantity, all his lungs must be within 
him, and the presence of consumption is an utter impossibility 
in that man ; and even if this was the only point to be learned, 
what a glorious truth it must be to the man who was apprehen- 
sive of his being consumptive, that such a thing is simply an 
impossibility, demonstrably so by figures and by sight. .He can 
see it for himself without the necessity of leaning doubtfully, so 
doubtfully, sometimes, on the judgment, or expressed opinion of 
his physician. 

To find out how much air a healthy man's lungs should hold, 
we must act precisely as we would in determining the quantity 
of anything else; we must experiment, observe, and judge. 
We have decided long ago on the average weight of men, their 
average amount of blood, the average weight of the brain ; and 
surely there ought to be some method of determining the aver- 
age amount of a man's lungs. But this last would not be suf- 
ficiently accurate, to make it safely practical , we must be able 
to say to this man, your lungs, if sound and well, will hold so 
much ; and to another, so much, for the amount of breath is as 

Spirometry. 223 

various as the amount of brain. A large head has a large 
amount of brain of some kind or other, and so a large chest 
must have a large quantity of lungs to fill it ; these are general 
truths only. If a man six foot high, and known to be in per- 
fect health, will give out from his lungs at one expiration two 
hundred and sixty-two cubic inches of air, that is a fact to 
begin with. 

If a thousand healthy six-footers, or ten thousand, do not fail 
in one single instance to give out as much, then we may con- 
clude that any other man as tall, who gives out as much, is also 
healthy as to his lungs, and at length the facts become so cumu- 
lative that we feel safe in saying that any man, six feet high, 
who can breathe out at one single effort two hundred and 
sixty-two cubic inches of air, that man must have all his lungs 
within him, and that they are working fully and well. 

But if in pursuing these investigations, in the same manner, 
as to healthful men five feet high, we observe that in any num- 
ber of thousands, not one single one ever fails to give one less 
that one hundred and sixty-six inches, and that any other 
number of thousands, five feet seven inches high, and in ac- 
knowledged perfect health, never fail in one solitary instance 
to give out two hundred and twenty- two cubic inches of air, 
then a thinking man begins to surmise that the amount of lungs 
a man in health has, bears some proportion to his height ; this 
is found to be the actual fact of the case. And without being 
tedious I will give the result, that for every inch that a man 
is taller, above a certain height, he gives out eight more cubic 
inches of air, if he is in sound health, as to his lungs. 

Let the reader bear in mind that these are the general prin- 
ciples — circumstances modify them. But I do not want to com- 
plicate the subject by stating those modifications at present. 
I wish the reader first to make one clear simple truth his 
own, by thinking of it, and talking about it, when occasion 
offers, for a month — then I may say more. 

But, for the sake of making a clear, distinct impression, let 
us recapitulate: — 

1. The amount of air which a man's lungs can expire at one 

effort can be accurately and uniformly measured, down 
to the fraction of a cubic inch. 

2. The amount of air which a healthy man's lungs hold is 

ascertained by cumulative observations. 

224 HdlP s Journal of Health. 

3. That the amount thus contained is proportioned to the 

man's height. 

4. That that proportion is eight cubic inches of air for every 

additional inch of height above a certain standard. 

With these four facts, now admitted as such, inferences may 
be drawn of great interest in connection with other observations, 
which any reader who takes the trouble may verify. 

Observation 1st. — I have never known a man who was in 
admitted consumption, and whose subsequent death and post- 
mortem confirmed the fact, capable of measuring his full standard. 

Observation 2d. — In numerously repeated instances, persons 
have been pronounced to have undisputed consumption, and as 
such were abandoned to die, but on measurement they have 
reached their full standard, enabling me to say that they had 
not consumption, and their return to good health, and their 
continuance in it for years after, and to this day, is an abiding 
proof of the correctness of my decision. 

Observation 3d. — No persons have come under my care, who 
died of consumption within a year, who, at the time of examin- 
ation reached their full lung measurement. 

Observation 4th. — Therefore, any man who reaches his stand- 
ard, has reason to believe that he cannot die of consumption 
within a year, an assurance which, in many cases, may be of 
exceeding value. 

Observation 5th. — As a man with healthy lungs always reaches 
his full standard, and as it is impossible for a consumptive man 
to measure his full standard, then it may be safely concluded 
that a man cannot die of consumption while he gives his healthy 
measure, and also that he who cannot measure full, is in danger, 
and should not rest a single day, until he can measure to the 

When persons are under medical treatment for deficient lung 
measurement, accompanied with the ordinary symptoms of com- 
mon consumption, they improve from week to week in propor- 
tion as they measure out more and more air from the lungs: on 
the other hand, when they measure less and less from time to 
time, they inevitably die. With this view of the case, the reader 
will perceive that as a general rule a man can tell for himself, 
as well as his physician, whether he is getting well or not, and, 
as an illustration, an article is copied verbatim from the eighth 

Spirometry, 225 

edition of "Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," Kedfield pub- 
lisher, page 361, on 

"the mathematical measurement of the lungs as a 
sign of consumption. 

" The lungs contain air ; and their object is to receive, hold, 
and expel air ; a certain amount of this air is necessary to the 
health of any individual, but that amount must vary in propor- 
tion to the size and age of a person, as much as the healthful 
amount of blood is proportionate to the size and age. 

"It is known how much air a man's lungs, in perfect and fall 
healthfal operation, should hold, by measuring it as we would 
measure water, by transferring it from a vessel whose capacity 
was not known into one whose capacity was known. If, then, 
I find that every man of thousands, who is in perfect health, 
emits a certain amount of air from his lungs, I conclude that 
any other man, under similar circumstances, who gives from his 
lungs an equal amount of air, must be in good health, as far as 
his lungs are concerned, and every year accumulates its addi- 
tional proofs of the same great fact, and when it is known that 
the lungs work fully and well, an immense burthen is at once 
removed from the mind of the physician, as well as patient, for 
he has less to do — the patient has less to dread. 

" All that the Spirometer does, (or Breath- Measurer, which is 
its literal signification,) is to measure the amount of air con- 
tained in any man's lungs with mathematical certainty and pre- 
cision, down to the fraction of a single cubic inch. Thus far 
the patient can see, as well as the physician, what is his actual 
measure ; and by comparing it with what it ought to be in 
health, he can have some idea of what he has to do, and of his 
present condition. 

" We all must know that if a man's lungs in health should 
hold three hundred cubic inches, they would, if half gone, cer- 
tainly not measure over one hundred and fifty, and so of any 
other proportion, down to an inch. 

" The two important uses to be made of this most invaluable 
principal are — 

First. If a man can only expire his full healthful quota of 
air, he most assuredly cannot have actual consumption, what- 

226 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ever else maybe the matter with him, and the knowledge of 
this one fact alone, arrived at by such unmistakable evidence, 
is of incomputable worth to any invalid, not only relieving 
him of the weight of a million mill-stones, but in affording 
him an important means of restoration — hopefulness, for we 
almost all instinctively feel, if it is not consumption there is 
at least a chance of life ; but if it is consumption there is no 

" Second. The next important practical deduction is of a two- 
fold character. 

" If the lungs do not give out their full healthful amount of 
air, it is because they are actually affected or are threatened. 
The instrument does not tell this, it must be determined by the 
mature judgment of the experienced physician. 

"If the lungs be in a consumptive decay, the pulse and aus- 
cultation, with the data already afforded by measurement, will 
detect this state of things, with a degree of certainty which is 
most admirable ; and this certainty is made doubly sure, if being 
under treatment a short time, his lungs measure less week after 
week, for then he is certainly dying by inches. 

" But it does not follow, because a man does not measure to 
his full standard, that he is consumptive ; it only shows' the one 
thing — that he is defective as to the action and capacity of his 
lungs ; that deficiency may be the result of decay, or debility, or 
from the lungs being crowded with phlegm or other fluids ; if 
the deficiency is not from decay, proper treatment will diminish 
that deficiency from week to week, because the treatment invites 
back the action of the lungs. Thus it is that the gradual increase 
in the capacity of the lungs to hold air, when that capacity, by 
any cause, has been diminished, is demonstrative of a return 
towards health. 

" On the other hand, as persons are declining, the measure- 
ment decreases week by week, until there is scarce breath 
enough to enable them to cross the room, and soon they step 
into the grave. 


" Common consumption comes on by slow degrees, and I have 
never known a case that was not preceded, for months, by an 

Spirometry. 227 

inability of the lungs to measure their full standard. I con- 
sider it wholly impossible for a man to have actual consump- 
tion, until he has not been able for months to measure the full 
amount of air. This deficit in the measurement of the lungs 
never fails to exist in any case of clearly defined consumption, 
and inasmuch as it always precedes consumption, its existence 
for some months in succession ought to be considered a symptom 
of consumption in its early stages, and a course of treatment 
should be adopted which would annihilate that deficit at the 
earliest possible moment. 

" To show how certainly this deficit of lung capacity, or lung 
action, is removed, when it exists not as an effect of a decay of 
the lungs, but as an effect of imperfect action, I give here a few 

" C. W. F., aged 17, an only son of a wealthy family, was 
placed under my care May 26, 1852. Thin in flesh, pain in 
side, sore throat, tightness across the breast, short breath, diffi- 
cult to fetch a long breath, troublesome running and sniffling of 
the nose, a weak back, with other indications of a weakly con- 
stitution. The measurement of his lungs should have been two 
hundred and twenty-five cubic inches ; their actual capacity was 
two hundred. 

Date. Pulse. Weight. Breathing. Lung Measure. 

" May, 



. 72 , 

. 103 . 

. 16 . 

. 200 



. 72 

. 103 . 

. 16 . 

. 206 

9, , 

, 72 . 

, 1034 • 

. 16 . 

. 216 


. 72 , 

. 107 . 

. 16 . 

. 238 



. 88 , 

. 104 . 

. 20 . 

. 216 


. 82 . 

, 103 . 

. 18 . 

. 216 


7, , 

. 78 . 

105 . 

. 15 . 

. 230 


. 76 , 

. 107* . 

. 16 . 

. 238 



. 72 

. 1114 . 

. 16 . 

. 250 




. 72 , 

. 12H . 

. 16 . 

. 252 

"The parents of this case, particularly the mother, visited 
me at different times, expressing the deepest solicitude, and ex- 
hibiting an abiding impression that their child, upon whom so 
many hopes were hung, was certainly going into a decline, 
especially as he had grown np rapidly, and was a slim, narrow- 
breasted child. 

228 HaWs Journal of Health. 

" The reader will perceive with what admirable piomptness 
the lungs answered to the means used for their development, in 
the very first fortnight, and with that increase of action a cor- 
responding increase in flesh, so that in four months, and they 
embracing the hottest of the year, when most persons lose both 
flesh and strength, he had gained eight and a half pounds, while 
the capacity of his lungs for receiving air had increased one 
fifth, that is, fifty cubic inches, and at the end of a year, when 
he called as a friend, was still gaining in flesh, and strength, and 
Vigor, with no indication, apparent or covert, of any disease 

" What untold treasure \vould these parents have given, when 
their child was first brought to me for examination, to have 
known that the very next year their son would have been one 
of the most hearty, healthy, manly-looking young men of his 
age in New York ; and yet there can be no doubt that he would 
have dwindled away, like a flower prematurely withered, had 
his case been neglected, in the vain hope of his '•growing out 
of UP 

" The reader will notice, that on the 13th of July, every 
symptom became unfavorable ; his weight diminished, his breath- 
ing was more rapid, and his lung-measurement declined largely. 
The reason is, that he left the city in June, and spent some 
weeks at Newport and Saratoga, with his parents, intermitting 
all remedial means ; but, as soon as he returned to New York, 
and gave diligent attention to what was required of him, his 
symptoms began at once to abate, and he steadily improved 
to his recovery. ' The Springs have proved the grave of many 
young people with consumptive symptoms, and older consump- 
tives generally get worse there. The high feeding, or get what 
you can system of diet at watering-places, fashionable hotels, 
and boarding-houses, their Lilliputian, one-windowed rooms, 
from one to ' five pair back/ the midnight clatter along inter- 
minable passages, the tardy, or no answer, to bell-call, the look- 
out from your chamber window over some stable, side-alley, or 
neighbor's back yard; these, with the coldness, and utter want 
of sympathy at such places, would soon make a well man sick, 
and will kill instead of cure the consumptive. They want, 
instead of these, the free, fresh mountain air, the plain sub- 
stantial food of the country farm house, the gallop along the 

Clerical Letter. 229 

highways, the climbing over the hills by day, and the nightly 
reunions with family and kindred and friends. And yet the 
million stereotype this mistake against all reason and com- 
mon sense. Only now and then one is found to choose the 
better way against troops of remonstrants and opposers, who 
never had experience, who never think for themselves, — and 
that is the brave man who gets well, especially when he is 
determined to do so. 

" Some years ago I published a compact octavo of a hundred 
pages, on l Throat Ail, Bronchitis and Consumption, their Causes, 
Symptoms and Cure,' giving various illustrations in both cases, 
with the treatment adopted, but like pretty much all who pub- 
lish on their own account, copies enough were not sold to pay 
for the paper, consequently they are yet to be had, mailed post- 
paid to any part of the United States, for one dollar, sent to the 
Editor's address.'' 


The following communication from a former patient is well 
worthy of lay perusal, and is full of instruction to clergymen. 
It is a beacon hung out as a warning and a guide to theological 
students, and happy they who read it early and well. The 
writer has labored long and hard in the cause to which he has 
devoted himself, and his name is widely known in this and for- 
eign lands. 

One subject is touched, whose importance none but a physi- 
cian can fully estimate, as a cause of clerical disease; it has so 
often forced itself upon my attention in seeing its bearing on the 
health and convalescence of clergymen that I have many times 
earnestly desired to have the ears of the whole Christian Church 
for an hour, in order to wake up their attention to 


There are unavoidable troubles in the ministerial calling, 
sufficient of themselves to keep a conscientious clergyman al- 
most always in a state of painful anxiety. I need not tell them 
what these troubles are, both within themselves and withoul ; 
but when to all these is added the unnecessary trouble of a 
scanty salary, irregularly paid, seldom fully so, with wife and 
children at home as dear to them as life itself, whose wants most 

230 HalVs Journal of Health. 

be met, and yet every source of meeting them cut off, except by 
the one channel, often compelled to meet these wants by credit, 
and then the subsequent torture to a sensitive mind of possible 
failure to meet the engagement, the weakening of his influence 
among those to whom he preaches, if " the preacher promised to 
pay t and didnH do it, " considered almost in the light of a crime, 
when, if the same thing were done by a man in ordinary busi- 
ness, it would be thought nothing of, and if done by a rich man, 
would not even be mentioned, for fear of giving offence — these 
are things hard, hard to bear, and yet it is a burden which 
Christian men and tender-hearted women in every section of the 
Church are daily imposing by the simple sin of inattention. 
They, in multitudes of instances, take it for granted that their 
minister is well cared for, and would gladly pay a fourth or a 
fifth of his salary themselves rather than allow them to labor 
under such burdens. Church-member, make it your duty this 
hour to see "how it is with your minister. 

"Feb. 15, 1854. 

11 My Dear Sir, — In consequence of my absence from home, 
the first number of your " Journal of Health 11 was not received 
until to-day. I had before had no intimations of its existence. 
Immediately upon its reception, I sat down to read it, and read 
it through with interest and profit. It will give me much plea- 
sure to receive and read it regularly, from month to month, and 
also to embrace every suitable opportunity for recommending it 
to others. If it can be the means of promoting a practical ac- 
quaintance with the philosophy of living, I shall rejoice. It 
seems to me there is a deplorable, and almost universal igno- 
rance on this subject. And as I look back upon the past, and 
consider my own deficiency in this respect, I am tempted to 
wish that I might live my life over again. I commenced my 
professional career fifteen years ago, under the most flattering 
circumstances. Several very eligible situations were open to 
me, and I had a bright prospect of extensive usefulness. But 
all those prospects were soon clouded, and disease seemed to 
put, one after another, my expectations and resolutions to flight. 

" It was not, however, vjholly owing to my ignorance of the 
laws of living, that I was prostrated. I am sorry to add — ■ 
what a great multitude of my profession could also do — that 

Carious Epitaph. 231 

not a little of the sad work of physical ruin was done by the 
people to whom I ministered. I had no personal enemies ; but 
the ceaseless troubles among themselves, and still more, the en- 
tirely inadequate pecuniary support they gave me, and the 
consequent excitement and anxiety of mind, were enough, when 
long continued, to break down the strongest. It seems to me, 
my dear sir, that if you can effectually rouse the public mind, 
in your Journal or elsewhere, upon this most fruitful source of 
the numerous break-downs among ministers, you will accom- 
plish a very great and a very important work. An extensive 
acquaintance with ministers throughout New England enables 
me to speak what I know on this subject. I speak here of coun- 
try ministers; in the cities there are, so far as I know, more 
correct and adequate notions on the subject. We ministers 
open our hearts to each other about it in secret, but it is very 
seldom that one can be induced, especially if he loves his people, 
and earnestly desires to do them good, to disclose, even to a 
physician, all that bears upon his case as an invalid. While 
I fully assent to what you say of the laws of health, and know 
that ignorance of them is the cause of untold suffering among 
ministers, I also know that the treatment they receive, in the 
matter of worldly support, and steadfast, considerate, sympa- 
thizing moral aid, from those they seek to benefit and save, is 
doing more to cut short their usefulness, happiness, and life, 
than all other agencies combined. Would not your Journal 
be the appropriate medium of an occasional communication on 
this subject? 

" Excuse my prolixity. When I commenced writing, I had 
not the slightest intention of saying anything in this strain. I 
designed merely to express my interest in the Journal, and 
to ask that a copy may be sent me. 

11 1 am happy to say that I am still better, though tried by 
the inclemency and frequent changes of the weather. My little 
boy also continues better. I enclose one dollar for the Journal, 
to be directed to this place. Yours, truly." 

Curious Epitaph. — In a country grave-yard in New Jersey 
there is a plain stone erected over the grave of a beautiful young 
lady, with only this inscription upon it : 

"Julia Adams, died of thin shoes, April 17, 1839, aged 19." 

232 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Medicated Inhalation began to attract attention in New 
York about the close of 1854, in consequence of a certificate of 
its curative power given by the Mayor of Brooklyn, in refer- 
ence to his wife, who is still an invalid. During the following 
year of 1855, and the beginning of 1856, newspaper aid was 
brought into requisition for the purpose of presenting this mode 
of treatment to the public. During that time, six of the lead- 
ing daily papers are represented to us, on substantial authority, 
to have received twenty-one thousand dollars, from one prac- 
titioner of inhalation, for advertising its virtues. For days and 
weeks and months together, whole columns of the newspapers 
were devoted to the glorification of Inhalation, in separate 
advertisements and special editorials. 

As evidence of its value in diseases of the throat and lungs, it 
was published, in February, 1856, that the deaths from consump- 
tion had diminished largely, and that this diminution was owing 
to the curative agency of Medicated Inhalation. It was further 
stated, that, by increased skill in its application, more favorable 
results might be confidently anticipated. And now that the in- 
creased skill, tact, and experience of two years are in full exercise, 
what are the results, as exhibited in the official reports of our 
courteous and indefatigable City Inspector, GK W. Morton, Esq. ? 
During theirs* half of the last four years, the number of deaths 
from consumption in the City of New York is as follows : 





Deaths l»y consumption, 





Total deaths, 





Total whole year's deaths, 




21,500 estimated, 

1st. By these tables, it will be seen that the diminution of 
deaths by consumption for 1854, '5, and '6, were less in propor- 
tion than the diminution of deaths from all causes. 

2d. That instead of increased experience and skill in Medi- 
cated Inhalation operating to diminish the consumptive mor- 
tality still further, that mortality, for the first half of 1857, is 
largely greater than during the first half of 1856. 

Economical Eating. 233 

Nothing that we could say could more strongly exhibit the 
utter worthlessness of this treatment in the cure of consump- 
tive disease. Our great regret is, that the newspaper press 
should have so hastily lent itself to the propagation of the im- 
position upon its patrons ; and our mortification is, that so many 
young physicians, from all parts of the country, made such a 
disgraceful exhibition of their ignorance of their profession, as 
to write letters of inquiry as to whether it was an efficacious 
treatment or not. For had they known anything of medical 
history, they would have at once seen that it was an exploded 
theory, revived and rejected, time after time. Eevived by igno- 
rant or knavish men, and rejected by the educated of all nations, 
on precisely the same principle that a finished mechanician 
rejects the idea of perpetual motion, simply because, in the very 
nature of things, it is an impossibility. 


As a dog grows faster and fatter on a diet of two-fifths bread 
and three-fifths fish, than when fed on bread altogether, it is 
concluded that fish is more nutritive than bread, as to men as 
well as to dogs. 

When the best beef steak is selling at twenty cents a pound, 
the butchers are glad to sell the " rein" piece at 8 or 10 cents 
a pound. It has no bone nor fat. Three pounds of this for 
twenty-five cents will make soup enough for a family of eight 
or ten persons two days, besides the meat for one dinner ; it is 
a hundred per cent, cheaper than the purchase of a kn^ee joint, 
at forty cents, for soup. 

Of all the parts of corned beef, that is the most nutritious and 
cheapest which is called the round, which has neither bone nor 
gristle, nor waste fat worth naming. 

Both in the purchase of meat and fish, persons are generally 
falsely economical in choosing an article with bone in it, at two, 
or three, or more cents a pound less than a piece which has 

We purchase porgies, blue-fish, flounders, and the like, 
at six or eight cents a pound, instead of halibut, at twelve 

234: HalVs Journal of Health. 

cents. But the halibut is cheapest, and also the safest for a 
family where there are children, as it has none but the back 
bone; with that exception, it has solid flesh, whereas, in pur- 
chasing the smaller fishes named, they are weighed out with 
heads, entrails, fins, bones, and all. 

The halibut is caught on the banks of Newfoundland, weighs 
from one hundred to six hundred pounds, and is widely prized. 
It is a flat fish, like the flounder, swims at the bottom of the sea, 
has both eyes on one side of the head, and is very voracious ; 
will swallow a sounding lead in a moment. 

Immense quantities of knotty apples are brought to the New 
York market. They are dear at any price, beyond the cost of 
carriage to market, both from their great waste and unhealth- 
fulness. A clear apple is a hundred per cent cheaper, at double 
the price of the same sized knotty ones, which we see here every 


If the question be narrowed down to " Tea, or no Tea," we 
advocate the weed. The world will be the happier and healthier 
by the moderate use of any of the China teas, in their purity, 
than without them. The immoderate use of cold water is pre- 
judicial to health, whether as a drink or a lavement, and so is 
the immoderate use of bread and butter. It is the argument 
of a fanatic to say, that because the excessive use of anything 
is injurious, it should, therefore, be discarded altogether. 

Chemistry decides that the essential elements of coffee and 
tea are identical, and are nutritious. 

Tea is a stimulant, and so is any other nutritive article. That 
which imparts no stimulus is not fit for food. An ordinary 
meal stimulates the pulse to a greater activity by 5 or 10 per 

Tea, being used warm, and at meal time, promotes digestion 
by its warmth, as any other warm drink would do. 

Any cold drink, even water, taken at meal time, arrests the 
progress of digestion, until it is raised to a heat of about a hun- 
dred degrees, and if that arrest be too long protracted, convul- 
sions follow, and sometimes death — as has happened to children 

Tea Drinking. 235 

many times by eating a couple of hard-boiled eggs hastily, or 
upon an empty stomach, or, indeed, eating much of any indi- 
gestible article. 

Thus it is that, as far as the use of tea at our meals banishes 
the use of cold water at meals, it is a safeguard. 

Late and hearty suppers destroy multitudes, either outright 
in a night, or in the insidious progress of months and years. 
It is almost the universal custom to take tea for supper. It is 
a stimulant. It aids the stomach in digesting more than it 
would have done, just in proportion to its stimulating qualities. 
And as all eat too much at supper time, the general use of 
warm tea as a drink at the last meal of the day is beneficial in 
the direction just named. 

True wisdom lies in the moderate use of all the good things 
of this life. 

It is stated, that at a tea party of sixty old women in Eng- 
land, it was ascertained that they were the mothers of eignt 
hundred and sixty-nine children. 

The presumption is, that these women were tea drinkers 
habitually, and it is equally inferrible that they did not drink 
it very "weak;" yet they were healthy enough to be old, and 
healthy enough to be the mothers of large families. An isolated 
fact proves nothing, but this one is suggestive. 

It is then safer and healthier to take a cup of warm tea for 
supper than a glass of cold water. 

With our habits of hearty suppers, it is better to take a cup 
of warm tea than to take no drink at all. 

By the extravagant use of tea, many persons pass their nights 
in restlessness and dreams, without being aware of the cause 
of it. We advise such to experiment on themselves, and omit 
the tea altogether at supper, for a few times, and notice the 

If you sleep better, it is clear that you have been using too 
much tea, in quantity or strength. 

In order to be definite, we consider the following to J be a 
moderate use of tea: a single cup at each meal as to quantity; 
as to strength, measure it thus: put a teaspoonful in a hot 
teapot ; pour on a quart of boiling water ; two-thirds of a tea- 
cup of this, adding a third of cream, or boiling milk, or hot 
water, with sugar or not : this is strong enough. 

236 HalVs Journal of Health. 

We believe that such use of China teas, by excluding cold 
drinks at our meals, and by their nutritious and pleasantly 
stimulating character, may be practiced for a lifetime, to very 
great advantage, without any drawback whatever ; coffee also. 

We believe that the world, and all that is created upon it, ia 
for man, and that the rational use of its good things will pro- 
mote the health and happiness of all mankind. 


In a previous number of our Journal, we suggested to our 
country exchanges the propriety and profit of making their 
columns more original, by industriously gathering items from 
the oldest inhabitants as to occurrences and places of bygone 
times. The New York Observer, of July 23, embodies the same 
idea in its application to Fourth of July Orations, its import- 
ance and utility, thus : 

" On the Fourth of July last, the Eev. Mr. Tuttle, of Rock- 
away, N. Y., delivered an oration at Madison, to which we now 
refer, for the purpose of suggesting a hint to future orators for 
such occasions. Mr. T. had gathered, from written history and 
personal conversation with the oldest inhabitants, all the fact? 
that could be collected respecting the incidents of the American 
Revolution, as they occurred on that ground and in its vicinity. 
Morris County is, indeed, specially rich in such materials; and 
Mr. T. had, therefore, great facilities for making an oration of 
interest to the descendants of those whose names and deeds he 
commemorated. But almost every part of our country, within 
the thirteen original States, would furnish incidents of value 
that ought to be preserved in the written records of American 
literature ; and thousands of these incidents being as yet un- 
written, will lose their authority when the survivors of revolu- 
tionary times shall have passed away. It is, therefore, greatly 
to be desired, that gentlemen, in preparing orations for the 
Fourth of July, should interest themselves and their hearers in 
collecting and reciting those local historical facts, which make 
so many of our valleys and hill tops classic and sacred. By 
such efforts, a vast amount of valuable material for fu J Lr j r # ; $tbry 
would be rescued from oblivion." 

Hub Me. . 237 


Passing along Broadway some time ago, the vehicle was 
wrested by some slight obstruction, and the horses were not 
quite able to start it ; the driver saw at once that but a very 
little aid was needed, and, turning to another Jehu who was 
coming behind him, said, " Hub me, shipmate" The other saw as 
instantly what was required, and without a moment's hesitation 
or stop, so guided his own horses as to make the hub of his 
own carriage strike lightly against that of the other, and each 
giving his own animals a touch of the whip, both carriages 
moved on almost as easily as if nothing had happened. 

How many times in the great Broadway of life might men 
11 hub" one another without incommoding themselves ! A 
friendly act done, an obligation incurred, some future act of 
kindness provoked, at the expense of a word, or only a single 
moment's time. 

The most of us regard omnibus drivers as rather rough spe- 
cimens of humanity; but ever since the incident just related, 
we have seen a moral beauty in the odd expression, " Huh me, 

When a man takes a newspaper or a periodical, he usually 
becomes attached to it, begins to feel that its editor is his friend ; 
and as often as the publication comes, he derives from the work 
of its editor some interesting item of news, some amusing state- 
ment, or some profitable idea or suggestion. This is repeated a 
dozen, fifty, or hundreds of times a year, for which the dollar or 
two, or five of subscription price is not the shadow of a compen- 
sation singly. Under the circumstances, then, we appeal to 
each reader of this article, in behalf of any publication which 
he receives, to help it to a new subscriber, as often as an oppor- 
tunity is afforded, by a single word of approbation or solicita- 
tion. There are many persons who have so much of the milk 
of human kindness in them, that they would take a paper rather 
than refuse; and for that courtesy you have chances of doing 
them a service, just in proportion to the real worth of the pub- 
lication commended. To each present subscriber of our Journal 
we venture the appeal, with some confidence: 
" Hub me, Shipmate!" 

238 , HalVs Journal of Health. 


Rev. T. A. Mills, one of the most practical, clear-headed, 
and efficient workers of our time, in his first annual report, as 
secretary of a permanent committee for the promotion of min- 
isterial education, says : 

" A few years ago, on a wintry morning, a boy in the habili- 
ments of poverty entered an old school-house among our west- 
ern mountains, and avowed to the master his desire for an 
education. There was poverty laying one of her richest gifts 
on the altar of religion ; for that boy was Jonas King. On his 
humble shoemaker's bench, Caeey laid the foundation of British 
Baptist Missions. John Newton found in his congregation an 
unfriended Scotch boy, whose soul was then glowing with new- 
born love to Christ. He took him to John Thornton, one of 
those noble merchants whose wealth, whose piety, and whose 
beneficence, increase together. They educated him ; and that 
boy became Claudius Buchanan, whose name India will bless, 
when the names of Clive and Hastings are forgotten. John 
Bunyan was a gift of poverty to the Church. Zwingle came 
forth from an Alpine shepherd's cabin ; Melancthon from an 
armorer's workshop ; Luther from a miner's cottage ; the Apos- 
tles, some of them, from fishermen's huts. These are the gifts 
of poverty to the Church." 

Poverty compels temperance by making dietetic delicacies 
impossible, and allowing a very moderate supply of the neces- 
saries of life, and even these are to be secured at the expense 
of physical exertion and homely work — the best tonic, the most 
efficient purifier of the blood ever known ; hence comes a 
healthy body and a vigorous mind. Temperance alone does 
not evolve the highest grades of mental superiority ; it must, in 
the earlier part of life, be conjoined with proportionate physical 
exercise. Yery few of the great minds of this country have 
come from the city, or the cradle of the rich. The farm and the 
workshop have supplied by far the largest number of our emi- 
nent men. Perhaps, after all, we have never yet arrived at the 
true system of education. Higher results, more truth^ss error, 
and progress without fanaticism, may result from an education 
conducted up to twenty-five years of age, as follows: When 
the child begins the tenth year, let him be impressed with the 
duty and necessity of " doing something for a living." Let nine 
o'clock be the hour for bed-time, winter and summer; leave bed 

An Editor. 239 

at the end of eight hours, study until eleven o'clock, then dress 
for work during the balance of the day. 

We believe that any literary man would be wiser, better, 
healthier, at the end of a year, by the systematic prosecution of 
a plan similar to the above. To rise by daylight, the year 
round ; by the time he is dressed it will be light enough to read. 
Then, in the cool and quiet of the morning, when the brain is 
most vigorous, let him study with all the energy he can master 
for four or five hours; then dress for labor, take his breakfast, 
and go to work, pursuing it with a steady moderation until the 
close of the day, that is, until sundown, then take his supper, 
after which, until bed-time of nine o'clock, let him employ him- 
self in social intercourse with family and friends, and in acquaint- 
ing himself with the progress of things through the newspapers 
and periodical press — for without this last, any man of this age 
will soon become a mere cypher as to influence, and an ignora- 
mus as to acquirements. True progress now consists in unlearn- 
ing much that is old, and in acquainting one's self with the new, 
in order to be able to determine its worth 


Must be an industrious man. 

He must have enlarged and liberal ideas. 

He must be a man of general intelligence. 

He must be a scholar. 

He must possess great forbearance. 

He must have a genial heart. 

He must have clear, concise views. 

He must be fearless as Cassar, and firm as Gibraltar. 

He must have no pride of consistency, but a perfect devotion 
to what is true. 

He must have a steady aim to do right. 

He must wage a ceaseless war against oppression and wrong- 
doing^jp. high places and low. 

He must be endowed with great equanimity of temper. 

He must have a vigorous digestion. 

To be a useful editor, in the highest sense of the term, a man 
must possess all these traits. Such an one is a diamond of the 
first water 

240 HalVs Journal of Health. 


It is said that one of the most wholesome kinds of bread that 
can be used is made thus, without salt, saleratus, yeast, or rising 
of any sort. 

Take bolted or unbolted flour or meal, thoroughly moisten 
the whole with pure soft water, scalding hot, that is, about one 
hundred and sixty degrees Fahrenheit, make it up firm, not 
sticky, then roll and cut into strips, or any other form, not 
over a quarter of an inch thick, and half an inch broad. Bake 
quickly in a hot oven until the dough has acquired a soft, fine, 
brown color, or until the water has nearly all evaporated. 

Hydropathists say that a sweeter bread than this was never 
tasted. It certainly is pure bread, cannot sour, will keep 
almost indefinitely; and, if made of unbolted flour, must be the 
most healthful and nutritious bread that can be prepared. But 
people wont use it, because they have not been accustomed to 
it — -just as Hans would never use an iron tire to his cart wheel, 
because he had never seen one used. Besides, most persons 
have an unconquerable prejudice against using or doing any- 
thing that has unmixed good in it. 


The British nation has ordered a commission to determine 
the best means of securing the health of soldiers, in allsiLuations 
and in every particular ; and scientific men have been dispatched 
to different countries, for the purpose of collecting information 
on the subject. The English have found that it costs too much 
to fit a soldier for his place, unless he can live for some years 
afterwards. If it is of national importance to secure the health 
of soldiers, whose office is to kill men, and if it is a matter of 
economy with the Southern planter to study the health of his 
slaves, ought not these facts to suggest to the Church, as a 
matter of dollars and cents, if from no other motive, the pro- 
priety of devising means to preserve and promote the health of 
theological students, especially as the foundation next in im- 
portance to the Bible fof a true orthodoxy is, a sound head and 
a healthy body. 

City Milk. 241 


A Merchant took his family seventy miles from the city for 
the purpose of securing for an infant child the advantages of a 
pure milk diet, and was at great pains to obtain his supplies 
from a thrifty farmer. In a few weeks, the entire scalp of the 
child became an ugly scab. On personal and minute inquiry, 
he ascertained that the milk he had been using was supplied 
by a cow fed on the swill of a distillery; on changing the milk, 
the disgusting scab disappeared, and the general health of the 
child became good, and by no other means than a change of 

11 Milk from John Smith's Dairy," or some other man's, meets 
the eye in large letters, on freshly-painted milk-wagons, and on 
attractive sign-boards, about New York and Brooklyn ; and the 
minds of the unsophisticated pass from the tidy-looking cart 
and glistening tin-cans to the cool " spring-house" of other years, 
where pans of luscious milk, covered with the thick yellow 
cream, set about on the cold, damp, and clean stone floor; and, 
for a moment, we feel young again ! 

But, take the Third Avenue cars or the Fulton Ferry-boat, and 
visit one of those " dairies" on Long Island or Manhattan. In 
long, low sheds, divided into stalls three feet wide and seven feet 
long, cows, from scores to hundreds, are standing, tied by the head, 
and stay there till they die, which averages six or eight months ; 
or, they are taken out a few days before death, butchered, 
and sent to feed the unfortunate poor of New York. But the 
keepers sometimes miscalculate ; the cow dies a day earlier than 
expected — milked in the morning, and at night the dead carcass 
lies in the yard! an almost daily occurrence. Open that cow; 
she has died of consumption, and the lungs are a " putrid black 
mass." As cows are almost daily dying, fresh, healthy ones 
are put in to supply their places, but thej^ would die in a short 
time from the disease engendered there ; so to moderate it, as 
in small-pox, the first thing done to a healthy cow is to cut a 
gash in her several inches long, and introduce into it some of 
the yellow, putrid matter of those already there, then tie up the 
wound with a rag ; sometimes the part to which this virulent 
matter is applied rots off, in consequence of its more rabidly 
poisonous nature. Each cow drinks about twenty-five gallons 
of the swill on which they subsist, every twenty-four hours, and 
yields from one to six gallons of milk, such as it is : this milk 
is carted to New York, and sold at six cents a quart; and the 
people living within five miles of our City Hall pay for such 
milk, every year, over three millions of dollars. This swill is 
the refuse flowing from distilleries, causing the cows' teeth to 
fall out in a short time, so that they cannot eat hay or any solid 

242 HalVs Journal of Health. 

food, even if they could get it : their tails sometimes rot off, 
disease falls into their hoofs, which prevents their standing ; and 
when once down, they are often unable to rise ; and in this con- 
dition, wallowing in their filth, they are continued to be milked 
until life is extinct ! These facts, with others as revolting, were 
elicited in a trial before one of our city courts. Two-thirds of 
all the milk consumed in New York city is the yield of cows fed 
on distillery swill— of cows living and dying in their rottenness 
in those long, low sheds, divided into stalls three feet by seven, 
standing, lying down, and sleeping in the atmosphere of their 
foul excretions— never taking one breath of pure fresh air from 
the moment of their entrance until the day of their death ! Fed 
on milk from such a source, it is no wonder that three hun- 
dred children die in a week, in summer-time, in this city. After 
this, can any thinking man use milk from the carts without 
most uncomfortable misgivings? About a third of the milk 
used in New York is out of healthy cows, and is consumed with 
no other admixture than cold water. 

A grand achievement would it be, if some philanthropic man 
would go a hundred or two miles in the country, purchase the 
milk from the farmers in the neighborhood, require it to be 
delivered to him, before it is cold, from the cows, and furnish it 
to us daily, as pure, and fresh, and sweet, and rich, as any milk 
on any farmer's table. This can be done, and is done now for 
us ; and the arrangement is as admirable as it is scientific. Three 
teaspoonsful color a cup of tea to the whiteness of half a cupful 
of the common milk ; and in the hottest days of summer, there 
is not an atom of sourness observed on the top as large as a 
pin's point. It makes the very best rice pudding without eggs. 
Dilute it with three times its amount of pure water, stir it well, 
and thick, luscious cream will soon cover its surface, without 
the least sediment of any description. If put in air-tight cans 
and kept cool, it will keep as perfectly sweet for months as it 
was at the first moment of its milking. It is done thus : 

Within an hour or two of milking, it is put into a vessel 
without air, and rapidly evaporated, until a gallon is reduced 
to a quart; this is put into air-tight vessels, and sent to various 
parts of the world. One pint of this concentrated milk, mixed 
with two pints of water, equals three pints of cream. One quart, 
mixed with five quarts of water, gives six quarts of milk, as 
rich as the best milk from common milk-carts : thus allowing 
the buyer to dilute his own milk — a privilege hitherto most 
tyrannically withheld. 

The saving is one quart in six. Persons interested can make 
the experiment for themselves, by purchasing some at one hun- 
dred and seventy-three Canal street, of Grail Borden, Jr. k Co. — 
the gentlemen whose prepared meats kept Dr. Kane and all 
his company from perishing in their Arctic travels. The mo- 

Notices and Reviews. 243 

ment milk leaves the body, it begins to die, like the blood. It 
is the living milk that gives the highest life to the young ; hence 
nature has ordered that all sucklings should receive the milk 
warm from the parent's bosom, while it possesses all its life. 
The moment it leaves its natural fountain, it begins to part with 
its life — and with it, its highest virtues. But to place milk in 
a statu quo condition, immediately after milking, in a locality 
where there are no distilleries, is an achievement of the highest 
importance in an alimentary and physiological point of view. 
This, Mr. Borden does. 

The Condensed Milk keeps perfectly sweet for several days 
in mid-summer, if placed in an open vessel, in an ice-chest, or 
very cool cellar ; hence, supplies can be had for two days at a 
time, and thus give to New York Sabbaths of rest and quiet — 
rest to our citizens from the clattering of hundreds of carts and 
the unearthly yells of as many milkmen — rest to the jaded 
horses and rest to their drivers, with the inestimable advantage 
of a perfectly pure milk, costing no more than that generally 
used. Hence we consider its general introduction a humanity. 


American Agriculturist — New-York, weekly, $1 a year — gives a larger amount 
of seasonable, reliable agricultural information than any similar publication in the 

Family Gymnasium for the cure of diseases and deformities by certain forms of 
muscular exercise — by R. T. Trail, M.D., illustrated, by Fowler & Wells, New 
York — contains a large amount of practically useful information : but this is such 
a physic-taking age, it is not likely that the sentiments advocated will meet pre- 
sent attention. 

The series of biographical articles of eminent men in Littell's Living Age are 
of the highest interest to literary men at home and abroad. 

Graham's Magazine — Charles G. Leland, editor — has a steel engraving by Casse- 
well & Kimwell, of New York, called The Jewels, which any parent might gaze 
upon by the hour with a pure delight. Brazil and the Brazilians, by Rev. Mr. 
Fletcher, is of high and permanent interest, 

Arthur' Home Magazine. — Old Maid, by Virginia F. Townsend, and No. 
3. Bayard Taylor, are well worthy of perusal. 

Godey, liberal and courteous always, has not come to hand for months, until 
now. The frontispiece for October, The Sisters, is a lovely picture. Tt has up- 
wards of fifty illustrations, with a most interesting article on the Manufacture of 
Silk — Trials of a Housekeeper, Servant Question. Memories, by J. W. McJilton, is 

The first pages of the Pcughkeepsie Eagle, and the American Whig of Taun- 
ton, Mass., are among the best edited of all the secular weeklies we receive. 
The Eagle ought to prize this notice, as we do not remember ever to have seen 
a " hubbing" of us in its columns. 


HaWs Journal of Health. 

The Mother's Journal, $1 a year, New- York, now in its twenty-second vol., 
has more than one or two truths in the following statement : 

" Some of our exchanges we receive with great regularity, and some with 
great irregularity. Arthur's Lady's Home Magazine, Lutheran Home Journal, 
Schoolfellow, Mother's Magazine, all look well, and are well sustained. Merry's 
Museum and Youth's Cabinet united, forms a most excellent and attractive magazine 
for the young. The Inventor is an admirably conducted scientific paper, of peculiar 
interest to those who care for the mechanic arts. The Home, The Lady's Pearl, 
Mother's Assistant, reach us sometimes. The Ladies' Repository and the National 
Magazine are conducted with marked ability. But nothing pleases us better than 
Hall's Journal of Health. It is full of valuable matter. 

The West Fourteenth Street Collegiate School, now in its thirty-eighth year 
of successful operation, opens its sessions with high promise, under G. P. Quack- 
enboss, Rector, one of the most thorough instructors in New York ; pupils are ad- 
vanced only as far as their health will allow — pity is it that our theological seminaries 
and other institutions of learning were not conducted on a consideration so politif t 
so wise, and so humane. 

In repeated journeyings to the West and back, via the Pennsylvania Centra 
Railroad, of which J. Edgar Thompson, Esq., is now the efficient President, we 
have not, in a single instance, failed to make good time, nor have we missed the 
connection once since its completion. The "night car'' is an admirable arrange- 
ment, as it allows the wearied traveller to sleep with considerable comfort. We 
noticed a disposition of the windows in one car, in our last journey, which amounts 
to a humanity. The arrangement is such, that neither head, arm, nor elbow can be 
protruded, without a most uncomfortable bodily strain. Another praiseworthy item 
is, very full time is allowed at Altoona, for breakfast, in goinsf West; and at 
returning, a breakfast, bountiful, tidy, and well prepared. We commend the Penn- 
sylvania Central, also, for its rigid exclusion of all men from the ladies' night-car, 
unless they have ladies with them. We write this notice, and of other lines previ- 
ously, as they merited, never having ridden a mile in a rail-car free of charge. 

Married, in Sacramento, Cal , Thursday. May 28, 1857, by Rev. Mr. Baker, Dr. Tho- 
masJ. Hall, of Kentucky, to Miss Mary M., only daughter of R. L. Robertson, Esq. 
Died, on Tuesday, August 18th, 1857, in Kittanning, Pa., at the residence of his 
«on, Rev. J. H. Hall, Principal of the Minnesota Point Seminary, Stephen Hall, 
aged 70 years, a native of Pennsylvania; but from early childhood a resident of 
Paris, Kentucky, and one of its three oldest citizens. Some years ago, he became 
a member of the Presbyterian Church, and died in that faith, tearfully praying foi 
pardon, and for " a happy exit into the rest prepared for the people of God." His 
wife, whom he married forty-eight years ago, survives him, and with his eldest son, 
the editor of the Journal of Health, closed his eyes He was the father, also, of the 
late S. W. Hall, M. D„ of Philadelphia, and of Dr. T. J. Hall, California. Firm in 
purpose, kindly, and confiding in his nature, he met death with a calm, intelligent 
courage, retaining a perfect and clear consciousness, almost to the minute of his 
ceasinjj to breathe. 

Slptembeu Index. 

National Hotel Disease. 197 

Law of Miasm and Malaria 217, 199 

How to Lay in Coal 202 

Going South 206 

Patriarch's Letter 208 

Who should Go West 209 

Farming Errors 211 

Parks of Cities 212 

Care of Children 214 

Our Country 216 

Mortuary of New York 2 IS 

October Index. 

" Inhalation" worthless 232 

Economical Eating ". 233 

Tea Drinking 234 

"Hub Me" 237 

Mental Power 238 

Editorial Requisites 239 

Bread, the best 240 

Clerical Health 240 

Milk of Cities ^ 241 

Gail Borden's Discovery "' 242 

Travel by Rail 244 





VOL. IV.] NOVEMBER, 1857. [NO. XI. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without 'Consulting an educated physician. 


Is the ruin of any nation ; it is a greater moral curse than 
drunkenness ever has been; and the parent who countenances 
it is, to that extent, his child's worst enemy, whether that child 
be son or daughter. As nations and communities prosper and 
grow older, the lines between wealth and poverty become more 
distinct ; and, with equal pace, the strife for riches becomes a 
passion and a desperation, with a declining morality: and 
with all this, fewer persons marry, and they, at a later age in 
life — the unmarried setting up private establishments ; while the 
more successful inaugurate a style of living largely beyond the 
profits of their business; when on any financial jar their rickety 
plans are deranged, and they are the first to go into bankruptcy. 
But, besides these two classes, there is a third, far outnumber- 
ing both, whose profligacy is of the more common sort, spread- 
ing its demoralizing and corrupting influences far and wide. 
Look at Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, once the fear of 
nations, when Charles the Fifth led her armies! But now, 
enervated by her demoralizations, she exists only by sufferance. 
In Stockholm, very near half of the registered births are ille- 
gitimate. In Paris, one child in every three is born out of 
wedlock. It is very easy to see that the cause of this is 
largely owing to deferred marriage. In our own country, 
especially in our large cities, the fact is everywhere observed, 
that young men are putting off marriage till a later and later 
period of life. Yery many do not entertain the thought of it 
until past thirty; in the mean time, as a matter of course, do 

246 HalVs Journal of Health. 

worse — and they begin to complain of rheumatisms, the patent 
indicator of their immoralities. 

But why do young men put off marriage until thirty and 
over? The reasons are twofold. Poverty and pride. They 
cannot afford to live in the style which their ambition aspires 
to. Young people want to begin at too high a round in the 
social ladder. Formerly, a young man was respected who 
married, and lived in the rear of his house, while the front was 
his office, or shop, or store ; and when he got a little farther on, 
he occupied the first floor as his place of business, while his 
wife and children lived up stairs, and it ought to be so still, by 
three-fourths of the business men of our large cities. It is 
capable of demonstration, that it is healthier to do so, and a 
great economizer of time and money. To live "up town" for 
example, in New York, three or four miles away from a man's 
place of business, is neither as good for himself or family, soul, 
body, or estate, in the long run, as if he did business on the first 
floor, and his family lived on the second or third of the same 

A business man is always anxious when away from his place 
of business. He has a peace of mind when on the spot which 
is of itself a treasure. Bear us witness of this ye business men, 
who live in streets above the thirties, or " out of town." 

By the old plan, men enjoyed their families, lived with their 
wives and children, ate at home always, always slept at home; 
and in the end, lived longer, happier, and died richer, and more 
honored, than do the same class of persons now-a-days, with 
their empty store-lofts down town, and their dwellings miles 
away, at an extra rent of from one to three thousand dollars a 

Compare the hasty and unmasticated dinner, or the late 
repast of five P. M., all jaded, exhausted, depressed with ten 
hours' labor, with the cozy dinner at decent old-fashioned noon — 
just hungry enough to enjoy, just tired enough to make a half- 
hours' sitting grateful, and just exhilarated enough with the 
profits of the morning to make it a matter of pleasureable con- 
verse while eating. 

We have our eye now on two Dutch shoemakers and a native 
grocer, who have been living in this old-fashioned style within 
a block of us, in another street, for several years, and every 

Celibacy. 247 

month or two, we notice some new indication of thrift, in a 
cleaner side- walk, a more showy window, a larger stock, or 
newly- painted front, and they are already able to own the 
houses they live in! — are saving something every year. . 

The above was written some three months ago ; and what a 
confirmation of its truth is now found in the commercial panic 
of the middle of October, eighteen hundred and fifty-seven! 
Just look at it ! Within a week, there appeared, in the same 
day's paper, an item, that one merchant, who stood up in the 
crisis of " thirty-seven" failed for the want of seven thousand 
dollars; another, whose house was deemed impregnable, and 
who could have raised in the street, in any business hour, a 
hundred thousand dollars on his own name, sixty days ago, 
failed for the want of six thousand dollars ! Deduct the price 
of an up-town house, say twenty-five thousand dollars, and 
how many a man would most triumphantly have weathered 
this financial tornado ! Deduct twenty-five hundred dollars 
rent, with its accumulated interest for ten years past, and how 
many a young merchant of New York would have to day 
walked the street with a firmer tread and a prouder look, who 
now, with an overdrawn bank-account, a bowed head, and 
broken ambition^ has but one absorbing wish — to be shut out 
from the sight and memory of men for a season ; or, that they 
could be so happy, as to be able to begin the world again with- 
out a dollar of capital, and without a dollar of debt. 

Young men, you who are to be our merchant princes twenty 
years hence, think of this! Marry early 1 LIVE unostenta- 


A young lady crossing over from Jersey the other day, is 
stated, on good authority, to have courteously thanked a gentle- 
man who gave her his seat ! 


The man who drew a conclusion, has since died of the 

248 Hairs Journal of Health. 


Now that "Inhalation," for the cure of Consumption, has 
gone to the dogs, while its patronizers went to the grave, and 
when people have grown tired of guzzling villainous cod-liver 
oil by the tub-full; while Naptha and its "inventor" laid down 
in the grave together, after "a most brief" existence; and 
phosphate of lime, with its beautiful philosophic and micros- 
copic theory, has long since hid its diminished head ; and the 
great favorite of all, dram-drinking, has failed of its promised 
regeneration — Cannabis Indica, which, in vulgar English, is the 
hemp-plant boiled to a paste, then thinned with whisky, and 
sweetened with liquorice — it, too, has followed in the footsteps 
of its illustrious predecessors, notwithstanding its champion, 
" whose sands of life were almost run," had two barrels of that 
abundant article forwarded to him by "express" from New 
Orleans, for fear they might run out entirely, and prevent him 
from sending a " large bottle for two dollars" of the wonderful 
medicament to some afflicted son or daughter of Adam, who 
would have perished nineteen minutes and a quarter sooner 
than otherwise — said "large bottle for two dollars" costing, as we 
have ascertained by actual experiment, just thirty-one cents, 
bottle and all, even when the materials were of the freshest 
and purest that our next-door neighbor, Tilden, makes at his 
mammoth, celebrated laboratory ; now that Cannabis has also 
failed of its promised wonder-workings, and is found to be 
most fitted for its old time use of going to seed and lint, and 
throttling the knaves who would divert it from its most legiti- 
mate use ; a new aspirant for Consumptive celebrity has shot 
up into the British sky, and lays high claim to a deserved 
distinction above all that has gone before it — 

Hypophosphite of Lime and Ikon. 

The philosophy of it is, that it absorbs oxygen largely, and 
that its action is to dissolve tubercles, and get them speedily 
out of the system. How doctors and divines revel in mag- 
niloquence ! 

"Consumption is the oxydation of the exudation corpuscle," 
says the doctor. 

Cure of Consumption. 249 

"Anthropomorphism is theopneustic," responds the divine, 
in a New-York pulpit, in our hearing. The first means, in 
effect, that consumption is the gradual destruction of the lungs, 
which, perhaps, is known to most persons outside of an asylum; 
but as to Theopneusticability of Anthropomorphism, we beg 
leave to decline to define, for fear we might illustrate it into 
obscurity, and thus make it a lucus a non lucendo, distinguished 
only by the blackness of its darkness ! 

But let us retrograde to the beginning, take the back track to 
where we started from, and fetch up in plain, home-spun English. 

The theory above admits that a consumptive person needs 
water, lime, phosphorus, and iron, and a plenty of oxygen in 
the largest quantities that Nature can take and convert to her 
uses. But there are two things which contain all these elements, 
combined by the greatest Chemist ever known — the Maker of 
all things — Beef and Pure Air. 

The out-door air has all the oxygen in it that can possibly 
be used to advantage ; for if one more proportion of oxygen 
is added to it, it becomes aquafortis. On the other hand, Beef, 
including all fish, flesh, and fowl, has full as much lime, and 
water, and phosphorus, and iron, as the system can appro- 
priate ; and this brings us back to the great truth, which we 
have not ceased to advocate these many years, that it is in vain 
we look to the prevention, arrest, and cure of consumptive 
disease, except in a vigorous digestion, and large, continuous, 
and moderate out- door activities. 

Last month we quietly republished, without note or com- 
ment, an article which first appeared from our pen, verbatim, 
some years ago, one word only being changed, Spirometry, 
accented on the second syllable — it being easier of pronunciation 
than the original, which accented the fourth syllable. A writer 
in a British periodical advises the use of a spirometer, as 
curative of consumption — on the same principle precisely that 
we have recommended women patients especially, to use an 
india-rubber life-preserver, or to practice running up stairs with 
the mouth shut, or singing aloud while walking across the floor; 
and to male patients, to practice running with the mouth shut, 
with daily increasing distances ; the effect of all being the same 
to induce instinctive efforts of deep inspirations in a natural 
way ; while the same inspirations made artificially, if in too 

250 HalVs Journal of Health. 

quick succession, induce vertigo, dizziness, and, possibly, 
apoplexy, or the rupture of a blood-vessel. This simple sug- 
gestion is worth millions of money to professional men, and 
whole ship-loads of physic to the common people, if it were 
applied with an intelligent discrimination. 

The result of all these forms of exercise is one and the same ; 
it lengthens the breath, makes way for a larger in-drawing and 
consequent use of the air we breathe, and the more we can take 
in, the more we can consume — the measure of one's radical im- 
provement being an ability to run faster, and farther, and longer, 
with less fatigue, or to fully distend a life-preserver with fewer 

Simple as these things are, they should be followed out, under 
the supervision of an intelligent physician, who must decide 
whether there be not some heart complication, making these 
exercises dangerous, or whether the strain put upon the lungs 
might not endanger the rupture of a blood-vessel — as the 
blindly-followed gymnastic exercises are known to occasion 

In addition to this, the physician must decide in each case 
how much exercise can be profitably taken ; for if it go beyond 
a certain point — the actual fatigue line — that exercise has been 
destructive, instead of inuring to the building up of the sys- 
tem ; which most important point, having been overlooked, has 
allowed many to exercise themselves to death. 

Another point which imperatively requires an intelligent 
supervision, is the regulation of the food to its proper quan- 
tity and quality, and keeping the digestive function at the very 
highest point of healthful activity. 

We are glad to have the names of quite a number of edu- 
cated medical men on our subscription list — some of whom have 
added largely to that list, having the intelligence to perceive 
that the aim of our Journal is to throw the entire administra- 
tion of medicine into the hands of educated men, and to banish 
self- medication from the land: and yet we could name a reli- 
gious newspaper in this city, one of the largest of its class, which 
refused, without a reason, to advertise the "contents" of one 
of our numbers, and yet does not hesitate to notify its readers, 
for pay, where they can loan money for twenty-five per cent 
a year, where lottery book-stores may be found, and a common 

Gold Bathing. 251 

book may be had for a dollar, with, possibly, a ten-dollar note 
inside. Broad as creation is that phylactery ! 

On the other hand, a clergyman writes us, within a month: 
"You are aiming in the right direction, and cannot fail to 
make an impression for good ; and the world will be the better 
for your having lived in it." Another, who does not live in 
a corner, says : " Every number of your Journal is an angel 
of mercy to divers households ; and if I were rich, I would order 
five hundred copies a month for theological students." * 

But we digressed, while intending to say to our medical 
subscribers especially, that the suggestions in this article, in 
reference to the main principles of treatment of Consumption, 
are not exceeded in importance by anything that has been 
proposed in ancient or modern times ; to wit, that the control 
of consumption is found only in the promotion of a vigorous 
digestion of food, and the large consumption of out-door air, in 
the employment of judicious muscular activities. 


In summer or winter we detest, except it be to jump into a 
river, splurge about for two or three minutes, and then dress, 
and walk home as hastily as possible. All animate nature, 
except the hydric, instinctively shrinks from the application 
of cold water, if in health. Every body knows that cold water 
cannot wash the hands clean, and yet whole tomes are scribbled 
about the purifying effects of cold water. Cold water kills 
more than it cures. Hundreds of children are killed every 
year by fanatical mothers sousing them, head and ears, in cold 
water every day. » 

We never saw a modern bath-tub until we were thirty years 
of age, and ever since the sight, we have not ceased to hate it 
with great cordiality, on account of the mischief which it con- 
stantly occasions. 

The ordinary use of a bath-tub is an indecency. A great 
deal of stuff is printed about the bathing habits of the ancients, 
about the Eastern nations, and their love of the bath. What 
if they did love it ? the ancients have all gone to grass long ago, 

252 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and "Eastern nations" are going to pot as fast as possible, 
individually and collectively! The average of human life is 
shorter, by many years, among the Eastern peoples than among 
the Western. Of three hundred inhabitants in the .United 
States, only four persons die every year, while six die in Eng- 
land, and eight in France, and the farther we go " East " the 
greater is the mortality. As to the United States, it is the 
healthiest country on the globe, as a whole : according to the last 
statistics, Virginia, the very embodiment of the "Great Un- 
washed" is the healthiest of her healthy sisters, and next comes 
North Carolina, all smoked with pine knots, and begrimed 
with coal dust and tar : and it is doubtful if one in ten thousand 
of its families ever saw a modern bath-tub. 

How many of our grandsires, now hale and hearty at three- 
score-and-ten, ever felt a shower-bath, or jumped into a tub 
of cold water to wash themselves? Who are they, amongst 
the beautiful women of present or past time, whose cheeks are 
the softest, and remain the longest free from the wrinkles of 
age? They are those who never washed their faces in cold 
water ; and if indeed they were washed at all, it was done with 
warm water or spirits of wine, as practiced in the times of Louis 
Quatorze. Soft as velvet is the cheek of infancy ; and it only 
grows harsh, and hard, and rough, as the practice gains of 
washing them with cold water. 

A pig gets no cleaner by wallowing in a puddle; yet men 
and women wallow in a bath-tub, diluting the excretions from 
nameless parts of the person, to come in contact with the cleaner 
hands and face, and even lips, it may be! 

People talk glibly about the bathing habits of Eastern Nations 
and the cleanliness of the Houris, who grace the Turkish Harem, 
and then we essay an imitation in this fashion. A Turk takes 
a hot bath, we take a cold one; we jump into a bath-tub, a 
thing which no decent Turk ever does. We question if there 
is a single bath-tub in all the dominions of the Sultan, unless it 
be the pet property of some water-mad Yankee. A Turk 
washes himself under a stream of running water, after a vigorous 
first-scrubbing ; so that no impure particle, loosened from one 
part of the body, can, by possibility, come in contact with the 
body again. We wash ourselves in bath-rooms as cold as 
Greenland: the Turk cleanses himself in an apartment almost 

Cold Bathing. 253 

as hot as an oven. We really cannot see how a man can make 
himself clean in a bath-tub, after the usual fashion. 

The sum of the whole matter is this : If we want to cultivate 
habits of personal cleanliness and health, let us, at rational inter- 
vals, say once a week, have a room, in fire-time, which shows 
seventy degrees of Fahrenheit, and with strong soap-suds and 
a hog's hair brush, let the whole body • be most thoroughly 
scrubbed, almost as effectually as if we were rubbing a grease- 
spot out of a plank-floor, then let the whole surface be rinsed 
with warm water, running from the spiggot. When that is done, 
an instantaneous souse in a bath-tub, or better still, a bucket of 
cold water dashed on the head, falling all over the naked per- 
son, and then to be wiped dry and dress in two minutes — that 
indeed is a glorious luxury to any grown person, not an invalid. 
That "taking a bath" requires the exercise of a sound judg- 
ment, and that without this, it is not unattended with fatal 
consequences, New Yorkers especially have recently had some 
sad lessons. The lovely young wife of our national repre- 
sentative at Home went from the dinner-table to a warm bath, 
and died in a few hours. One of our most distinguished law- 
yers, the State's Attorney, we believe, was, within a year, 
found dead in his bath-room. Mortimer Livingston, one of New 
York's noblest merchants, " took a bath one morning, remain- 
ing in the water a long time. On coming out, he complained 
of cold over his entire person, and all the means made use of to 
restore warmth failed, he lingered awhile, and died in a few 
days, aged fifty years," in the very prime of life! Bishop 
Heber, the author of that charming hymn, 

" From Greenland's icy mountains," &c. 

died from the effects of a bath : and how many thousands of 
children are annually hurried into the grave by injudicious 
washings, we will not hazard to conjecture. 

Let those who are wise, learn from these things a lesson ; 
and let none controvert the statements made, but those who 
know something, and can give whole facts. 

To put the candle to bed, and blow yourself out. 

254: HalVs Journal of Health. 


Put it on at once, this first week of November, a good, sub- 
stantial, old-fashioned, home-made, loose, red woollen flannel 
shirt, and do not lay it aside for a thinner article, at least until 
the first day of May, .even in the latitude of New Orleans. We 
advise the red, because it does not full up, thicken, and become 
leathery by wearing. 

Wear it only in the day-time, unless you are very much of 
an invalid ; then change it for a similar one to sleep in — letting 
the two hang alternately on a chair to dry in a warm dry room. 

If leaving it off at night gives you a cold, never mind it ; 
persevere until you take no more cold by the omission. No 
one ceases to wear shoes because they caused corns : it is the 
proper use of things which makes them innocuous. The less 
you wear at night, the more good will your clothing do you in 
the day-time. Those who wear a great deal of clothing at night, 
must wear that much more in the day, or they will feel chilly 
all the time ; and our own observation teaches us, that the people 
who muffle up most are the most to complain of taking cold. 

But why wear flannel next the skin, in preference to silk or 
cotton ? 

Because it is warmer ; it conveys heat away from the body 
less rapidly ; does it so slowly, that it is called a non-conductor ; it 
feels less cold when we touch it to the skin than silk or cotton. 

If the three are wetted, the flannel feels less cold at the first 
touch, and gets warm sooner than silk or cotton, and does 
not cling to the skin when damp, as much as they do. We 
know what a shock of coldness is imparted to the skin when, 
after exercise and perspiration, an Irish linen shirt worn next 
the skin is brought in contact, by a change of position, with a 
part of the skin which it did not touch a moment before — often 
sending a shivering chill through the whole system. 

A good deal has been said and written about silk being best 
on account of its electrical agencies ; but all that is guess-work. 
We are mere blind leaders of the blind when we talk about 
that subtle agent ; and until we know more of it, it is the greater 
wisdom to be guided by our sensations. 

Another reason why woollen flannel is better is, that while 

How to Prevent Colds. ^55 

cotton and silk absorb the perspiration, and is equally saturated 
with it, a woollen garment conveys the moisture to its outside, 
where the microscope, or a very good eye, will see the water 
standing in innumerable drops. This is shown any hour, by 
covering a profusely sweating horse with a blanket, and let him 
stand still. In a short time, the hair and inner surface of the 
blanket will be dry, while the moisture will be felt on the out- 
side. If we would be wise, we must use our senses, and observe 
for ourselves. 

A Some persons prefer white flannel, which may be prevented 
from fulling up, if first well washed in pretty warm soap-suds, 
then rinsed in one water as hot as can be well borne by the 
hand. After being once made, a woollen white flannel shirt 
should never be put in cold water, but always washed as above, 
not by putting soap on it, but by washing it in soap suds, not 
very hot. 


If people were blessed with common sense, and a little 
wholesome self-denial, they might often escape severe colds 
and fevers by resolute measures adopted in season. A corre- 
spondent of the Evangelist sends the following communication, 
giving an infallible recipe for a bad cold, if it is handled in 
time. Perhaps some of our readers may have courage to make 
the experiment : 

" There is probably not a man, woman, or child, who is not 
as often as once a year afflicted with a severe cold, which ends 
in a cough or catarrh ; and thousands there are who die every 
year of consumption, brought on by taking cold. He, then, 
who should discover a certain and effectual remedy for this 
complaint would be justly regarded as one of the greatest bene- 
factors of the age. The writer does not profess to have discov- 
ered such a remedy, but he wishes to attest the truth of the 
following certain and effectual expedient for preventing a cold. 
A cold cannot be easily cured ; but if it can be prevented, it is 
of no importance to know how it may be cured. 

" A bad cold, like measles or mumps, or other similar ail- 
ments, will run its course of about ten days, in spite of what 
may be done for it, unless remedial means are employed within 
forty-eight hours of its inception. Many a useful life may be 

256 HaWs Journal of Health. 

spared to be increasingly useful, by cutting a cold short off in 
the following safe and simple manner. On the first day of tak- 
ing a cold, there is a very unpleasant sensation of chilliness. 
The moment you observe this, go to your room and stay there. 
Keep it at such a temperature as will entirely prevent this chilly 
feeling, even if it requires 100 degrees of Fahrenheit. 

" In addition to this, put your feet in water half-leg deep, as 
hot as you can bear it, adding hot water from time to time, for 
a quarter of an hour, so that the water shall be hotter when you 
take your feet out, than when you put them in. Then dry 
them thoroughly, and put on thick, warm, woollen stockings, 
even if it be summer — for summer colds are more dangerous — 
and for twenty-four hours eat not an atom of food, but drink 
as largely as you desire of any kind of warm tea, and at the 
end of that time the cold will be entirely broken without any 
medicine whatever. Efficient as the above means are, not one 
in a thousand attends to them ; led on, as most men are, by the 
hope that a cold will pass away of itself. Nevertheless, this 
article will now and then pass under the eye of a wise man who 
does not choose to run the double risk of taking physic and 
dying too." — Medical Journal. 

" The above expedient is a severe one for epicures and glut- 
tons, but most persons will find it easier to fast one day than to be 
sick a fortnight. The writer has usually found that fasting for 
three or four meals is sufficient; but doubtless the whole remedy 
is better than a part. 

" Let those who are often afflicted with colds — ministers, stu- 
dents, and consumptives generally, cut out the above directions 
and preserve them ; if faithfully followed, they will do you 
more good than all the pulmonaries, cold cordials, and other 
hurtful nostrums, which now load your shelves. — Watch. & Refl. 

The above was sent to that excellent religious paper u The 
Watchman and Reflector" of Boston, by one of its correspond- 
ents, as having been taken from a "Medical Journal." Its in- 
trinsic importance, its truthfulness, and practical utility merit 
a republication every year, in our pages where it first appeared. 


Just hand this table to the lady, and request her to tell you 
in which column or columns her age is contained. Add toge- 
ther the figures at the top of the columns in which her age is 
found, and you have the great secret. Thus : suppose her age 
to be seventeen. You will find the number seventeen only in 

Curious Table of Figures. 257 

two columns, viz., the first and fifth, and the first figures of 
these columns make seventeen. Here is the magic table : 
































































































































































































If the above table should amuse boys from the street for an 
evening or two, and should make home more tolerable to some 
restless, gad-about girl, who is never happier than when flaunt- 
ing on the street, or discoursing small talk with dandified young 
men at the theatre or opera, or tawdry eating saloon, we will 
feel repaid for its insertion : it amused us hugely in " sunnier 
days departed." 

258 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Mr. Editor — Your oft-repeated exhortations to moderation 
in eating, in jour excellent Journal, and in private counsel, 
have been of inestimable value to me. Is it not a sad fact that 
men's ideas of temperance, for the most part, respect drinking 
alone? I submit the question, without attempting an answer, 
whether the modern rage of total abstinence from drink has 
not incidentally done evil in propagating this false and per- 
nicious notion. It is believed that your Journal, and books 
and papers of a similar character, are bringing men's minds up 
to larger views. How many are there whose consciences would 
scarcely let them take wine sauce for a pudding, or season 
a mince-pie with a spoonful of brandy, who keep themselves in 
a constant condition of obesity. Emancipated from the bottle, 
they are in bondage to the platter ! If the spectacle were not 
so mournful, it would be ridiculous ! 

As a rule to which there is almost never an exception, I find 
it best to rise from the table with a feeling of hunger — not a 
gnawing desire for food, but a keen appetite which would 
eagerly seize upon another plateful. I have found it desirable 
— I might almost say necessary — to treat myself just as I treat 
my horse, in the matter of food ; measure out the quantity 
which judgment and conscience approve; and, after that is 
deliberately devoured, let the stomach cry out for more as it 
pleases, always meet it with an inexorable denial. A man who 
has been overeating all his life (as I have been till lately) can 
hardly trust himself at full liberty even over a plain meal, with 
more safety than he could to give his horse free access to the 
oat-bin. After the bondage to overeating is once broken in this 
stern discipline, self-denial becomes easier, the fury of a morbid 
appetite is calmed down, and the stomach becomes more rational 
in its demands. As for myself, however, though moderation 
at table is less difficult than it used to be, yet I have found that 
I am very much like a reformed drunkard as respects eating ; 
and the least overstepping of the prescribed limit rouses up the 
old appetite again in all its original and untamed violence. 
If any of your readers want to put a curb-bit on a runaway 
stomach, and escape the blue vapors, and conscience-throes of 

Scalds and Burns. 529 

the dyspeptic, they are welcome to this hint, for which I am in 
part indebted to the daily care of my horse. As ever yours, 



D. Meredith Reese, M. D., LL.D. 

The veteran editor of the American Medical Gazette of New 
York, has never written a more truthful and more universally 
useful and practical article than the following. It should be 
preserved in some conspicuous place in every household in the 
land, we only adding, that until the flour is procured, let the 
injured part be put under cold water, and the pain instantaneously 
ceases. Apply the dry flour. 

"We still see reported, almost daily, an appalling number 
of deaths by burns and scalds, not one of which, we take upon 
ourself to say, need prove fatal, or would do so, if a few pounds 
of wheat flour could be promptly applied to the wounds made 
by fire, and repeated, until the inflammatory stage had passed. 
We have not known a fatal case of scalding or burning in 
which this practice has been pursued, during more than thirty 
years' experience, and have treated hundreds in both public 
and private practice. We have known the most extensive 
burns by falling into cauldrons of boiling oil, and even molten 
copper, and yet the patient rescued by this simple and cheap 
remedy, which, from its infallible success, should supplant all 
the fashionable nostrums, whether oil, cotton, lead- water, ice, 
turpentine, or pain extractors, every one of which has been tried 
a thousand times with fatal results, and the victims have died in 
excruciating agony, when a few handfuls of flour would have 
calmed them to sleep, and rescued them from pain and death. 
Humanity should prompt the profession to publish and republish 
the facts on this subject, which are established by the authority 
of standard medical works on both sides of the Atlantic." 


" Three faces wears the Doctor : when first sought 
An Angel's ; and a God's, the cure half-wrought ; 
But when, that cure complete, he seeks his fee, 
Beelzebub looks less terrible than he." 

260 HalVs Journal of Health. 


A long time ago, a little boy twelve years old, on his road 
to Yermont, stopped at a country tavern, and paid for his lodg- 
ing and breakfast by sawing wood, instead of asking for it as a 
gift. Fifty years later, the same boy passed that same little inn 
as George Peabody, the banker, whose name is the synonyme 
of magnificent charities — the honored of two hemispheres. 

Far back in the teens of the present century, a young man 
asked for employment in the Springfield armory; but he was 
poor, and modest, and had no friends, so he went away without 
it ; but, feeling the man within him, he sought work until he 
found it. An age later, he visited that armory the second time, 
not as a common day-laborer, but as the ablest speaker of the 
House of Representatives for many years, and not unlikely our 
future chief magistrate — N. P. Banks, of New Hampshire, Go 
to, ye dandified, kid-gloved, cologned, billiard-playing, club- 
tending, tight-waisted, spindle-limbed, soft-headed, time killing, 
lady-tending numskulls, begin life over again, if you wish to 
leave your mark on the world's history, by earning your first 
dinner in honorable labor; and resolve, that what you eat and 
drink, and wear, from this day forward, shall be from your own 
earnings, and you will yet die men. 


Are not common associates. The celibate, the ignorant, and 
the idle, these are they who fill our prisons and crowd our 
penitentiaries. The more children a man has, the less apt is he 
to become a criminal. Each child is an additional responsibility. 
But each one touches some new chord in our affections, brings 
into exercise some new virtue, and calls out sentiments that 
otherwise might have remained dormant for a lifetime. One 
child is courageous, another timid ; one is frank and open, an- 
other retires within itself; and thus each one has some quality 
or other, which, for that quality, makes it peculiarly loved ; 
thus bringing out, one after another, every warm affection of 
a parent's heart, keeping his better nature always alive, 

The Model Man. 261 

steadily repelling temptation, and inviting to deeds of kindness 
and humanity. That all this is no mere theory, is evident from 
the fact, that four-fifths of the inmates of one of the largest 
penitentiaries in the Union were unable to read or write ; of 
twenty-four hundred prisoners, only one out of six was married, 
and these averaged less than three children each. And then, 
it is an observed fact in great cities, that more persons are sent 
to prison during the abundance of summer than during winter, 
when want of fire and food combine to aggravate the sufferings 
of the poor. 

These things being so, every good citizen should feel it his 
duty to encourage marriage, promote industry, and do all that 
is possible to educate the masses, not merely in the ABC, the 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, but in what is of higher mo- 
ment than these, a familiar knowledge of those principles of 
human conduct which are so broadly and so plainly laid 
down in the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. 
Then, and not till then, will our physical and moral natures be 
found going hand in hand unto perfection. 


An individual writes to Life Illustrated as follows : 

" I drink no kind of liquid, except water. I use no kind 
of medicine, tobacco, or snuff. I eat no kind of meat, fish, 
fowl, salt, pepper, vinegar, mustard, spices, or pickles. I 
belong to no party or sect. I never swear, bet, play at cards, 
or gamble in any way. I never go to law, fight, or interfere 
with my neighbors' private affairs. I never visit any theatre, 
drinking saloon, gambling-house, brothel, or useless shows. I 
never read any novels, or follow any fashion or opinion, unless 
I think it is perfectly right. I claim the right to investigate 
any subject which presents itself, and then to judge for myself. 
I also allow the same privilege to others. I violate no moral 
or physical law, that I know of. I despise no one for his 
poverty, nor do homage to any one for his wealth. Whenever 
the people can thus reform themselves, we then can get rid of 
the present expensive and corrupt governments, whereby it 
takes one-half of the people to govern and regulate the other 
half of society. We should then want no law, soldiers, police 
jails, or governments, for every one would be a law of him 

262 HalVs Journal of Health. 

We will venture to say that the author of the foregoing is a 
self-righteous, self-conceited ignoramus, without influence where 
he resides, without a Bible, without religion, and "without 
hope in the world." If all men were made after his fashion, 
no human government would last an hour; for his rule of 
action is what he thinks "is perfectly right" and his standard 
of justice would be the laws he would make "of himself." 
And what if he does not eat meat, fish, or fowl, he eats what 
he likes — just like any other pig. The conceit of a fool is as 
amazing as the cowardice of a braggadocio ! 


I was only thirty months old when my mother died. By 
the neglect of a servant, I lost the use of my limbs, and sat 
nearly a twelvemonth on a small bench, looking at the fire. 
One day a gipsy entered, and asked for something to eat. 
While she was taking some milk and bread, my small figure 
drew her attention. She inquired into my case, and advised my 
father to board me on a heather-hill near by, which abounded 
with small snails, the shells of which were half an inch long 
and beautifully striped. The snails came out of their holes 
every morning about sun-rise. I was sent out to gather a cup- 
full. They were washed, boiled in milk, fresh from the cow. 
This milk was given me to eat with my oat-meal porridge, and 
was very palatable. I was much amused at gathering the 
snails ; the exercise imparted strength to my limbs, while the 
snail-soup nourished my feeble frame. Now, I walk without a 

When in my twelfth year, my father consulted Dr. Monro, 
of Edinburgh, whether to apprentice me to a tailor or a wrought- 
nail maker. The nail-maker stands upright while at work, 
with the whole body in gentle motion. The hammer was put 
into my hand in my twelfth year. From that day my health 
and strength began to improve ; and now, when my sun is 
sinking in the west, my personal feelings are as comfortable as 
they were sixty years ago, seeing and hearing excepted. 

Parents, nurses, and physicians err when they place a weak, 

Traps. 263 

lanw, and rickety boy on a tailor's board, or a shoemaker's 
stocl ; better buy his coffin at once. 

All the works of God are in perpetual motion. If men wish 
health and comfort, they must keep moving. 

From 1794 to 1802, I made wrought-nails in New York, 
when the cut-nails appeared, and put me out of employment. 

Grant Thorburne, Sr. 
New Haven, Sept. 30, 1857. 


Of our merchant princes, there are two classes, since the 
financial tornado has swept across the commercial world. Those 
who withstood its fury walk now with a firmer tread and 
higher beating hearts ; their glory is, that they still stand. Of 
the fallen, there are those who fell, proud as ever to-day, because 
they fell honorably. But our wives and daughters revel in a 
glory that towers a head and shoulders above all others, and 
throws all others into the shade — the glory of purchasing dry 
goods at half price. 


Mosquito traps, flies, roaches, &c, are furnished by J. S. 
Clough, 168 Broadway — certain death to all who enter them. 

Boy trap, a girl in her teens; man trap, a taking young 
widow. Bug trap, flies, insects, and the like : take a pound 
and a half of common rosin, and a pint of sweet oil, place them 
in a vessel over the fire, until the rosin is melted, stir them well 
and when cool it forms a liquid ; put it on any piece of cloth, 
linen, or other flexible material, with a brush, and then wrap 
it around the stem or body. It remains sticky and clammy for 
a long time. Piesse calls this Rezoil ; and says, that birds, cats, 
and mice give it a wide berth. 

Invalid Trap. Let him know that you have something which 
cured somebody else, worse than he, but that you will not tell 
its name. He will pay you well for it — the higher the price, the 
more anxious will he be to get hold of it. But tell him that it 
is a glass of spring water, to be had by walking up a steep 
mountain five times a day, and he will have nothing to do 
with it. 


HalVs Journal of Health. 


The following useful table is taken from Dinsmores Railroad 
Guide. When it is noon, or twelve o'clock, at Washington City, 
it is fourteen minutes past twelve at Albany, New York. Places 
west of Washington have slower, while those east of Washing- 
ton have earlier time than at Washington. 


Albany, N. Y 12 

Augusta, Ga 11 

Augusta, Me 11 

Baltimore, Md 12 

Beaufort, S. C 11 

Boston, Mass 12 

Bridgeport, Ct 12 

Buffalo, N. Y 11 

Burlington, N J 12 

Burlington, Vt 12 

Canandaigua, N. Y 11 

Charleston, S. C 11 

Chicago, 111 11 

Cincinnati, O 11 

Columbia, S. C 11 

Columbus, O 11 

Concord, N. H 12 

Dayton, O 11 

Detroit, Mich ....11 

Dover, Del 12 

Dover, N. H 12 

Eastport, Me 12 

Frankfort, Ky 11 

Frederick, Md 11 

Fredericksburg, Va 11 

Frederickton, N. B 12 

Galveston, Texas 10 

Gloucester, Mass 12 

Greenfield, " 12 

Hagerstown, Md 11 

Halifax, N. S 12 

Harrisburg. Pa 12 

Hartford, Ct 12 

Huntsville, Ala 11 

Indianapolis, Ind 11 

Jackson, Miss 11 

Jefferson, Mo 11 

Kingston, Can .12 

Knoxville, Tenn 11 

Lancaster, Pa 12 

Lexington, Ky 11 

Little Rock, Ark 11 

Louisville, Ky 11 

Lowell, Mass 12 

Lynchburg, Va 11 

Middletown, Ct 12 

Milledgeville, Ga 11 

Milwaukee, Wis 11 

Mobile, Ala 11 

Montpelier, Vt 12 

Montreal, Can 12 














































A M. 


























































Nashville, Tenn 11 

Natchez, Miss 11 

Newark, N.J 12 

New Bedford, Mass 12 

Newburg, N. Y 12 

Newburyport, Mass 12 

Newcastle, Del 12 

New Haven, Ct 12 

New London, Ct .12 

New Orleans, La. 11 

Newport, R. 1 12 

New York, N. Y 12 

Norfolk, Va 12 

Northampton, Mass . . .12 

Norwich, Ct 12 

Pensacola, Flor 11 

Petersburg, Va 11 

Philadelphia, Pa 12 

Pittsburg, Pa 11 

Plattsburg, N. Y 12 

Portland, Me 12 

Portsmouth, N. H ....12 

Prairie du Chien, Wis 11 

Providence, R. 1 12 

Quebec, Can 12 

Racine, Wis 11 

Raleigh, N. C ..11 

Richmond, Va 11 

Rochester, N. Y 11 

Sacket's Harbor, N. Y 12 

St. Anthony Falls 10 

St. Augustine, Flor 11 

St. Louis, Mo 11 

St. Paul, Min 10 

Sacramento, Cal 9 

Salem, Mass 12 

Savannah, Ga 11 

Springfield, Mass 12 

Tallahassee, Flor 11 

Toronto, Can 11 

Trenton, N. J 12 

Troy,N. Y 12 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 11 

Utica,N.Y 12 

Vandalia, 111 11 

Vincennes, Ind 11 

Wheeling.Va 11 

Wilmington, Del 12 

Wilmington, N. C 11 

Worcester, Mass 12 

Vork, Pa 12 
























































































P M. 















Agriculture, 265 


The healthiest of all callings, and which, when intelligently 
prosecuted, involves a large share of bodily activities, with a 
wide range of intellectual and scientific inquiry, deserves more 
attention than the present age accords to it. One of the great- 
est mistakes of the times is, that " anybody has sense enough to 
be a farmer" that it is a pursuit which can be taken up and 
successfully prosecuted without pre-culture. As well might 
you set a hodman to draft a national capital. With these views, 
and with a desire to promote scientific agriculture, as the basis of 
national thrift, independence, and wealth, we append a list of 
Agricultural Periodicals, published regularly, earnestly recom- 
mending our "Farm Readers," in every section of the country, 
to patronize them liberally, always giving the preference to 
those nearest them. 

Maine. — Maine Farmer, Augusta: weekly, folio, 4 pages, $1.75. Russell Eaton, 
Publisher and Proprietor ; Ezekiel Holmes, Editor. 

New Hampshire. — Farmers' 1 Cabinet, Amherst; weekly, folio, 4 pages, $1.50. 
E. D. Boylston, Editor and Proprietor. 

Farmer and Visitor, Manchester ; weekly, folio, 4 pages. 

Granite Farm. — Concord; monthly, quarto, $1. 

Vermont. — Vermont Stock Journal, Middlebury ; monthly, quarto, 16 pages, 50 
cents. D. C. Linsley, Editor, Publisher, and Proprietor. 

Green Mountain Farmer. — West Randolph; weekly, folio, 4 pages, $1.50. A. 
Perkins, Jr., Editor. 

Massachusetts. — Boston Cultivator, Boston ; weekly, quarto, 8 pages, $2. Otis 
Brewer, Publisher; J. Pedder, S. Howard, and O. Brewer, Editors. 

Hovey' s Magazine of Horticulture, Boston ; monthly, octavo, 60 pages, $2. 
Hovey & Co., Publishers ; C. M. Hovey, Editor. 

New England Farmer, Boston ; Simon Brown and Wm. Simonds, Editors. Fred- 
erick Holbrook and Henry T. French, Associate Editors. Joel Nourse, Proprietor. 
Weekly. Terms, $2. 

Massachusetts Plowman, Boston ; W. Buckminister and W. J. Buckminister, 
Editors. Weekly. Terms, $2. 

Connecticut. — The Homestead, Hartford ; weekly, quarto, 8 pages, $2. M. C. 
Weld, Publisher ; William Clift, T. S. Gold, H. A. Dyer, and C. M. Weld, Editors. 

New York. — American Agriculturalist, New York City ; monthly, quarto, 24 
pages, $1. Orange Judd, Editor and Proprietor. 

Working Farmer, New York City ; monthly, quarto, 24 pages, $1. Fred. 
McCready, Publisher; J. J. Mapes and Wm. Dodge, Editors. 

Country Gentleman, Albany ; Luther Tucker, Editor and Proprietor. Weekly. 
Terms, $2. 

Rural American, Utica ; semi-monthly, quarto, $1. T. B. Miner, Editor and 

Journal of the New York State Agricultural Society, Albany ; monthly, octavo, 
16 pages, B. P. Johnson, Secretary. 

Plow, Loom, and Anvil, New York City ; J. A. Nash and M. P. Parish, Editors. 
Monthly Magazine. Terms, $2. 

Moore's Rural New Yorker, Rochester ; D. D. T. Moore, Editor, with an able 
corps of Assistant Editors. Weekly. Terms, $2. 

Northern Farmer, Utica ; T. B. Miner, Editor and Proprietor. Monthly. Terms, $1. 

266 HalVs Journal of Health, 

New Jersey. — New Jersey Farmer, Freehold ; monthly, octavo, 32 pages, $1. 
Orin Pharo, Editor and Proprietor. 

Pennsylvania. — American Farmer, Philadelphia ; quarto, 4 pages, monthly, 25 
cents a year. An Association of Farmers, Editors ; Wm. Wallace, Publisher. 

The Horticulturist, Philadelphia ; monthly, octavo, 64 pages, $2. Dr. J. J. 
Smith, Editor ; Robert P. Smith, Publisher. 

Farm Journal, Philadelphia; monthly, octavo, 32 pages, $1. David A. Wells, 
A. M. Spangler, "Editors ; S. Emlem & Co., Publishers. 

Germantown Telegraph, (Family and Agricultural paper.) Weekly, folio, Ger- 
mantown. By Philip R. Freas. $2. 

American Farmer, Baltimore, Maryland ; monthly, octavo, 60 pages, $1. Sands 
& Worthington, Publishers. 

Rural Southerner, EJlicott's Mills, Maryland ; weekly, quarto, 4 pages, $1. Rich- 
ard Edwards, Editor and Proprietor. 

Southern Planter, Richmond, Va.; monthly, octavo, 64 pages, $2. Ruffin & 
August, Publishers and Proprietors ; E. G. Ruffin, Editor. 

Southern Farmer, Petersburgh, Va., weekly, quarto, 8 pages, $1. Thos. S. 
Pleasant, A. C. Morton, Editors. 

The Arator, Raleigh, N. C. ; monthly, octavo, 16 pages. $2. 

Carolina Cultivator, Raleigh, N. C. ; monthly, octavo, 34 pages, $2. William D. 
Cook, Editor and Publisher. 

American Cotton Planter and Sotl of the South, Montgomery, Alabama ; monthly, 
octavo, 32 pages, $1. Underwood and Cloud, Publishers and Proprietors ; N. B. 
Cloud, Agricultural Editor. 

Southern Agriculturalist, Columbia, S. Carolina; quarto., monthly, $1. Bol. A. 
G. Sumner, Editor. 

Southern Cultivator, Augusta, Ga. ; monthly, octavo, 24 pages, $1. Wm. Jones, 
Publisher and Proprietor ; D. Lee and Redmond, Editors. 

Tennessee Farmer and Mechanic, Nashville, Tenn. ; monthly, octavo, 48 pages, 
$2. Smith, Morgan & Co., Publishers ; L. P. Williams, Editor. 

The Western Farm Journal, Louisville, Ky. ; weekly, quarto, 16 pages. James P. 
Hull & Co., Publishers ; D. W. Gallagher, Editor. 

Indiana Farmer, Richmond, Ind. ; quarto, 8 pages, monthly, 50 cents. D. P. Hal- 
loway, and W. T. Dennis, Editors; Halloway tfc Co., Proprietors. 

Valley Farmer, St. Louis, Mo., and Louisville, Ky. ; monthly, octavo, 48 pages, 
81. N. J. Coleman, Editor and Publisher, St. Louis ; H. P. Byram, Editor and 
Publisher, Louisivlle. 

The Ohio Farmer, Cleveland, Ohio ; weekly, folio, 4 pages, $2. T. Brown, 
Editor and Proprietor. 

Ttie Ohio Cultivator, Columbus; semi-monthly, quarto, 16 pages, $1. S. D. 
Harris, Editor and Proprietor. 

Ohio Valley Farmer, Cincinnati, Ohio ; monthly, quarto, 16 pages. Si. B. F. 
Sanford, Editor and Proprietor. 

The Cincinnatus, Farmers' College, near Cincinnati, Ohio ; monthly, octavo, 48 
pages, $2. F. G. Carey, President of the Farmers' College, Editor. 

Prairie Farmer, Chicago, 111. Charles D. Bragdon, John A. Kennicott, and 
Robert M. Cox, Editors. John S. Wright, Proprietor. Weekly. Terms, $2. 

Spirit of the Agricultural Press, West Urbana, 111. ; h. G. Chase and Albert 
Gore, Editors and Publishers. Weekly. Terms, $2. 

Iowa Farmer, Mount Pleasant, Iowa ; octavo, 16 pages, $1. Duane Wilson & 

The Northwestern Farmer, Dubuque, Iowa; monthly, octavo, 42 pages, $1. 
Mill & Brayton, Editors and Proprietors. 

Wisconsin Farmer, Madison, Wis. ; monthly, octavo, 48 pages, $1. Powers & 
Skinner, Publishers. 

Michigan Farmer, Detroit, Mich. ; monthly, octavo, 32 pages, $1. R. F. John- 
stone, Editor and Publisher. 

California Farmer, San Francisco and Sacramento (simultaneously), Cal. ; 
weekly, quarto, 8 pages, $5. Warren & Co., Publishers and Proprietors. 

What is worth doing at all is worth doing well. 

Dictionary. 267 


An American Dictionary of the English Language, with an 
Introductory Dissertation on the Origin, History, and Connec- 
tion of the Languages of Western Asia and Europe, with. an 
Explanation of the Principles on which Languages are formed. 

By Noah Webster, LL.D. 

Revised and enlarged by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College, 
with Pronouncing Yocabularies of Scripture, Classical, and Geo- 
graphical Names. 1857. Published by the Messrs. Merriam, 
of Springfield, Mass.: 1460 pages, crown quarto, unabridged, 
each page having three columns, containing three times the 
amount of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- 
try, comprising over 12,000 Geographical Names, and recom- 
mended by many of the greatest minds of the nation, Webster, 
Benton, Cass, Winthrop, Cox, Beecher Stowe, Humphrey, and 
others, as the most complete, accurate, and reliable Dictionary 
of the Language. — So that in this country the sale of Webster's 
Dictionaries, for the last ten years, has been tenfold greater than 
all other English Dictionaries besides, while in England it has 
not one prominent and distinct competitor for public usage; and 
is of such popularity there, that Bohn, who owned the plates of 
Worcester's largest work, is said to have altered the title page, 
and mutilated the preface, and published the work, as compiled 
from the materials of Noah Webster, LL.D., by Joseph E. 

Assurance of certainly curing you of any malady, always 
comes from a man who neither understands his business nor 

An Absurdity. — To purchase wood by measure. Its heat- 
producing qualities are in proportion to its weight, if seasoned. 
When in Paris, our wood was furnished by the pound. 


Hall's Journal of Health. 


IAttelVs Living Age, No. 701, contains an able notice of Bishop Berkeley's Works. 

Graham offers an inviting programme for 1858. Putnam has been merged in 
Emerson, opening with '* Up the Mississippi," characteristically illustrated : then 
follows the " Life of Washington," &c, &c., with his Autographs. " Annual 
Register of Rural Affairs, an Almanac for 1858," by Luther Tucker & Son, Al- 
bany, N. Y., 25 cents, with 130 engravings, is well worth a place in every thrifty 
farmer's home, and still more needed in the unthrifty — for it is full of valuable 
information. "Blackwood, in its forty-fifth year ;" " Military Education ;" " The 
Book and the Rocks ;" " Scenes of Clerical Life ;" " New Sea-Side Studies," &c. 

Nostrums. — Life Illustrated, published weekly in New York, by Fowlers 6c 
Wells, after saying of the Independent that it " contains matters of science, literature, 
art, and information, which constitute it one of the most valuable newspapers pub- 
lished, its reports as to financial and business matters are taken as authority in Wall 
street," calls in question its morality, by adding : " It will publish advertisements 
of quack medicines and disguised liquor shops. Don't do that friends, and we will 
put you down as just about right." 

When a religious newspaper publishes a communication which it knows to be a 
lie, and for pay, it places itself in a false position. It sells its principles for a mess 
of pottage. 

A Lady Connoisseur says, that Gail Borden's condensed milk makes a better 
cup of Tea than any cream that can be procured in New York, and that if used 
even with brown sugar, the tea is better than when ordinary milk and loaf sugar 
are used. 

That ugly-looking, coarse-papered, bad-printed monthly, of sixteen pages, the 
South-Western School Journal^ 50 cents a year, edited by the Rev. Mr Heywood, 
and Noble Butler, of Louisville, Ky., is not surpassed in the universal excellence 
of its contents by any educational periodical in this country. If it does not pay 
well enough to be got up, even in the plain style of our own Journal, it is a dis- 
grace to every Kentuckian and to every family of the great " South-west." 

The Anatomical Museum, under the control of Dr. Rentz, Broadway, consisting 
of 400 models, may be profitably visited by every parent in New York. Open to 
ladies only on Fridays. 

Fuel. — Our city readers who have not laid in their coal and wood for winter are 
assured, that by dealing with Truslow Brothers, they will always have full measure, 
the best of its kind, and at a lower price than has ruled for a long time past. Ten 
per cent per ton will be saved on coal, if purchased within a few days, as the canals 
will soon be frozen, and the opportunity of obtaining it from boats will be lost. 


Celibacy : 245 

Various Consumption Cures 248 

Cold Bathing 251 

Wearing Flannel 254 

How to Arrest a Cold 255 

Amusing Age Table 257 

True Temperance 258 

Scalds and Burns 259 

Material for Men 260 

Marriage, Want, and Crime 260 

The Model Man 261 

From Laurie Todd 262 

The Three Glories 263 

Time Table 264 

Agricultural Journals 265 

Ruin of Young Men 246 

Webster's Dictionary 267 

Reviews, Notices, &c 268 





VOL. IV.] DECEMBER, 1857. [NO. XII. 

We aim to show how disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no medicine without consulting an educated physician. 


What will become of them this long and dreary winter, 
when the pinching times have thrown thousands of them out 
of employment ? Many of them will pine away in want and 
honorable destitution, and quietly pass into the friendly grave, 
where toil is no more exacted, and where the busy ringers are 
at rest forever ! 

Not long ago, a young seamstress came to us, as a favor, at a 
dollar a day, besides her board, beginning the day's work at 
half past eight o'clock ! and yet, there are multitudes of females 
among us who could sew just as well, and would most willingly 
do it, at a quarter the price, if it could be done without its 
being known to any but themselves; and other multitudes are 
there, who would quite as willingly act as cooks and chamber- 
maids for a dollar a week, " if it ivas not for the name of the 
thing. " 

There are thousands of families, in New York and around it, 
who would be but too glad to board and give a dollar a week 
to girls who would cook, or sew, or wash, or sweep. Now, can 
not some plan be devised to bring these classes together, to the 
mutual satisfaction and joy of both? — accommodating the fami- 
lies, and saving the unemployed from hunger and desperation, 
and even crime. 

There are thousands of cooks and chambermaids, in this and 
other large cities, as to whom, two dollars a week — one dollar 
a week — is out of all proportion to their merit in such times as 

270 HalVs Journal of Health. 

these ; while there are other thousands, more intelligent, more 
tidy, more capable, who would be happy to serve for half a 
dollar a week, plentiful meals, and comfortable sleeping apart- 
ments being secured to them. 

One of the greatest demoralizations of every day occurrence 
is^a gift to poverty. It degrades the receiver on the instant; 
and every time it is repeated, that degradation is made the 
more certain and the more complete. But to teach a poor man 
how to help himself, how to get along, that is a truer charity 
than all, that is an act of brotherhood! The wide world over, 
the people who are helped the most, are of the least account. 
w Help yourself!" is the universal instinct of mere animal life ; 
and man, the nobler animal, is no exception to that world-wide 
law. If an intelligence office were established in New York, 
where tidy, educated girls could be found, who would be willing 
to work for a dollar a week, there are thousands of humane 
housekeepers who would cheerfully employ them, and, in addi- 
tion, aid them in qualifying themselves for a better discharge 
of their duties. 

Another humanity, and a civic economy too, would be for the 
city authorities, co-operating with private benevolence, to raise 
a large fund — a generous hundred thousand dollars at once — 
for the purchase of railroad tickets at a low rate, which should 
carry the bearer at least six hundred miles into the interior of 
the country, to be given to indigent persons, so as to convey 
them to places where provisions are abundant, where help is 
needed, and so far away, too, that they would not be able to 
lay up means for return, at least, for some months to come; 
meanwhile, they might form associations and attachments which 
would take away all desire to return. 

It is a positive waste of money and of means to give in chanty 
on the street, or at your own door. As for feeding people at 
one's house on certain days of the week, it is a mockery and a 
pharisaical sham. No ; send every ounce of cold food, and every 
spare rag of cast-off clothing, to the Five Points Missions, or to 
Mr. Brace, in Astor Place, and then you have the assurance 
that not an atom will be misappropriated; and as for your money, 
take every penny you can spare to help your brother man in his 
need, and purchase tickets from the Association for the Poor, 
at 39 Bible House; carry these tickets in. your pocket, besides 

Rancid Butter. 271 

having a good supply at your own house, and when application 
is made for charity, give one of these tickets, which will direct 
the bearer to a certain place ; and on the presentation of that 
ticket, a responsible person will go with the bearer to his or 
her home ; and if, on minute inquiry, and conversation with 
neighbors, the person merits aid, it will be given, not in money, 
but in food, or clothing, or fuel, or rent. These tickets can be 
had at : 

1st Station, 1st & 2d Wards 27 Greenwich Street. 

2d Station, 3th & 5th Wards 147 Duane Street. 

3d Station, 4th & 6th Wards 106 Centre Street. 

4th Station, 7th Ward 292 Madison Street. 

5th Station, 8th & 15th Wards 129 Thompson Street. 

6th Station, 9th Ward 519 Hudson Street. 

7th Station, 10th Ward 280 Houston Street. 

8th Station, 1 1th Ward 655 Fourth Street. 

9th Station, 1 3th Ward 261 Delancy Street. 

10th Station, 14th Ward 142 Grand Street. 

llth Station, 16th Ward 159 West 19th Street. 

12th Station, 17th Ward 442 Fourth Street. 

13th Station, 18th Ward 168 West 23d Street. 

14th Station, 20th Ward 231 West 31st Street. 

15th Station, 21st Ward 418 Third Avenue. 

16th Station, 22d Ward 155 West 43d Street. 

Mr. Hartley is the Corresponding Secretary of the "Association 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor/ 1 at No. 39 Bible House. 

None so well know as physicians, that the real cause of dis- 
ease and premature death to multitudes in large cities, in winter 
time, is not the want of money (for, if furnished, it would be 
improvidently expended, in nine cases out of ten), but it is the 
want of food and warmth. 

These suggestions merit the mature consideration of all who 
truly sympathize with the poor among us. 


To a pint of water add about thirty drops, that is, about half 
a teaspoonful, of Liquor of Chloride of Lime; wash in this two 
and a half pounds of insupportably rancid butter ; when every 
particle of the butter has come in contact with the water, let it 
stand an hour or two, then wash the butter well again in pure 
water; the butter is then left with the odor, taste, and sweetness 
of fresh butter. If this is true, it is an important discovery — • 
this preparation of Lime having nothing injurious in it 

272 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Very many pleasant letters and dollars! have come to us 
from the North, South, East, and West, in consequence of our 
October article under the above heading. 

North Carolina says : " Please find inclosed for the four bound 
volumes of your Journal, for my friend. Thus much do I 
1 Hub' you, and hope to be able to do so again. O. S. B." 

New York City: " While reading the Home Journal for 
this week, which, I am happy to say, I have an opportunity 
of doing weekly, I came to an article headed, ' Hub me, Ship- 
mate,' taken from your useful Journal. This put me in mind 
of what I intended to do for a long time, that is, to subscribe 
for your Journal; so that the said Home Journal has ' hubbed' 
me on your account very effectually. This article struck me 
so forcibly, that although intent on reading, I determined to 
leave the paper immediately, to order your Journal. A. N." 

Massachusetts: "I have read all the numbers I ordered, and 
want more : I have been more interested than I expected to be. 
The commendations of your Journal are high, but not higher 
than it merits. I have long been wishing for such a publica- 
cation: I became interested in it by seeing, within a year past, 
somewhat frequent, and always valuable quotations from it in 
the Congregational of Boston. I propose to send away the num- 
bers for this year, and order the bound volume. C. M. C." 

Wilmington: " The first article which arrested my attention 
to-day, on opening the Journal of Health, was ' Hub me. 
Shipmate.' 1 I read it to an intelligent gentleman, in my office 
at the time, and ' hubbed' the Journal by a word of approba- 
tion and solicitation, and the inclosed is the result. Accept 
this as another instance of 'Hubbing,' from one who values the 
monthly visits of the Journal highly, because it brings both 
profit and pleasure to your friend and obedient servant. 

W. G. T." 

It is natural for us, on receiving any good, to desire to impart 
it to others, and thus double its benefits. In proportion, then, 

Care of the Eyes. 273 

as the reader has been entertained, instructed, and benefited 
by perusing what we have written during the past year, may 
we not hope that, by dropping a word of approbation of us here 
and there, and following that word by a solicitation to subscribe, 
a good may be done all round, and many new subscribers come 
in to us. 


Crawford, the celebrated sculptor, had an inveterate habit 
of reading in a reclining position : one eye has been taken out 
in consequence of a cancerous tumor forming behind it, and his 
life has paid the forfeit, after years of suffering, and the ex- 
penditure of a large amount of money. 

Prescott, the Historian, in consequence of a disorder of a 
nerve, by which the eyes were rendered useless for all writing 
purposes, could not use a pen, as he was unable to see when it 
failed to make a mark, for want of ink ; nor could he distinguish 
the lines or edges of his paper; yet, with these disadvantages, 
he wrote all his historicals, using an agate stylus on carbonated 
paper, being guided as to the lines or edges by brass wires 
drawn through a wooden frame : but, with all these hindrances, 
he has made himself one of the most readable of modern 
historians, and earned a fortune besides. 

To avoid these and similar calamities, we urge upon the 
young, especially, never to use the eyes by any artificial light, 
where nicety of sight is required, nor to use them in any 
strained position, or while riding in rail-cars or carriages. 

We urge upon all parents, in view of the many incurable 
eye diseases, to caution their children against reading by twi- 
light, that is, not before sunrise nor after sunset. It would be 
greatly better not to allow them to read or sew by any artificial 
light; but if that is unavoidable, let it be imperative that they 
cease by nine o'clock at night in summer, and by ten at farthest, 
in the winter. It is a most inexcusable folly, and will, sooner 
or later, bring its punishment, to read or sew by gas, or lamp, 
or candle light, and then sleep after daylight next morning, as 
a habit. To persons of all ages it is a most injurious practice. . 

274 EalVs Journal of Health, 


Ought to be stuffed down the throats of the gentlemen of the 
Plug Craft. The best Dentifrice in the world is rain water or 
soap-suds ; all powders are absolutely injurious; and it is useless 
to enter into any argument on the subject. There is not a 
tooth-powder named, but, if rubbed on an iron bar with a tooth- 
brush, would not wear that bar in two. Dentists of renown 
tell us that the enamel, the covering of the tooth, is not renew- 
able, does not grow, then set us about scrubbing it away with 
powders ! 

The next tom-foolery which has engaged their attention in the 
prim city of Boston, the Athens of the Western Hemisphere, in 
solemn conclave assembled, within a few months, is the influ- 
ence which certain articles have in destroying teeth. They 
have issued a scientific bull, to the effect that the main cause 
of defective teeth is the use of saleratus and cream of tartar, in 
the manufacture of bread: the proof being, that if a tooth is 
put in a strong solution of saleratus it will be dissolved! 
Molasses will do the same thing. 

There are two questions which present themselves just here: 
How can it be managed to soak a tooth a week or two in strong 
saleratus water ? It seems to us they would have to pull the 
tooth out; then there would be no use in soaking it in any- 
thing. It would be better to throw it away, and save the 
trouble of a soak. It will rot in the ground, if left there long 
enough. Come to think of it, the Dental Society of New Eng- 
land would itself be dissolved by a soak, by any kind of soak, 
saleratus or brandy — 'specially the brandy. But a tooth in a 
man's head is a living thing, and powerfully resists all destruc- 
tive agencies; out of a man's head, it is dead, and is passive to 
any cause of decay. We cannot reason from life to death ; it 
will always lead us to errors in practice and in theory. 

But there is another inquiry which this most learned body 
failed to make. Does any body eat saleratus or cream of tartar ? 
We venture the assertion, that not a grain of saleratus can be 
found in any slice of bread in all America, if that bread has 
Jeen made with a small modicum of common sense. 

Ordinarily, a level teaspoon of saleratus or cream of tartar is 

A Cup of Tea. 275 

put in several pounds of flour; but that saleratus is put in with 
the express purpose of its decomposition : it would not have the 
effect designed, unless it was decomposed; and when thus 
decomposed, it is no longer saleratus, no longer an alkali which 
would dissolve a tooth, but it has changed its whole nature, 
and become glauber salts, which is one of our most harmless 
articles of household medicine. A tablespoon or two of glauber 
salt is an ordinary dose, and several hours after taken, it acts 
on the bowels ; but in the ordinary eating of bread, it would 
take about six months for a person to swallow an amount of 
the salts to make a common dose of the glauber. This is 

We do not deny that it is a useless, foolish, and hurtful 
practice, to mix any saleratus in our food ; it was the " inven- 
tion" of some lazy lout ; and no family ought to allow of its 
employment in any shape or form, except as a medicine, pre- 
scribed by a physician. But our objection is, that a body of 
scientific men should have allowed themselves to have been led 
by the nose by some monomaniac, of good intentions but of 
green wit : green as grass, verdant as — we don't know what. 

Our teeth are decayed by dirty mouths, hot drinks, and foul 
stomachs. Wash the teeth well after each meal, in soft water, 
eat and drink nothing warmer than the blood — that is about a 
hundred degrees of Fahrenheit — let that eating be at regular 
hours, using in moderation plain, substantial food, with a plen- 
tiful amount of the perfect and ripe fruits of the earth ; and thus 
set all ignorant and dishonest dentists to breaking rooks Cor the 
turnpike. Be assured, reader, that the best dentifrices in the 
world are : soft water, clean mouths, healthy stomachs, and 
moderate activities in the open air. 


Is considered by many to be one of life's indispensabilities. To 
get the best cup out of the smallest amount of tea is worth 
knowing. Fill the teapot with boiling water, put in the tea, 
and let the pot stand five minutes ; the leaves gradually sink, 
are not scalded, and the true aroma is retained, not lost, as is 
the case in the old-fashioned " tea-drawing.' ; 

276 Halts Journal of Health. 


Ought not to be tolerated ; they ruin the wood-work of any 
building, ruin the furniture, and, more than all, impair the 
health of every person who breathes the atmosphere of houses 
thus heated by them. Warm air relaxes, debilitates, the world 
over ; cool air braces up, gives tone, vigor, power, to the whole 

Warm air evaporates every article that has moisture in it, 
fluids, meats, vegetables — everything; these particles are dis- 
tributed all through the air of the house, to the exclusion, to 
that extent, of the life-giving oxygen ; so that not one single 
breath of pure air is taken into the lungs, as long as the person 
occupies such a house; and when it is remembered that during 
the most inclement season of the year, there are days, even 
weeks, during which the very young and the very old of the 
family, as also the invalids, do not pass outside the door, it is 
not to be wondered at that there is not one day, during all the 
winter, in which health dwells in any household so warmed. 
But a great deal of the ill effect of furnace-heated rooms may 
be obviated, if the fire-place is always kept open ; but in very 
cold weather, there should be a fire in the fire-place, in order to 
create a more decided draught towards it, so as to promote a 
circulation, and carry the bad air more rapidly up through the 
chimney, and out of the building. 

It is a great mistake, and an almost universal one, that sud- 
den changes from one temperature to another are prejudicial 
to health. If persons will close their mouth, and send all the 
air to the lungs through the circuit of the head, and thus temper 
it to the air of the lungs, a positive benefit will result, although 
there may be a change of forty degrees in a second of time; 
only one precaution is needed. Shut your mouthy and keep 

The proof of all this is, railroad conductors are healthy men, 
as a class, and yet their changes are fifty degrees, hundreds of 
times in a day. 

In addition, it is known to all persons of observation, that 
the inhabitants of the equable and moderate climates are not 
long-lived. The "Italian skies," and the " South of France," 

Hunger. 277 

so much boasted of, do not give length of days to those who 
enjoy their balmy atmosphere. 

Our grandsires lived in cozy parlors, and fire-place heated 
dining-rooms, with passages and halls as cold as Greenland, 
and yet they boast a higher health than their degenerate sons 
and daughters. These are facts, and they ought to have a 
rational consideration. Down, we say, with every hot-air fur- 
nace in the land ! 


If they give you no special inconvenience, let them alone. 
But if it is of essential importance to get rid of them, purchase 
half an ounce of muriatic acid, put it in a broad-bottomed vial, 
so that it will not easily turn over; take a stick as large as 
the end of a knitting-needle, dip it into the acid, and touch the 
top of the wart with whatever of the acid adheres to the stick ; 
then, with the end of the stick, rub the acid into the top of the 
wart, without allowing the acid to touch the well skin. Do thi3 
night and morning, and a safe, painless, and effectual cure is 
the result. 


If a man in good health has not eaten anything for some 
days, he will die if he eats heartily. When persons are found 
in an almost starving condition, light food, in small quantities, 
and at short intervals, is essential to safety. The reason is, 
that as soon as we begin to feel hungry, the stomach rolls and 
works about, and continues to do so, unless satisfied, until it is 
so exhausted that there is scarcely any vital energy ; it is lite- 
rally almost tired to death, and, therefore, digestion is performed 
slowly, and with great difficulty. Hence, when a person has 
been kept from eating several hours beyond his usual time, 
instead of eating fast and heartily, he should take his food with 
deliberation, and only half as much as if he had eaten at the 
regular time. Sudden and severe illness has often resulted from 
the want of this precaution, and sometimes death has followed. 

278 Ball's Journal of Health. 


We ask of our exchanges the courtesy of inserting for us the 
list of contents of our December number, our terms, and our 
address, — if they think our Journal merits, in the main, a liberal 
subscription list. One thing we wish to boast of, we never use 
our influence against our holy religion, but always on its side; 
this, however, is not the fashion of the times among publications, 
not professedly religious. Too many have gained an influence, 
and then give a traitorous thrust whenever they can make by 
it — not always making, however, we are glad to know. "Put- 
nam" tried that game, and perished soon after. One of the most 
popular British Quarterlies tried it, and had to turn, to save its 
life. We think the religious press, with a few exceptions, have 
committed grave errors in their wholesale commendations of 
books and periodicals; and we suggest that, hereafter, only the 
articles critically read be spoken of, or that simply a list of the 
contents be given, without note or comment. For ourselves, 
we pay no sort of attention to " reviews and notices," they 
nearly always mislead us; but we have a thousand times bought 
a book, or pamphlet, or paper, for a single item in its list of 
contents. This is a practical suggestion, worthy the attention 
of all publishers. We had rather see a bald list of the contents 
of one of our numbers in a newspaper, than a whole column 
of commendations. Will our exchanges please note this? We 
will serve them in the same way. And that there is weight in 
this, we notice a suggestive fact. In several of our exchanges, 
there have appeared friendly notices of our Journal, as regular 
as the month came round, for years! without its bringing one 
single subscriber from that locality ! ! Does not this show what 
little weight is attached to an editorial puff? and is it not 
humiliating ? Within the last six months, our subscription list 
has doubled itself. We have had no paid agents, and have 
had no leisure, nor taken any pains of a special character to 
extend our circulation, hence, we truly say, our list lacks but 
fifty of doubling itself We have double the number of sub- 
scribers we have ever had before, and have no delinquents. 
Nearly every new subscriber is a volunteer. The letter runs 
thus, and is almost stereotyped : u Having seen frequent extracts 
from 'HalVs Journal of Health? and they being always good, 

Our Exchanges. 279 

short, and to the point; and having just learned where it is 
printed, I herewith inclose you the subscription for one year." 
Brother Editors! Attention! If you want to "hub us," if 
you want to help us along, don't fool away your time and 
waste your brains in saying complimentary things, for it don't 
pay either of us ; simply give our list of contents, and we will 
do as much for you now and then. 


Few people imagine how much useful, solid reading there is 
in a single Eeligious Newspaper : no such paper ought to be 
destroyed, unless it be for the purpose of cutting out and pre- 
serving some of the most important pieces. We have many 
times copied an article, rather than mutilate the paper. But 
we do not lay the papers carefully away, to be eaten with the 
mould of years — that is hiding a talent in the earth ; it is locking 
money up in a drawer, benefiting nobody, while its use is lost 
to the world, its interest is wasted. We carefully lay our 
religious exchanges away, and have a worthy man, Mr. Joseph 
Harris, to come at the first of the month, and distribute them 
among the sailors of ships which are just leaving port; and in 
one instance, among many, when a vessel returned from a long 
voyage, the sailors deputized one of their number to wait on 
Mr. Harris, to express their heartfelt obligations for the enjoy- 
ment they had derived from the reading matter which he had 
furnished them, and then presented him with a handsome sum 
of money as an • inducement to him to continue in his work of 
benevolence, in distributing religious papers, tracts, and books, 

And in this connection, the thought has often occurred to us, 
what comfort, what encouragement, what cheer has a news- 
paper article, of even half a dozen lines, written with spirit, 
vigor, and point, carried to the heart of the lonely sailor 

"Far at sea!" 

or to the prisoner in his dreary dungeon ! for some of our papers 
are sent there also. We tell you, reader, that man has lived 
to purpose, who has penned for a paper three lines of stirring 
thought. Thus it ought to be considered a privilege to be 

280 HalVs Journal of Health 

allowed to write for a religious newspaper, provided there is the 
talent to do it well. 

Let the clergy, then, and all persons of intellect, leisure, and 
a heart for good, make it a weekly task to compose a few lines 
for their favorite paper — lines which paint some burning thought 
as it leaps from the brain, keen as a Damascus blade ; and which 
wells up from the heart, all luscious with the love of human 
kind — a thought which shall kindle up humanities in the living 
now, scattered over land and sea, and will continue to do it, 
may be, until the last wave of time has been lost in Eternity's 

We had rather be the writer of an eight or ten lined para- 
graph, thought worthy of being quoted in the American Messen- 
ger, or the Illustrated Christian Almanac, with their half million 
readers, than to be the author of any volume ever published 
by the " Great Unknown," or the immortal " Boz" — a paragraph 
for enduring good, not for the glittering glory of an hour, and 
as false as it is fair. 

In doing good we should study economies; for nothing should 
be wasted in this great world of want. To make a paper last 
long, and thus serve a good many readers, it should have as 
few folds as possible. An eight-paged newspaper is torn up 
or worn out in a very short time ; besides, there is too much 
reading in it, it is not remembered, and many excellent items 
are skipped over. So we make of those two excellent papers, 
the Presbyterian, and the American Presbyterian of Philadel- 
phia, with their large, attractive headings of short articles, 
what is equal to four tracts ; and of the New York Evangelist, 
with its eight pages of useful truth, weekly repeated, with its 
name and date heading each page, no less than four tracts, to 
be read by four different persons at a time. We treat The New 
York Observer in the same way, although it has never been 
willing to exchange with us; yet, as it has given us a good 
many subscribers by quoting from our Journal, for weeks in 
succession, we can afford to pay for it — the proprietors being 
poor ! For all that, The New York Observer, by its steady and 
powerful conservatism, in matters of State as well as Church, 
has worked a good for our church and nation beyond that of 
any periodical in America: and long may it and the National 
Intelligencer, and papers of their sort, remain the Malakoffs of 
our religion and our nation ! 

Second Childhood. 281 

As to our Agricultural exchanges, they are never wasted, but 
are given to our patients, or sent, by mail, to our friends and 
acquaintances, whom we think might be benefited by subscrib- 
ing for them. It is gratifying for us to state the fact, that every 
Agricultural Exchange on our list is always on the side of 
morals and religion. We never recollect to have seen an 
article in one of them unfit to be seen at the family fireside. 

Of our exchanges in pamphlet form, one of the best is LittelVs 
Living Age, of Boston, an 8vo weekly, at six dollars a year, 
being made up of the best foreign articles of a philosophical, 
literary, and miscellaneous character. It makes a large stand- 
ard volume every year. It is sustained by the Aristocracy 
of Letters. One little item may be here mentioned : articles 
from our Journal find their way to England, and are then 
quoted in Littell, as coming from European publications. Does 
it require that an article to be good and new must cross the 
Atlantic twice? But we are placated in the reflection that 
what " Dr. Hall in his Journal says" is appreciated abroad as 
well as at home, as being useful and true. 

As to our Monthly Exchanges, there is The Mother's Journal 
for parents ; Merry' 1 s Museum for children ; Arthur s Hom,e Maga- 
zine, always safe reading for the family ; Godey's Lady's Booh, 
that in a quarter of a century has never insulted any man's 
religion: all these are useful in their way, and merit public 
consideration. Graham has a nation of friends. 


The three great necessities of infancy and childhood are: 
warmth, food, and exercise. As to food, milk is Nature's pre- 
paration, and is the only article known which has in it all the 
necessary elements of nutrition. But when we get older, the 
wants of the system are changed ; the conditions and capabilities 
of the stomach are changed, and the appetite loudly calls for 
something more substantial. But with the weakness and years 
of great age, the wants of infancy return — plenty of milk, plenty 
of flannel : but the need of rest replaces that of ceaseless activity, 
and the poor old body finds its happiness in huddling over the 
fire all day long. 

282 Hall's Journal of Health. 


An observant clerical correspondent writes : " A fine old 
gentleman was invited to dine with me a few days ago, and 
remarked, that he knew thirteen persons in the circuit of a few 
miles, who had died within six months, and that all of them 
were over eighty years of age. Among these were : 

Toara. Tears. 

Nathaniel Raglan ... 82 Nathaniel Haggard . . 87 

Thomas Allen .... 82 John Garden 87 

Frederick Stipp .... 82 John Hedges .... 87 

Mrs. Cunningham ... 86 Mrs. Nichols 117 

My informant was over eighty years of age. Among my 
hearers was a Jady who was married in the year eighteen hun- 
dred, and yet had never before heard a sermon from a Presby- 
terian clergyman. From the above narration, we feel impelled 
to one of two conclusions, either Clarke County, Ky., must 
be a very healthy region, or that an entire ignorance of Pres- 
byterianism is promotive of longevity. If our correspondent 
can ascertain that all these old soldiers had, in early life, 
enlisted under the banners of Presbytery, we will breathe freer. 


Is ability to help one's self, manly principles, and a good consti- 
tution. Infinitely more valuable are these than beauty, birth, 
or blood. Beside them, wealth, and fame, and position, pale 
away in darkness, when they have come down from father to 
son; because then, they may be lost, and are ignobly lost in 
countless instances. But with these — health, manliness, and 
self-sustaining power — wealth is created, a name may be founded 
as lasting as that of the Caesars, and a standing among men 
secured of more honorable mention than the coffers of all kings 
could purchase. 

These things being true, the wiser policy of parents is, not 
to work themselves to death, in order to leave their children 
perishable thousands; but, by judicious teachings from infancy, 
show those children how to take care of their health, and how 
to make a living for themselves. 

Cheapest Food. 283 


Of all the men in this wide world, book-men most lack 
common sense in their practices. We lived a year of misery 
in a minute, as walking in glorious old Boston Common, 
a gentleman remarked that his son had been going to school 
nearly a year, and that he expected to get the gold medal which 
was awarded to that boy who, for one whole year, had not 
committed a single fault. Just think for a moment of the 
intensity of that bondage of hope and fear, of solicitude, of 
strife by day and night, awake or in dreams, which must have 
tortured that poor boy's heart, intensified every hour, as the 
year drew nearer to a close. We really felt as if that teacher 
ought to have been hung up by the heels, and well scored with 
apple-tree switches. We never heard his name, and are glad 
of it, for we should have consigned it to infamy. 


And among the most nutritious that can be eaten, is White 
Beans ; cheapest to the consumer, and more profitable to the 
producer than wheat at one dollar and a quarter a bushel 
^when the beans sell at one dollar a bushel. But this last win 
ter they have readily sold at three dollars a bushel. The 
amount of nutriment in white beans is ninety-three per cent 
so that one dollar's worth of white beans, at two dollars a 
bushel, affords double the nutriment of a dollar's worth of pota 
toes, at a dollar a bushel. White beans, at two dollars a bushel 
are a cheaper food than potatoes at half a dollar a bushel — 
beans having no waste. 


In* turning over the pages of this Journal, three articles 
attracted our attention, which we had altogether forgotten. 
The first, for clergymen ; the second, for parents ; the third, for 
all, as of the highest practical value — their lessons are even 
terrible: Tobacco, its Use and End, page 100; The Children of 
the Rich, page 123, first volume; Annual Ailments, page 145; 
also page 249. 

284 HalVs Journal of Health. 


The literary men of France, who were young a quarter of a 
century ago ? The Paris correspondent of the Boston Traveller 
writes : 

VDe Balzac is dead ! Coffee killed him. 

" Frederic Soulie is dead ; the victim of coffee and licentious- 

"Eugene Briffaut died a madman in the Chazenton Lunatic 

" Granville became insane, and breathed his last in a private 

u Lassally died a raving lunatic. 

" Lowe Weimars died from licentiousness and opium-eating. 

" Charles de Bernard died from coffee and licentiousness. 

" Henri Boyle died from coffee and women. 

" Hippolite Royal Collard died from tobacco and coffee. 

u Gerard de Nerval, after oscillating between plenty and want, 
abstemiousness and licentiousness, went mad, and hung himself. 

11 Rabbe, after suffering a thousand deaths from a loathsome 
disease, took poison to end his prolonged torture. 

" Alfred de Musset died a victim to the bottle and cigar. 

" Count Alfred U Orsay was killed by the cigar and licentious- 

*' Eugene Sue: coffee and women were his ruin. 

" All mowed down in the prime of life, in the meridian of 
their intellect and fame!" 

La Belle Paris ! the synonym of all that is beautiful ; the 
city of gayety and revelry, of music and of mirth, where pleasure 
lures, dazzles, intoxicates, and then destroys I is this the sad 
end to which your young men of culture and intellect arrive, 
in a short quarter of a century ? Then let it be a loud warning 
to the youth of our own time and nation, that a better path is 
marked out for them in that Booh of all boohs, which counsels to 
be temperate in all things, to take hold of wisdom, whose ways 
are ways of pleasantness — whose paths are peace. 

Intussusception. 285 


Half an ounce of soap boiled in a pint of water, and put on 
with a brush while boiling hot, infallibly destroys the bugs and 
their eggs. 

Flies are driven out of a room by hanging up a bunch of the 
Plantain, or Fleawort plant, after it has been dipped in milk. 

Rats and Mice speedily disappear by mixing equal quantities 
of strong cheese and powdered squills ; they devour this mixture 
with great greediness, while it is innocuous to man. 

When it is remembered how many persons have lost their 
lives by swallowing, in mistake, mixtures of strychnine, ratsbane, 
corrosive sublimate, which are commonly employed for this pur- 
pose, it becomes a matter of humanity to publish these items. 

House Ants ravenously devour the kernels of walnuts, and 
shellbarks or hickory nuts. Crack some of these, and place 
them on a plate near the infested places ; and when the plate is 
full of the ants, throw the contents in the fire. 

Cockroaches, as well as Ants, are driven away by strewing 
elderberry leaves on the shelves and other places frequented 
by these troublesome insects. 


In which one portion of the bowel falls down into another, like 
as when a stocking is turned half way inside out, effectually 
prevents any passage from the bowels, and death is inevitable, 
unless relief is given. Our intimation previously, that a pint 
of molasses drank while quite warm, had been known to give 
immediate relief, has caused a suggestion from "W. H. Stanton, 
of Knoxville, that his father's sheep were invariably cured of a 
similar ailment, by being taken by the hind legs and swung 
around several times. As ludicrous as this " operation" might 
seem in its application to a human being, we would not hesitate 
to try it, in case other things failed. To us there is a kind of 
grandeur in all that is true and practical. 

The most violent case of hysterics may be instantly arrested, 
if a great indignity is offered to the patient, such as slapping 
in the face with your slipper; and yet that is a better remedy 
than a plug of the intolerable Asafoetida. 

286 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Amusement is as much a necessity to the mind as food is 
to the body. The mind is vivified by pleasurable recreations 
as much as the body is sustained by a nutritious diet. But not 
less transient and deceptive as the aids which opium, and 
tobacco, and alcohol afford the body, are novel-reading and 
theatrical performances the unsubstantial quickeners of the 
mind and heart. And as nothing gives the body more enduring 
strength than plain substantial meat and bread, so the intellect 
and the affections are strengthened by the exercise of those real 
benevolences which every-day life, in cities especially, so loudly 
call for. 

The dollar spent for a seat in the theatre amuses its occupant 
for a few short hours, and after they are past, there is nothing 
real to look back upon. That same dollar spent upon one of 
the thousands of the children of want in any large community, 
would make that poor child feel rich for a day, and would lift 
up and happify his stricken heart, as often as remembered, for 
many long days to come ; while, as to the donor's, it will be a 
sweet thing to think of, even in a dying hour. Let our recre- 
ations then be, not in sham and show, but in sweet realities. 


Years. Tears. 

A man has lived . . . 970 Porpoise 30 

Whale (estimated) . . 900 Bear 20 

Elephant 400 Dog 20 

Swan 860 Wolf 20 

Tortoise 107 Khinoceros 20 

Eagle 104 Cat 20 

Camel 100 Fox 16 

Kaven 100 Cow 15 

Lion 70 Sheep 10 

Horse 62 Squirrel 8 

Pig 30 Eabbit 8 

Dolphin 30 Good ^Resolutions, an hour. 

To Purify Water. 287 


11 It is estimated that * * * pills have done more to promote 
the public health than any other cause. There can be no doubt 
that these medicines have very much reduced the proportion 
of deaths from consumptive diseases in this country." 

The above we find in a religious newspaper, among the items 
of " News of the Week," and placed, not among the advertise- 
ments of the paper, but immediately over the notices of mar- 
riages and deaths, consequently in the most noticeable part of 
the paper. 

Here are religious men, who for pay lend their paper, week 
after week, to the statement of a demonstrable falsehood. They 
know that these medicines have not " done more to promote 
the public health than any other cause." The second deception 
practiced upon its readers is, the placing the statement among 
the news items of the week, and receiving pay for the same. 

Is the statement either new or true ? And so far from these 
medicines " having very much reduced the proportion of deaths 
from consumptive diseases in this country," the evidence of 
published statements is, that a greater number of deaths from 
consumption are occurring, according to the population, than 
heretofore. Thus it is that religious men, in their public and 
official capacities, are obliterating the lines of distinction which 
should separate them from men of the world. They thus sell 
their principles and lend themselves to the dissemination of 
falsehoods, for a price. 


" Put alum in it." Oh, yes, certainly ! This silly article has 
been going the round of the scissorsing newspapers for months. 
No doubt, many persons who have tried it have regarded it as 
a beautiful and simple fact. Yes! the fact is as simple as the 
theory educed therefrom. We have been always under the 
impression, that to purify anything, something must be taken 
from it. But to purify dirty water, we must give it a dose of 

288 HalVs Journal of Health. 

physic — alum being a speedy and certain emetic. It strikes us 
that, if water is dirty, the best use of it is to throw it away, in 
a land where there is a spring or stream almost in sight of 
every door. 

The alum will throw the dirt to the bottom, but more or less 
of it remains in the water. But the alum is a mineral medicine 
causing active purging and vomiting, and gradually under- 
mining the digestive functions by its astringent, puckering 
qualities. On the other hand, the sediment which is ordinarily 
found in water will settle itself, if allowed time enough ; besides, 
it is almost wholly of vegetable origin, and less hurtful than 
the amount of alum requisite to throw it to the bottom. 


Soak the foot in warm water for about a quarter of an hour, 
every night; after each soaking, rub on the corn patiently, 
with the ringer, half a dozen drops of sweet oil, wear around 
the toe during the day two thicknesses of buckskin, with a 
hole in it to receive the corn, continue this treatment until the 
corn falls out ; and by wearing moderately loose shoes, it will be 
months, and even years, before the corn returns, when the 
same treatment will be efficient in a few days. 

Paring corns is always dangerous, besides making them take 
deeper root — as will a weed, if cut off near the ground. Many 
applications are recommended to be made to corns, to burn or 
eat out, or soften them, but the plan advised above is safe, is 
painless, gives most welcome relief in a few hours, and pre- 
vents a return of the corn for a longer time than any other 
remedy; and last of all, it costs nothing but a little attention: 
that, however, is the great drawback ; if the sweet oil could be 
disguised, and obtained from some Indian, who expressed it 
from a rare plant, growing in the caverns of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and sold at a dime a drop, it would have as great a run 
as the Hemp Juice, which is peddled so successfully by the 
man whose " Sands of life have been almost run out," for some 
years past, under the name of Cannabis Indica. Glycerine, the 
essential principle of oils, is milder and better than oil itself, as 
it remains longer moist, and thus has greater softening powers. 

Patent Dip 289 


A "Patent Dip," scientific American, literary wife, pro- 
fessional husband, a love of a baby as tidy as a lily and as 
sweet as a new-blown rose, cleanliness and health, labor saving, 
long nights of undisturbed sleep, all are concatenated in this 
triliteral monosylable " Dip." There is not a young family in 
the land to whom it may not be fraught with blessings. 

It is the invention of a literary gentleman, driven thereto by 
a literary wife, learned in all things, except in the ability to 
keep her house and children in perfect neatness ; and having to 
keep themselves, we may well judge it was a miserable failure. 
Thinking and studying hard all day, the exhausted brain would 
fall into blissful obliviousness as soon as the head touched the 
pillow, and would so remain until next morning — and so would 
the baby, with all its surroundings, imaginable and unim- 

A true man is never discouraged, except by a demonstrable 
impossibility ; so this gentleman determined that there ought 
to be a way, and what ought to be should be, and was, and he 
would find it out. Every morning intensified his convictions, 
and he had no rest. What cogitations, what solitary walks, and 
how long, what day-dreams and night realities, what hopes and 
what desperations there were, is not computable, nor are the 
results, in the way of cleanliness, health, and undisturbed repose. 

Dr. Eees, in an able monograph on infant mortality, asserts, 
that in this country nearly half of all who are born die in in- 
fancy, that is, under five years of age. We believe that three 
fourths of these untimely deaths result from the want of proper 
attention to children ; and among the first of the items under this 
head is a want of personal cleanliness as to feet, hands, body, 
clothing, bedding, every thing. 

The article for which letters patent have been obtained, ac- 
cording to the Scientific American, is a Diaper for Children, and 
is one of the most simple, ingenious, and desirable domestic 
articles to which our attention has been lately directed. The 
person of the child is kept dry, and in perfect cleanliness, odors 
are prevented, and there is no necessity for a change during 
the longest night, one ablution only is required, and it is ready 
for use again in a few minutes. So contrived, too, that all the 

290 HalVs Journal of Health 

dangers are obviated which result from children sitting on cold 
or damp seats, as well as the inconveniences in travelling. 

That six thousand years should have passed, and some mind 
has not sooner brought its energies to bear for the abatement of 
a nuisance so universal, is noticeable. Yet the thing is claimed 
to be done ; and if so, we trust that the pecuniary reward will 
be commensurate with the satisfaction experienced by fruitful 
parents for generations to come. 

The saving in washing alone, for three months, in a city, is 
claimed to be enough to purchase a supply of the article suffi- 
cient during the rearing of an ordinary family ; and if actual 
experiment certifies these claims, the old article will fall into 
disuse, not to be resuscitated. 


Tie a thread to a ball of cotton wool as large as a pea ; put 
the other end of the thread through a small silver or other tube, 
then draw it up, until the cotton touches the end of the tube J 
next wet the cotton with glycerine, then introduce the tube 
carefully in the ear with the cotton foremost, and when, by the 
improved hearing, it is ascertained that the cotton is in its right 
place — that is against the " drum of the ear" — withdraw the tube, 
the tli read remaining, hanging out of the ear an inch or more, 
for withdrawing the cotton when it gets dry. 

Tepid water has been used by European physicians to wet 
the cotton ; but we suggest the employment of glycerine for that 
purpose, as it is clear as water, in every way harmless, and 
remains moist longer than any liquid known which is ; at the 
same time, so entirely innocuous. 

Returning imperfection of hearing will indicate the drying 
of the cotton, and the necessity of replacing it. 

A London surgeon obtained great notoriety several years ago 
by his success in removing comparative deafness of long con- 
tinuance, by introducing a few drops of glycerine into the ear 
every day : the philosophy of it was, its long moisture powers 
not only dissolved the hardened wax, but counteracted that heat 
and dryness of the parts which caused the wax of the ear to 
harden as soon as it was secreted. 

Miscellaneous. 291 

This use of glycerine, which is nothing more than the sweet 
principle of oils, in connection with the cotton, tube, and thread, 
is a suggestion of our own, and we throw it out as a hint for 
professional experiment. 


A New Luxury. — A tablespoonful of Gail Borden's Condensed 
Milk, in a cup of coffee or tea, makes a most delicious drink. 
Those who will try it and learn how to manage it, will never be 
willing to return to the milk carts, because it is milk in all its 
purity from farm-house cows. 

Musical — What loving father could make a more durable, 
and elevating, and refining New Year's Gift to a dutiful daugh- 
ter, than one of Worcester's Pianos, whose chief characteristics 
are, lastingness, harmony, and an aristocratic plainness and 
richness combined. 

Carpets certainly help to keep a room warm, especially in 
those many houses in New York, whose cellar ceilings are not 
plastered. Mr. Landon, 374 Hudson street, will supply our 
readers on the lowest living terms. 


This number closes the year for which all our subscribers 
have paid. Our terms are, u In Advance." We do not know 
how many on our present list will wish to continue ; and as we 
do not want to publish a greater number of copies, for January, 
than will be taken — and as the next number must be sent to the 
press by the 15th of December — we hope that such of our 
friends as desire to continue with us another year, will send us 
their name and dollar, immediately on the receipt of this num- 
ber. It is a little thing — can be attended to in any five min- 
utes — and then it is off your mind at once } and for a whole year. 

The safest and best way to remit is : say nothing about it to any body, but take a 
gold dollar, fold it over at one corner of your letter, and sew around it ; put it in an 
envelope, seal it with a wafer, put on a postage stamp, and deposit it in the post- 


HaWs Journal of Health 

office yourself : we have never known a money-letter miscarry in all our publish- 
ing experience — nor have we ever known a medical fee to miscarry in a practice of 
many years — when thus attended to. 

We do not hesitate to say, that nine out of ten of all the losses of money, by 
mail, complained of by hasty and inconsiderate editors, are owing to the dereliction 
of the person who sends the money, or the person to whom it is sent. If this is 
not so, how is it that we never lose any money by mail, not a dozen dollars in the 
receipt of thousands, in small sums, scattered over many years "? We attribute it 
to one fact mainly : we have always made it a practice to take our letters out of the 
office ourselves. We have done it in New York ; we did it in Cincinnati and in 
New Orleans ; and the result was the same at each place: in fifteen years, we do 
not remember to have lost as many dollars — certainly, we have not lost one dollar 
in a thousand. 

If a subscriber cannot get a gold dollar, then send a current note of this city or 
State ; if you cannot get such a one, then send a note current with you, with as 
many postage stamps as will make it a dollar at New York ; for our terms are, a 
full dollar a year, in advance. 

We would like every clergyman to have the reading of our Journal ; but many 
of them are too scantily paid to afford it. How many of our subscribers feel inter- 
ested enough in the gratification and health of a minister of their acquaintance to 
send an extra dollar for such a one. 

During 1857, we received more extra dollars for this purpose from the South than 
from any other direction. What is the reason % 

We will send, post paid : 

" Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," for . . . $1 00 

" Consumption," for 1 00 

Bound Volumes of Journal, I., II., III., IV., . . . 5 00 

Journal for 1858, not post-paid, 1 00 

The prices are the same if purchased at this office. 

13?* All subscriptions and money for books must be sent to — address simply — 

" Dr. W. W. HALL, 
" New- York." 


Girls of New York 269 

How to Help the Poor 270 

Rancid Butter, Cured 271 

"Hubbing" 272 

Care of the Eyes 273 

Tooth Powders 274 

Cup of Tea 275 

Hot-Air Furnaces 276 

Warts 277 

Philosophy of Hunger 277 

Use of our Exchanges 278 

Second Childhood 281 

Healthy Country 282 

The Best Inheritance 282 

Child Murder 283 

Three Articles 283 

Cheapest Food 283 

Coffee and Tobacco 284 

Vermin Riddance 285 

Intussusception 285 

Life-Times 286 

Healthy Recreations 286 

Patent Medicines 287 

To Purify Water 287 

Cure of Corns 288 

A Patent Dip 289 

Hearing Improved 290 

Miscellaneous 291 

Special Notice 291